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aioi. e. 16.2- 





PHntcd by NfCHOLS, 50N» and B^iTLEYt 
IM Uom Pumgr^ Fkf t Stnttf London. 






















O AA, or DE SA (Emanuel), a learned Portuguese Jesuit, 
was born in ISSO^^at Coode, in the province of Douro, and 
entered tbe society ii^ 1545, After the usual course of 
studies, he taught at Coimbra, Rome, and other places^ 
and was considered as an excellent preacher and iQtt»rpra» 
ter of the acriptures, on which last Recount he wts em- 
ployed, by pope Pius Y. on a new eclitiion ^f the Bible. He 
died at Arona, in the MilanesOi ;Bieci ^^ in the 

sixty'-sixth year of his age. His'^nief Wbflc^^^ : <* Scho- 
lia in qtiatubr Evang^lia," Antw^p and 'Cdldg^', 1596, 4to; 
and /* Notatiooes in toum sacrapgi^fSi^ipttiram^'* &c. Ant* 
werp, 1598, 4to; reprinted, with bther scholia, or notes, 
by Mariana and Tinni* Dupin says, that of all the Com* 
menlaries upon the scriptures fj^ere is nothing more con*, 
cise.and useful than tbe notes of our author, whose sole 
object, he adds, is to give the literal sens& in a few words 
and in i^ intelligible manner. De Sa was the author of 
another work,; wfaich^ although a. very small volume, is 
said to have employed him for forty years : it is entitled 
*^ Aphorismi Confessaribrum," printed first at Venice, 1595, 
12mo, avd afterwards, frequently reprinted in various 
places. Dupin calls it a moral work ; it seems rather a set 
of rules for confessors in cases of conscience ; and Lavocat 
tells us it contains some dangerous positions respecting 
bbth.ihQraU aiid the authority of kings. It underwent sa 
many corrections and emendations before the pope would 
license it^.that it. did not appear, until the year before the. 
author di^. .The French trtnslatioos of it have many 
castrations. > , 

> Antonio Bibl. HifjM^Aiegambe.-i*]>uptn.— 'Sforeri.— Saxii OaomuU 




SAADIAS-GAON, or Saadiad the Excellent, a learned 
rabbi, the chief of the academy of the Jews, was born ac 
Pitbom in Egypt, about the year 892. In«the year 927, 
he was iavited by David Ben- Chair, the prince of the cap- 
tivity^ to preside over the academy at Sora, near Babylon, 
where one of his first objects was to explode the doctrine 
of the transmigration of souls, which was very prevalent, 
ev^tt among the Jews. But having refused to dobscribe 
to a new regulation, which appeared to him to be repug* 
hant to the Jewish laws, a breach arose ^etween David 
and Saadias, which- after some years was made up, and 
Saadias was restored to his professorship, in which he con- 
tinued with great reputation tiU his death, in the year 9M. 
H'lB pviftcipal works wrtf *' Sepber HaemUnah," or a trea- 
tise iConoerciing the Jewish articles of faith, in ten chap- 
ters ; but we haw. only a translation of it from the or^kiftl 
Arabic into Hebrew, which was printed at Coustautinople 
te 1647) aird uften repritued. *' A Commentary on tbe 
Book' fezint,'^ print^d^ with other Commentaries on .tint 
book, at Mantua, in 1502} ^^ An Arabic tranalatioo of the 
iNrbole Old Te&tlUnetit^'' of wJuch the Peolatsuch is inserted 
in Jdiy'^ and Walton's Polyglottsi accompaiMed witii the 
Laiin veriion of Gabriel; Siooitft; *^ A^ Comtoentaryf on tbo 
Sodg of Songs/' in Hebrexi, printed , at Pragiie in I6i^^ 
4to ; ** A Commentary on Daniel/* likewise in Hebrofr^ 
ioserfed ki the great robbinical bibles of Venice and Basil ; 
'< A Commcnilaty on Jobi^' in Arabic^ the MS* of irltteh 
is in tfa^ Bodleian library at Oxford ; and a contnieolary 
on illicit iiUiaaceS) mentioiied by Aben Efrau' 


SAAVEDRA-FAXARDO (Di«goj>b)« afifnnisb pdi- 
iieal and moral writer, was born May 6, 1584, at Algezares, 
in the kingdom of Murcia, aud studied at Sdamanca* In 
I6M| fad went to 'Rome as secretaFy to^ the caoNiinal Gas- 
par do BorgtOy who was appointed Spanish ambassador to 
fbe pdipe^ and assistodin' the coadavesof 1621 aiid id'/S^ 
held ftor the election of the popes Gregory XVi and Ur«- 
bsa VIIL For these services Saavodra was rewarded witk 
a cai»oiiry in the church of St. James, although ho imd 
never taken pties^i orders. Spme^ time after he was m:p^ 
pointed agent from< tbo ootiru of 8paia «t Aome^ and his 

i Moreri.<--StiaQS Cri/t. Hist. , 


•eondoctin this office acquired bin general esteeili. In 
1636, he assisted ai the electoral congress held there, 
-i« which Ferdinand III. was chosen king of the Romans. 
He afterwards was present at eight diets held in Swisser- 
huid, and lastly at the general diet of the empire at Ratis- 
booue, where he appeared in quality of plenipotentiary of 
the circle and of the house of BurgUfidy. After being 
employed in some other diplomatic aff.iirs, he returned 
to Madrid in 1646, and was appointed master of ceremo- 
nies in the introduction of ainhas^adors; but be did not en- 
joy this honour longi^ as he died Aug. 24, 1649. In his 
public cliaracter he rendened the state very important ser- 
Tices, and, as a writer, is ranked among those who have 
comributed to polish and enrich the Spanish language. 
The Spanish critics, who place him among theif classics, 
say be wrote Spanish as Tacitus wrote Latin. He has lon^ 
b«Bn known, even in this country, by his ^< Emblems,*' 
which were publislied in Q vols 8vo, in the early part of 
*tbe last ceatu|*y« These politico*moral instructions for a 
Christian prince, were first printed in 1640, 4to, under the 
title of '^ Idea de un Principe Politico Christiano repre- 
iBeotada en ciei» empreiias,*' and reprinted at Milan in 1642 ; 
tbey were afterwards translated into Latin, and published 
under the title of '* Symbola Christiano-*Palitica,*' and 
liave often been reprinted inr various sizes in France, Italy, 
and Holland* He wrote also '* Corona Gotica, Castellana, 
y Anstriaca politicamente illustrada/^ 1646, 4to, which 
was to have consisted of tliree parts, but be lived to com* 
plete one only ; the rest was by Nunez de Castro; and 
** Respdblica Literaria,^' published in 1670, 8vo. Of this 
work ao English translation was published by I. E. in 1727. 
It IS akiivAof visipn, giving a satirical account of the re« 
poblio of letters, not unlike the manner of Swift. Tm 
French bave a translation of it, so late as 1770. ^ 

SABATIER (PETEif}, a. learned French Benedictine, 
waa'born at Poictiers in 1680, aiid died at Rbeims March 
2^ 1942. He spent twenty years of hi» life in preparing for 
the preas a valuable edition df all the Latin vefsiot>s of the 
Soriptuyes, collected together, and united in one point of 
WW. It consists of three volumes, folio; bat he lived 
only to pvint one volume ; the others were completed by 
Ij9l fUae, ako a Benedictine of St. Maur. The titl^ isr 

> AfitMna BiM. Hof • 
B 2 

4 SABA f.I E R. 

* V Bibliorum Sacrorum Latins Versiones antiqucb seii Ve- 
tills Italica, et cetera^ quscuinqMe in codicibiis MSS. et 
antiquoruoi libris reperiri potuerudt,'* Rheimls, 1743-— 
1749. » * 

SABATIER (Raphael - Bienvenu)^ a very en^ineftt 
French surgeon, was born at Paris in October .17329 and 
after studying tl^e, acquired the first rank in his pro- 
fession, and jn every situation which he filled, his know- 
ledge, skilly an^ success, were equally coilspicuous. He 
.became censor-royal of the academy of sciences, profes- 
sor and dempn^rator of the surgical schools^ secretary of 
correspondence, surgeon* major of the hospital of invalids, 
and a member of the institute. His education had been 
more liberal and comprehensive than usual. He not only 
was an excellent Greek and Latin scholar, but was well 
acquainted with the English, Italiat), and German, laor 
guages. Besides his public courses of lectures on ana- 
tomy, and surgery, he instructed many private pupils, not 
only of his own country, but those of foreign nations who 
were attracted to Paris by his fame as a teacher, and were 
delighted with his unaffected politeness and candour. la 
bis latter days Bonaparte appointed him one^of his con- 
sulting surgeons, and be was one of the first on whom he 
bestowed the cross of the legion of honour. Sabatier died 
at Paris July 21, 1811. He retained his faculties to the 
last, but we are told became ashamed of his bodily weak* 
ness. ^/ Hide me,^' he said to his wife knd son, '^ from 
the world, that you may be the only witnesses of this de- 
cay to which I must submit/^ A little before his death he 
said to his son, '* Contentplate the state into which I am 
fallen, and learn to die.*' His humane attention to his 
patients was a distinguished feature in his character. During 
any painful operation be used to say, '^ Weep ] weep ! 
the more you express a sense of your sufferings, the more 
anxious I shall be to shorten them.*' 

His works are, 1. ^^ Theses anatomico-cbirurgicso," 1748, 
4to. 2. *^ De variis cataractam extrahendi modis," 1759,' 
4to. S. An edition of Verdier's ^^ Abreg6 d'Anatomie,'* 
with additions, 1768^ 2 vols. 12mo. 4. An edition of La 
Motte's " Trait6 complet de Cbirurgie," which .was. fol« 
lowed by his own, 5. '* Trait^ copaplet d'Anatomie," 1775. 
Of this a thijrd edition, with many improvements, appeared 

> Diet. Hi9t*'*'*3ttii Ooonutt, vol, VIIL 


: S A B A T I E R. ^ 

in, 1791, 3 vols. 8vb. 6. " De la Medieine.expdctativejV 
1796^ 3 vols. 8vo. 7. ** De la Medicine operatoire, ou 
Pes Operations de Cbirurgie qui se pratiquent le plus fre- 
qaemment," .17^6, 3 vols/ 8yo. Besides these he contri* 
buted many ^9say9 tp the medical joornals.^ 

SABBA,'fBlIcfR (Francis), a learned French writer, was 
born at Condf>m^ Qc^ BB, 1735^ and after making great 
proBciency ^n hi$ StM^es atn'ong the fathers of the oratory 
in that ci||^, wieixt* to* Orleans,. H^here he was employed ad 
^ private tutor. In 17i&2, hewas. i#viwl to the college of 
Chalons-sur-Marne; wbeVe. he*^auglit the third and fourth 
classea for sixteen years, which gave him a title to the pen« 
sion of an emeritus. His literary re|)utation took its rise 
principally from bis esssay on' the temporal power of the 
popes, which gained the prize of the academy of Prussia.^ 
He was then about twenty-.eigbt years old ; but had before 
,this ad()ressed a curious paper on th.e limits of the empire 
of Cbarlemagna to the academy of Belles Lettre3 at Paris. 
He was the principal means of founding the academy of 
Chalons, procured a charter for it, and acted as secFe« 
tary for thirty years. Such was his reputation that he had 
the honpur to correspond with some of the royal perso* 
nages of lurope, and was in particular much esteemed by 
the kingrs of Prussia and Sweden ; nor was he less in fa- 
your with Choiseul, the French minister, who encouraged 
bis taste for study. It does not appear, however, that his 
riches increased with his reputation, Bg^ this occasioned 
his projecting a paper-manufactory inirHolIani), which ended 
like some of the schemes of ingenious men ; Sabbathier 
iii*as ruined, and his successors mad^ a.fortune He died 
]^ a village near Chalon, March 11, .1807, in his seventy* 
second year. 

.. He' publijshed, 1. ^'Essai historique-critique sur Pori- 
gine de la puissance temporelle des Papes,^^ Chalons, 1764^ 
}j2mOf reprinted the following year. 2. " Le Manuel des 
$nfans,V ibid. 1769,' ]2mo, a collection of maxims frooi 
PiQtarcb*,s li^i^es. 3. '* Recu^il de Dissertations sur divers 
sujets de Thistoircj de France,!' ibid. 1778, 12mo. 4. "Let 
Mcsurs, cputumes et usages d^s anciens peuples, pouir 
sjsrvir a Peducation de la jeunesse,'* ibid. 1770, 3 toIs. 
12mo. Of this entertaining work, a trs^nslation was pub<* 
lished in 1775, 2 vols. 8vo, by the 4ate Rev. Percival 

1 Dtct. Hist.— Eby Diet. Hist, cl« U Medieioe. . t 


Stockdale. 5. ^' Dictionnaire pour IMntellig^ncedef au« 
teurs classiques Grecs et Latins, tant sacr^s (}ue profanes, 
contenant la geographie, i'histoire, la fable, et les anti- 
^aitis," ibid. 1766 — li90, 36 vols. 8vo, and 2 volumes oF 
plates. Voluminous as this work is, the troubles which 
followed the reroluiion obliged the author to'leave it' in- 
complete ; but thfe manuscript of the concluding volumes 
18 said to be in a state for publicatidn. It is lin elaborate 
collection, very useful for consultsltion, bqt lK>t always 
correct, and contftin^^ many articles which increase the 
bulk rather than the value. A jitdicious selection, it is 
thought, would supersede any publication of the kind in 
France.' % 

SABBATINI (Andrea), known likewise by the name 
of Andrea da Salerno, is the first artist that deserves no- 
tice, of the Neapolitan school. He is supposed to have 
been born about 1480. Enamoured of the style of Pietro 
Perugino, who had painted an Assumption of the Virgin 
in the dome of Naples, he set out for Perugia to become 
bi« pupil ; but hearifig at an inn on the road some painters 
txtol the works of Raphael in the Vatican, he altered his 
mind^ went to Rome, and ente^red that master^s school. 
His stay there was short, for the death of his father obliged 
him to return borne against his will in 1513 ; he returned, 
However, a new man. It is said that he painted with Ra- 
phael at the Pace, and in the Vatican, and that he copied 
Ills pictures well :' be certainly emulated his manner with 
success. Compared with his fellow-scholars, if he falls 
^ahortof Julio, he soars above Raphael del Colle and idie 
sestoftbat sphere. He had correctness and selection of 
attitUide and features, <leptb of shade, perhaps too mucb 
sharpness in the marking of the muscles, a broad 'st3^le of 
folding in his draperies, and a colour which even now 
mailitains its freshness. , Of his numerous works at Naples 
mentioned in the catalogue of his pictures, the altar- 
pieces at S. Maria delle Grazie deserve perhaps prefe- 
rence ; for his fr^^^ scoes there and elsewhere, extolled by 
the writers as miracles of art, are now, the greater part^ 
destroyed. He painted likewise at Salerno, Gaeta, and 
other places of the kingdom, for churches and privitte col- 
lections, where his Madcximas often rival those of Raphael* 
This disting4iisbed artist died in 1545. * 

1 Diet Hist. Sopfdemeiit. * Ptt^iDston by Faseti. 

« A B B A T I N I. 7 

SABBATINI (LORBKZO), called Lorenzin di Bologna, 
was one of the most genteel and most delicate painters of 
bis age. He has been often mistaken for a scholar of Ra^ 
pbael, from tfae resemblance of his Holy Families in stjle 
of design and colour to those of that master, though the 
colour be always weaker. He likewise painted Madonnas 
and angels in cabinet-pictures, which seem of Parmigi- 
ano; nor are bis altar-pieces different: the most cele- 
brated is that of S. Michele at 8. Giacomo, en^aved by 
Agostino Caracci^ and recommended to his school as a mo- 
del of griacefal elegance. He excelled in fresco ; correct 
in design, copious in invention, equal to every iubject^ 
and yet, what surprises, rapid. Such were the talents (hat 
procured him employ, not only in many patrician fkmilies 
of his own province, but a call to Rome under the pontifi- 
cate of Gregorio XIII. where, according to Baglion],,he 
pleased much, especially in his naked figures, a branch he 
bad not much cultivated at Bologna. The stories of St. 
Paul in the Capella Paolina, Faith triumphant over Infide* 
iity in the Sala regia, and various other subjects in the 
galleries and loggie of the Vatican, are the works of Sab- 
bad ni, always done in competition with tfae best masters, 
and always -with applause: hence among the great con« 
dourse of masters wbo at that time thronged for pnsce- 
dence in Rome, he was selc^cted to superintend the dif- 
ferent departn^ents of the Vatican ; in which o£Bce he died 
in the vigour of life, 1577.* 

SABELLICUS, whose proper name was Marcus Anto- 
Kius Coccius, or vernacularly Makcantonio Coccio, an 
Italian historian andxcritic, was born in 1436, in the cam-, 
pagna of Rome, on the conSnes of the ancient country of 
tbe Sabines, from which circumstance he took^the name of 
Sabellicus. He was a scholar of Pomponius Lotus's, and 
in 1475, was appointed professor of eloquence at Udino, to 
vrhii^h office he was likewise appointed at Venice, in 1484. 
8ome time after, when the plague obfiged him to retire to 
Verona, he composed, within the space of fifteen months^ 
his Latin history of Venice, in thirty- three books, which 
were published in 1467, entitled '< Rerum Venetiarum ab 
urbe cQudita,*' folio, a most beautiful specimen of early 
printings of which there was a copy on vellum, in the Pi- 
iielli library. Tfae republic of Venice was so pleased with 

) PilkiDgton by PoieK. 


-S . S:A BELL I C U S. • 

this work' as to decree the author a pension of 200sequip8 ; 
and Sabellicus, out of gratitude^ added four books to his 
history, which, however, remain in manuscript. He pubr 
li^hed also " A Description of Venice,'' in three books ; a 
.*^ Dialogi^e on the Venetian Magistrates;" and two poems 
in honour of the republic. The most considerable of his 
other works is his rhapsody of histories : ** Rhapsodiae His* 
.tori^rum Enneades,'' in ten Enneads, each containing nine 
.books, and comprizing a general history from the crea- 
tion to t^e year 1503. The first edition published at Ve- 
.nice in 1498, folio, contained only seven Enneads ; but the 
second, in 1504,; had the addition of three more, bringing 
the history down to the above date. Although there is 
little, either in matter or manner, to recommend this work, 
or many others of its kind, to a modern reader,^ it brought 
.the author both reward and reputation. His other .worKs 
.are discourses, moral, philosophical, and. historical, with 
many Latin poems; the whole printed /in four volumes, 
/olio, at Basil in 15«0. There is a scarce edition of his 
.** EpistolsB familiares, necnon Orationes et Poemata,*' Ve-^ 
nice, 1502, folio. Sabellicus likewise wrote commenta<f 
lies on Pliny the naturalist, Valerius -Maximus, Livy, Ho^ 
.jace, Justin, Florus, and some other classics, , which are 
to b^ found in Gruter's ** Thesaurus.'* He died at Venice 
in 1506. Whatever reputatioQ he might gain by his history 
of Venice, he .allows himself that he tOQ often made use of 
authors on whom, not much reliance was to be- placed ; and 
jt is certain that he ciidnot ixt all c^onsult, or seem to know 
the existence^ of, the annals of the doge Andrew Dan dolo, 
which, furnish the tmost authentic, as well as. ancient, ac* 
cpunt of the early tinges .of the republic,/ ^ 

. SABELLIUS, a Lybian, known in Qi^^Iesiastical history 
as the head of the sect called Sabellians,i lived in the third 
century, and was born at Ptolemais, and was a disciple of 
Noetus. He reduced the three persons in the Trinity to 
three states, or relations, or rather reduced the whole 
Trinity to the one person of the Father; making the 
Word and Holy Spirit to be the only emanations or 
functions thereof. Epiph^nius tells us, that the God of 
the Sab^liians, whom they called the Father, resembled 
the Son,, and was ^l fi)ere subtraction, whereof the Son was 
the illuminative virtue or quality, and th^ Holy Ghost the 

1 Tirabotcbi.— GingueDc Hist. latt d'lislie.^— Gen. Diet. 

S A B E L LI US. » 

Arming virtue* Thistect had many folloi^eiii iii M«s6po« 
Ummin4 Rome; but th«ir doctrines are so obscurely ex* 
pressed, as-jtocrei^e- doubts as to what they really were;. 
JUSicertain; boweveff .tbat;t);iey'Mrere cobdemned by the 
Tfioitiirians^ andtbereforeLiMrdner, and Fiis followers, seem 
pleased to add Sabelliuii to the scanty list of Unitarians of 
the el^rly^ges. ' 

SABINUS (Georqe), whpse family name was Schalter, 
ones of the best Latin poets of bis time, was. bom* in the 
electorate of Brandenburg in 150S; and, at fifteen,* sent 
to Wittemberg^ where be was privately instructed by 
JMelanctbon, in whose /honse he liyed. He had: a great 
ambition to excel ; and aa enthusiastic regard for what was 
excellent, especially in Latin poetry ; and although the 
specimens he studied made him somewhat diAdeot of his 
powers, he ventured to submit to rthe puUso, .in his twen- 
ty-second year, a poem; emitted. " Res GcstsD Csetrarum 
Gemianorum,"" which spread* l)is reputation ail over Ger« 
many, and made all the princes, wko had any regard for 
polite literature, his friends apd , patrons* Afterwards he 
ti>avel}ed into Italy, where he .contracted an acquaintance 
with -Bembiis and. other leart)ed men ; and, on his return 
vifited Eraaoius at Fribucg, when that great man was in 
ihe tast.s^ge of life. In l£|36> he married Melancthon's 
eldest daughter, at.Wittembergv to whom he^ was engaged 
before bjs journey into Italy. She was only fourteen, but 
very handsome, and understood Latin well ; and Sabiiiua 
always lived happily vvit'h her: but he had several alterca- 
tions with Melancthon, because be wanted to raise himself 
to civil employments ; and did not relish the humility of 
Afelanctbon, who confinlsd himself to literary pursuits, and 
would be at no trouble to advance bis children. This mis- 
uodei^standing occasioned Sabinus to remove into Prussia 
in 1543, with his wife, who afterwards died at Konigsberg 
in 1.547. }Ie settled, for some, little time,.at Francfort 
upon the Oder, and was made professor of the belles lettres 
)bythe appointment of the elector of Brandenburg; and 
was afterwards promoted to be rector of the new univer- 
sity of Konigsberg, which was opened in 1544.: .His elo- 
quence and learning brought. him to the . knowledge of 
Charges Y, who ennobled, him, and he was also employed 
pti sqme embassies^ paiitipiilarly by the elector of Bran- 

< Lardaer*! WoTlu.->Mo9bciin. 

10 S A B I N U S. 

denburg into Italy, where be »eems -to have contracfeid 
an illness, of wbich he died in 1560, the same jreaV in 
which Meiancthon died. His Latin poeois were published 
at Leipsic in 1558 and 1597, the latter with additions and 
letters. He published some other works, less known, 
which are enumerated by Nicoron.* 

SACCHETTI (Francis), an Italian poet, but better 
kAown as a writer of Oovels, was bom at Florer^ce about 
1335, of an ancient family, some branches of which had 
held employments of great trust and dignity in the repub* 
lie. While «young he composed some amatory verses, in 
imitation of Petrarch, but with a turn of thought anrd 
style peculiar to bimself, and he was frequently employed 
in drawing up poetical inscriptions for public monuments^ 
&c. in which sentiments of morality and a love of liberty 
were expected to be introduced. Some of these are stiU 
extant, but are perhaps more to be praised for the subject 
than the style. Sacchetti, when more advanced in life, 
filled several offices of the magistracy both at Florence and 
different parts of Tuscany, and formed an acquaintance 
with the most eminent men of his time, by whom he was 
highly respected. He suffered much, however, during 
the civil contests of his country. He is supposed to have 
died about the beginning of the fifteenth century. Verf 
litrie of his poetry has been published. He is principally 
ktiown by his " Navels,*' an excellent edition of which 
was published at Florence in 1724, 2 vols. 8vo, by Bottari^ 
wj^ has prefixed an account of his life. These tales are 
in the manner of Boccaccio^ but shorter, more lively, and 
in general more decent. * 

8ACCHI (Anbrea), an illustrious Italian painter, tbe 
son of a paioter, was h6ri\ at Rome in 1601, or as some 
writers say, in 1594. He learned tbe principles of his art 
under bis father, but became afterwards the disciple of 
Francesco Albaoo, and made such advances, 4hat, under 
twelve years of age, he carried the prize, in the academy 
of St Luke, from all his mucb older competitors. With 
this badge of hofiour, tbey gave him the nickname of An- 
drenccio, to denote the diminutive figure he then made> 
being a boy ; and which he long retained. His appUcatioa 
to the works of Polidoro da Caravaggio and Raphael, and 
tbe antique marbles^ together with his studies under Albanpj 


1 Kiceron, Tof. XXVI.-— Metdiior Adam.-«Saxii Onomast. 
' Ginguene Hist Lit d'ltalie.— Moreri. 

S A C C H L U 

naihh copying zfter Caneggioj and ocbers, the best 
Lombard masters, wt^e the several steps ^by vrhieb he 
ratsed himseif tp extraordinary perfection in historical cona*- 
position: The tht^e first gave him his correctness and 
elegance ^f design ; and the last made him the best 
colonrist of ail the Roman school. His works are not very 
DQinerous, owing to the infirmities which attended his latter 
years^ and especially the gout, which occasioned frequent 
and long inlerniptions to his labours. He was likewise 
slow and fasttdioas, and wished to rest his feme more npon 
the quality than qiiAntity of his performances. His first 
patrons were the eardtnals Antonio Barberini and del 
Mone, tht' protector of ike academy of painting. He be-* 
came afterwards a great favourite of lirban VHi. asid drew 
an admirable portrait of him. Several of the public edi- 
fices at Rome are emfoeliisbed with his works, some of 
which have been ranked among the most admired produc- 
tions of art in that capital. Such are his eelefofated picture 
of tbe Death of St. Anne, in the chtirch of S. Carlo a Ca- 
tinari ; the Angei appearing to St. Joseph, the priaetpal 
aitar«piece in S. Giuseppe k Capo le Case ; and his St. 
Andrea^ in the Quirinai. Btit his most dtstitrguished per-* 
formance is his famous picture of S.;Rodiualdo, foimefrly in 
the church dedicated to that saint, no^ in the galtery of 
the Louvre. This adniirable production was considered 
one of the four finest pictures at Rome, where Saechi died 
in 1^68. ^ 

SACCHINl (Anthony-Maria-Oaspar), a very distin^ 
gnished musician in the last century, wals born at Naples 
May 11, 1735, according to one account, but E)r. Burney 
says 1727. He was educated in the conservatorio of St. 
Onofrio, under Durante, and ikiade rapid progress in the 
sciencoi attaching himseif principally to the vioHh, on 
which he became a most accomplished performer. He 
afterwards resided at Rome eight years ; and at Veoice, 
where he remained four years, he was appointed. master 
of the conservatorio of the Ospidaletto. It was here where 
be first composted for tftie church, but always kept his sa« 
cred and secular style of composition separate and distinct. 
His ecdestastical compositions are not only learned, solemn, 
and abounding with fine effects, but clothed in the richest 
and most pure harmony. 

* ArgcBviUe, vsl. {^— Pilkii^stcNi. 


r His reputatioD ihcneasirig, he visited, by invitatioii, sdme 
of the couru( of Germany, «nci among others those of 
Brunswick and Wittemberg, where he succeeded the ce^ 
l^hrate^d Jomelli ; >nd after having composed for all the 
{[reat theatres in Italy and Germany ,with increasing 'SUC* 
cess, he came to England in 1772, and here supported the 
high reputation he had acquired { on -the continent. His 
operas of the " Cid'* and *.' Tamerlano" were' equal, says 
•Dr. Bumey, if not superior, to any musical dramas we 
jhaye^ heard in any part of .Europe.. ^Ue remained, however^ 
top; long in England for his. fame au# fortune. The first 
>vas injured by cabals, and by what ought to have increased 
it, the number of his works ; and the second by inactivity 
and want of economNpt^ 

. He refused several engagements which were offered him 
from Russia, Poriugal, and even France, but this last he 
9t length accept«d,trini hopes t>f an establishment for life* 
Accordingly he went thither in IJS h, but it is manifest in 
the operas that he composed for Paris, .that he wprjked for, 
singers of me^u abilities; which, besides the airs being' 
set to French: words, prevented their circulation in the rest 
pf Europe, which his other vocal. productions in i^is own 
language had coustantly done. At Paris, however, he was 
al/nost adored, but returned the following year to London, 
where he only augmented his debts and embarrassments ; 
^o tb^t, in 1794, h^ took, a final leave of this country^ and 
settled at Paris, where he not only obtained a pension 
from the queen of France^ but the, theatrical pension, in 
^risequeoce of three successful pieces, r This graceful, 
eiegaut, and judicious composer died, at Paris, October 8^ 

A786» * . •, . . . . . ; - 

■ All Sacchini'fl pperas^re jreplete with elegant air^, beau-* 
t^ful accompanied recitatives, . and orchestriil effects, with^ 
out the lea&t ap|p<^^rance of labour or study. It was seem-^ 
ipgly hy ^m^^ iiieans tha^ he produced the greatest 
efi'ects. He intei:e$ted the audience more by a happy, 
graceful, and toujching melodj^ than by a laboured and 
extraneous* ododulationi His accoqipaniments always briU 
Ijant and. ingenif):us, without being loaded and confpsed, 
assist the. expression of the vocal part, and are often pic* 
turesque. Each of the dniipas he composed in this country 
was so entire, so masterly, yet so. new and natural, that< 
there was nothing left for criticism to censure, though in- 
numerablp beauties* to point but and admire. He had a 

S A C C H I N I. 13 

taste so exquisite, and so, totally iree from pedantry, that 
hi» Wiis . frequently new without effort ; never thinking of 
himself or. bis fame for-aiiy. pai!tic(iiiir excellence, but 
totally occupied with tbe^ ideas of the poet, and the pro- 
priety, -oonsistency, and effect of the- whole drama. His 
accompaniments, though always rich and ingenious, nevet* 
call off attention from the voice, but by a constant ^mw^'- 
;Miri?7i(y, the principal melody is rendered distinguishable 
through all. the contrivance of imitative and picturesque 
design in the instruments. 

Sacchini's private character was that of a generous and 
benevolent roan, somewhat too imprudent in the indul- 
gence o/ charitable feelings, but a steady friend, an af- 
fectionate relation, and a kind master.* 

SACCHINl (Francis), a celebrated Jesuit, was born in 
1570, in the. diocese of Perugia. He was professor of 
rhetonc at Rome during several years, and secretary to 
his general, Vitelleschi, seven years. He died December 
26, 1625/ aged 55. His princijpal works are; "A Conti- 
nuation of the History of the Jesuits* Society,'' begun by 
Orlandino. Of this Saodhini wrote the 2d, 3d, 4th, and 
^th partner volumes, fol. 1620 — 1661. An addition to 
the fifth part was made by Jouvency, and the whole com- 
pleted by JuUiis Cordara. Perfect copies are very rarely 
to be met with. Sacchini was also the author of a- small 
hook judiciously written and much esteemed, entitled << D^ 
ratione. Libros cum profectu legendi,'' l2mo, at the end 
of which/ is a discourse, ^* De vitandft Librorum moribus 
noxiorum> lectione,'' which ^fadier Sacchini delivered at 
Rome in his rhetorical school in 1603.* • 

SACHEVERELL (Henay), D. D. a man whose his- 
tory affo^d^ a very striking example of the folly of party 
spirit, was the son of Joshua Sacheverell of Marlborough, 
clerk, who died rector of St. Peter's church in Marlbd- 
rougby leaving a numerous family iu very low circumstan- 
ces* By a letter to him his uncle^ in 1711, it ap-' 
pears thaa; ha bad a birother- oarmed Thomas, and a sister 
Susannah. Henry was pat to school at M^rlborouo-b, at 
the. charge of Mr. .Edward Hetfrst, ;an apothecary, who, 
being his godfattier,. adopted him as bis son. Hearst's 
widow put; him afterwards to Magdalen-cc^Uege, Oxford,' 

' Buriiey's His». of Music. — and inRees*]i Cyclppeidia.— -IJlcU Hi»U 
• Mown,- Pici. Hist.' ^ 

14 S A C H E V E R E L L. 

where be became demy in 1687, at; tbe age of 15. Hei^ 
be soon distinguifibed himself by a regular observation' of 
the duties of the booa^, by his compositions, * good mao- 
ners, and genteel behaviour; qualifications which recom- 
mended him to that society, of which, he became felh>w, 
and, as public tutor, had the clireof the education of most 
of the young gentlemen of quality and fortune that were 
admitted of the college. In this station he had the care of 
the education of a great many persons eminent for their 
learning and abilities ; and avas contemporary and ciiamber- 
fellow with Addison, and one of his chief intimates till the 
time of his famous trial. Mr. Addisou's ^^ Account of the 
greatest English Poets," dated April 4, 1694, in a £are* 
welUpoem to the Muses- on his intending to enter into 
holy orders, was inscribed "to Mr. Henry Sacheyerell,'* 
his then dearest friend and colleague. Much has been said 
by Sacheverell's enemies of his ingmtixude to his. relations^ 
and of his turbulent behaviour at Oxford ; but these appear 
to have been groundless calumnies^ circulated only by the 
spirit of patty. In bis youiigeryeara he wrote some excellent 
Latin poems, besides several in the second and third vo* 
lumesof the ^^ MufSB A«glicanas,*' ascribed to bit pupils^ 
and there is a good .one of some length in the second vo- 
lume, under bis own name (transcribed from the Oxford 
coUeation, on queen Mary's deaths 1605). He took the 
degree of M. A. May 16, 1696; B. D. Feb. 4, 1707; D.D. 
July 1, 1703« His 6rst preferment was Cannock, or Cank, 
|n the county of Stafford. He was appoioted preacher of 
St. Saviour's, Southwark, in 1705; and while in this sta«» 
tion preached his^ famous sermons (at Derby, Aug. 14^ 
170^; and at St.*Pifiirs, Nov. 9, in the same year) ; and 
in one of them was supposed to point at lord Godolpbin, 
under the name of Volpone. It has been stiggeated,. that 
to this circumstance, as much- as to the doctrines contained 
ip his sermons, ,he was^ indebted for his prosecution, and 
eventually for his preferment. Being impeached by the 
House of Commons, bis trial beg^n Feb. 27, 1709.- 10^ 
and continued until the 23d of March : when he was sen* 
tenced to a suspension from preaching for three years, aud 
his two sermons ordered to be burnt. This prosecution^ 
however^ overthrew the ministry, and laid the fcmndation 
of his fortune. To sir Simon Harcourt, who was counsel 
for him, he presented a silver bason gilt, with an elegant 
inscriptiooy written probably by his friend Dr. Atter- 

, S A C H E V E R E L L. 15 


bury*. Dr. SacbeYerell» diiring h» Mispeasion, mftde a iunili 
of triumphal progress through various paru yf the king^loia; 
during which period he was collated to a living near 
Shrewsbury ; and, in the same month that hi^ suspension 
^^ded, bad the valuable rectory of St. And#sw.^s» Uolborn^ 
fxma him bjPthe queenf April 13^ 17 13. At that time his 
reputation was so higb^ that he was enabled to sell the (irsit 
■sermon preached after his sentence expired (on Palm Suo- 
day) for the sum of lOQ/.; and upwards of 40^000 copies, 
it is laid, were soon sold« We find by Swift's Journal to 
Stella, Jan. 22, 1711-12, that he bad also interest enough 
with the ministry te provide very amply for one of his 
brothers; yet, as the deaa had said beffre^ Aug« 24, i7ii« 
^Vthey hated and affected to despise bim«*' A consider- 
able estate at Callow in Derbyshire was soon after left to 
lam 1>y bis kinsman George Sacheverelli esq» In 17 f 6, 
be prefixed a dedication to ** Fifteen Discourses, ocoasioa- 
ally delivered before the university o^ Oxford, by W. 
Adams, M. A. late student of Christ-church, and r^^or of 
Staunton upon Wye, in Oxfordshire.'* After this publi- 
cation, we bear jitUiiiof bioiy exoept hy quarrels with bk * 
parishioners. Hm died June S^ 1724 ; and, by his w31, 
bequeathed to Bp. Atterbury, then iu ei^iie, who was sup- 
PQsed to have penned for him the defence be made beforfe 
the House of Peers f, the sum of 500. The duchess of 

' ♦ «« Xiro honoratissimo, «f Tbi94»peech, whea originally pub- 

^ Vmterii Juris oracufo, lished, was tho^ acMressed, *< To the 

£celesia & Regni presidio fc Lords Sptrittt&l and TemfKM-al io M^. 

oroamento, liaoient assembled : 

SiMO!fi HAKCotftf, Eqaiti AUrafo, Maj^ it please your Lordships, 

' «M0gtMB Biitamiiis Sisiii Migbi It Satli bien my ftani- forttine to ht 

. $, fipstodi, misHunderstood* at a ttme wben I en- 

^i Serenissimse Keginas h Secretioribus deavoured to express myself wiih the 

' ' cdnsiliis; utmost ptaidoess ; even th& defence I 

ob oavMim oie^in, ebiaai S^Ilremo made at your Lotdsbips* d*r, hi Htstp^ 

Senatu, of cieat iog the innocence of my hear^ 

in Aula Westmonasteriensi, | tiaih been grievously misrepresented. 

. ii^riosa cam faoandia ?<!# which reasbn I have hombly ptt" 

tf, sabacta legim scientia, sumed to offer it in this manner to your 

benign^ & coustanter defensam ; Lordships* perusal. My (x>rds, these 

«b pri>cam EcdesTie doctrinam, "Cftre the >f6ry t^ortTs f spake to your 

JHviu)andaiii Legum vim, . Lordships, t hope tifey are fo plain 

piam Subditorum tidem, sn^ express,, as not to be capable of 

et sacTOsancta Le^nnf jifra,\ ^ any miscons'triiction : and may l so 

' eontn wfarios PerdMiitim iit^us find tkercy dt the lHfea<l« «f God as they' 

, feliciter ▼inoicata |^ yre in e-^ery refpeet ep^irely agreeabU 

Votiviim hoc Mi^nusculipm to my thoughts and principles ! lam, 

Ciratitudinis ergo my Lords, your Lordships' most obe- 

Jp. D.^0. ' dient aud most dutiful servant, 

Aimo Saluiis mdccx.'* 

16 S A C H E V E ft £ L L. 

Marlborough describes Sacheverell as ^* an ignorant iaipit<>^ 
dent incendiary ; a man who Hias the scorn even of those 
who made use of him as a too];" And Bp. Burnet says^ 
^* He was a bold insolent man, with a very stn#ll measure 
of religion, mtue, learning, or good sens^; but he re- 
solved to force himself into popularity and preferment,^ by 
the most petulant railings at dissenters' and low-church, 
men, in several sermons and libels, written without either 
cha^teness of style or liv^eliness of expression." Whs^ever 
bis character, it is evident that he owed every thing to an 
injudicious prosecution, 'which' defeated the purposes of 
those who instituted it, and for mttny years ' continued 
those prejudices in the public* mind, which a wiser ad- 
ministration would have beeif ^ivxious to dispel. ' ' 

SACKVILLE (Thomas), lord Buckhurst and egrl of 
Dbrset, an eminent statesman and p6et, was born at Withy • 
am in Sussex, in 1527. He 'was 'the son of sir Richard 
Sackville, who d^ed in 1566, by Wihifred Brydges (after- 
wardi harchioness of Winchester), and grandson of John 
Sackville^ esq. who died in 1557, by Anne Boleyne, sister 
df sir Thomas Boleyne, earl (^ Wiltshire ; and great grand- 
son of Richard Sadcville, esq. who died iH 1524, by Isabel|^ 
daughter of John Digges, of Digges^s place In Barbam, 
Kent, ofafatmily which for many succeeding geneimtions 
prodiyed men of learning and genius. He was first of th6 
university of Oxford, and^ as it is supposed^ of Hart-hall, 
now Hertford-college ; but taking no degree there, he#e- - 
moved lo Cambridge, where he commenced master of art9, 
and afterwards was a student of the Inner. Temple. At 
both universities he became celebrated both as a Latin and 
English poet, and carried the same taste and Clients to tfc^ 
Temple, where he wrote his tragedy of " Gorboduc," ^icb 
was exhibited in the great hall by the students of that so- 
ciety, as part of a Christmas entertainment, and afterwards 
before queen Elizabeth n Whitehall, Jatu J 8, 1561. It 
was surreptitiously printed in 1563, utider the title of 
'^ The Tragedy of Gorbodui^' 4to; but a correct edition 
under the inspection of the authors (for he was assisted by- 
Thomas Norton), appeared in 1571, entitled "TheTra- 
gedie of Ferrex and Porrex.'' Another i^ition appeared 
in 1569, notwithstanding wfaicb, for many years it had so • 

* OeDt. Mag. s«6 Index.— ^Swift's Works.— Ra pin's Hist — Burnetii Owa 
Timst.— TatkKy Sp<(ctalorj and Guardiao, wilhaotes, «dit. 1806.— &c. &c. * 

SACJtVtLtfi* iff 

!lS4#){>letely di^ppeare^ that Dry<ten «kfid OldbMtf in the 
jteign of Cjb^rleft II. do not !»ppear U> have seen it, though 
tb#y pr^eii4ed to criticise it ; and even Wood knew juat 
as little of it, as is plain from bis telling us that it was 
/^Hten ia W Snglisb rhyme. Pope took a fancy to re^^ 
iri^kve thi» pJay from oblivioB, and Spence being employed 
p9 ffit it p|P with aili poasibte advantage, ii was prjuted 
f^mp/Ofifily in 1736^ ^vo^with a preface by the editor. 
Sp«fioe^ 9pea|(i;ii^g of hisllordabip as apoet, declares, that 
** the dawQ'Of our English poetry was in Chancer^s time, 
(but that it aboiue out la him too bright all titonee to liaat 
iwg.. The succeeding age was dark and OTercaat. There 
'W9i» indeed some igUmmeriAgs of genius again in tienrjr 
Ylirs timi^ ; but Dur poetry had never what <ioald be cailed 
ik fairtaettl€)d day-light till towards the end of queen Mi^A* 
betth^s ceign. . It wa» between these two periods^ that lord 
-Buokhur^t wrote; ^fter. the earl of Surrey, and before 
.Spoasen'' ]SMartan*s opinion of this tragedy is not very 
faiioufdble. - He thinks it neirer was a favourite with our 
ajioestors* and fell iilto oblivion On account of the naked- 
(Oesrsapd juninterestmg nature of the plot, the tedioiis 
ieogth 0i the speeches, the want of discrimination of char 
Iraciber, and almost a total, absence of pathetic or critidal 
«tualioBs. ¥iet he allows that the language of " Gorbo- 
iliic'^ has giseat merit and perspicuity, and that it is en-^ 
titely Iree {cojm the tumid phraseology of a aubseqUent age 

iSadLviJile is said by Warton to bate bei^n the inventor 
aad principal, contributor to that celebrated collection of 
hiitorlcal legends, entitled ** The Mirror for Magistrates,** 
fmt edil»d in J 559 by William Baldwin ; but sir Egei^ton 
firydges. ithinks there is some reason to doubt this, as 
SackvalWs ^* Induction,'^ ^nd " Legend of the duke of 
fittf^Dgbam,'* did not appear appended to that work till 
the second edition in 1563. The reader^ howev^, haa 
now an oppoitiwiily of examining the evidence on this 
point in the v^ry accurate andsplendid edition of this wotit 
just pnbliahed by loseph Haslewood, esq. It is allowed 
that Sackville's share exceeds in dignity and genius all th€ 
other contributions to the work. The *• Induction** con- 
tains some of the finest strains of English poetry, and some 
of the most magnificent personifications of abstract ideas in 
Qur language ; exceeding Spenser in dignity, and not short 
ef him in brilliance $ and* the << Complaint of Henry duke 


18 « A C K V I t L E. 

of Buckinghaim'* is written, says Warton, with a force andf 
even elegance of expression, a copiousness of phraseology, 
and an exactness pf versification, not to be foiind in any 
other part of the collection. 

Having by these productions established the reputations 
of being the best poet in bis time, he laid down his pen^ 
and assumed the character of the statesman, in which he 
also became very emin^ent. He found leisure, however, 
to make the tour of France and Ilaly ; a^nd was on somd 
account or other in prison at Rome, wh^n the news arrived 
of his father sir Richard Saekville's death' iti 1566. Upon 
this, he obtained his release, returned home, entered inta 
the possession of a vast inheritance, and soon after waa^ 
prompted to the peerage by the title of lord Buckhurst. 
He enjoyed this accession of honour and fortune too libe* 
rally for a while, but soon saw his error. Some attribute 
his being reclaimed to the quejti, but others say, that the 
indignity of being kept in waiting by an alderman, of 
whom he bad occasion to borrow money, made so deep an 
impression on him, that he resolved from that moment to 
be an oeconomist. By the queen he was received into 
particular favour, and employed in many very important 
affairs. In 1587 he was sent ambassador to the United 
Provinces, upon their complaints against the earl of Lei«i» 
eester ;; and, though he discharged that nice and hazardous 
trust, with great integrity, yet the favourite prevailed with 
his mistress to call him home, and confine him to his holise 
for nine or ten months ; which command lord Buckhurst if 
said to have submitted to so obsequiously, than in all the 
time he never would endure, openly or secretly, by day 
or by night, to see either wife or child. His enemy, how* 
ever, dying, her majesty's favour returned to him more 
jstrqngly than ever. He was made knight of the garter in 
1590; and chancellor of Oxford in 1591, by the queen's 
special interposition. In 1589 he was joined with the trea* 
surer Burleigh in negotiating a peace with dpain; and, 
upon the death of Burleigh the same year, succeeded him 
in his office; by virtue of which he became in a manner 
prime mitiister, and as suoh exerted himself vigorously for 
the public good and her majesty's safety. 

Upon the death of Elizabeth, the administration of th« 
ktngdom devolving on him with other counsellors, they 
linanioioU^ly proclaimed king James; and that king re*- 
Slewed bis patent of lord high-treasurer for life, before his 

S A 6 k V i L L £. n 

'MV^9l in England, and even before bis lordship waitifdl oil 
bis majesty. In March 1604 he was created earl of Dorset. 
•He was one of those whom his majesty consulted and con-» 
fided in npon all occasions ; and he lived in the highest 
esteem and repatation, without any extraordinary deca^ 
of health, till 1 607. Then he was seized at bis house at 
Horsley,in Surrey, with la disorder, which reduced him 
96f that bis life was despaired of* At this crisis, the kiag 
sent him a gold ring enamelled black, set with twenty dia- 
moiKld; and this message, that ''his majesty wishea him 
a speiedy and perfect recovery^ with all happy and good 
success, &hd that he might live as long as the diamonds of 
that ring did endure, and in token thereof required him t# 
wear it^ and keep it for his sake.'^ He recovered this ill- 
ness to iSiU appearance ; but soon after, as he was attend- 
ing at the council-tkble, he dropped down, and immedi- 
ately expired. This sudden deaths which happened April 
•19,* 1608, was dcicasioned by a particular kind of dropsy on 
the brain. He was interred with great solemnity in West- 
minster-abbey ; his funeral sermon being preached by his 
chiiplaiii Dr. Abbot> aftef^ards abp. of Canterbury. , S(ix 
•Kbbert Nauoton writes of hini in the following terms: 
" They much commend his elocution, but more the ex- 
cellency 'of his^pen. He was a scholar, and a ^person of 
quick dispatch ; faculties that yet run in the blood : and 
they aay of him, that his secretaries did little for him by 
way of inditemept, wherein they could seldom please him^ 
he was so facete and choice in his phrase and style. — I find 
not that :he was any ways inured in the factions of the 
court, which were all his time strong, and in every mau^s 
note I the .Howards and the Cecils' on the one part, my 
lord of Essex, &c. on the other part : for he held the staff 
of the treasury fast in his htod, which once in a year made 
them all beholden to him. And the truth is^ as he was a 
wise man and a stout^ lie had no reason to be a partaker ; 
for he s.tood sure in blood and graces lind was wholly in« 
tentive to the queen's services : and such were his abilities^ 
that she received assiduous proofs of his sufficiency ; and it 
has been thought^ that she might have more cunning in*^ 
struments, but none of a more strong judgment and con^ 
fidence in bis ways, which are symptoms of magnanimity 
and fidelity.*' Lord Orford says, that <* few first ministert 
kav^toft uo fair a character, and that his family ^^"* ^ 



ftbe office of an apology for it, against some Kttle cavils, 
.which ^^spreta exoleacunt; si.irascare, agnita videntur.'* 
- Several of his letters are printed in the Cabala ; besides 
which there is a Latin letter of his to Dr. Bartholomew 
Clarke, prefixed to. that author's Latin translation from the 
Italian of Castiglione's '< Courtier/' entitled, *^ De Curiali 
aive Aulico,'' first printed at London about 1571. This 
be j^Tots while envoy at Paris. Indeed his early t;^aste and 
learning never forsook him, but appeared in the exercise 
of his miore formal political functions. He was, says War- 
ton, frequently disgudted at the pedantry and official bar- 
barity of style, in which the public letters add instruments 
^ere usually fjiamed. Even in the decisions and pleadings 
of the Star-chamber court, he practised and encouraged 
an unaccustomed style of eloquent and graceful oratory.^ 

SACKVILLE (Charles), sixth earl of Dorset and Mid- 
dlesex, a celebrated wit and poet, was descended in a 
direct line from Thomas lord Buckhorst, and born Jan. 24, 
1637. He had his education under a private tutor; after 
which, making the tour of Italy, he returned to England a 
little before the Restoration. He was chosen in the first 
parliament that was called after that event for £^ast Grin« 
stead in Sussex, made a great figure as a speaker, and was 
caressed by Charles IL; but, having as yet no turn to 
business, declined all public employmeoit He was, is 
truth, like Villiers, Rochester, Sedley, &c. one of the wits 
or libertines of Charleses court; and thought of nothing so 
much as feats of galfamtry, which sometimes carried him to 
inexcusable excesses *. He want a volunteer in the first 
Dutch war in 1665; and, the night before the engage* 
ment, composed .the celebrated song ^' To all you Ladies 

* " One of these frolicks has, by cr»wd attempted to force the door, and, 

the industry of Wood, come dowu to being repulsed, drore in the perforoi- 

|K>sterity. Sackville, wbo was thea en with ttooea, and bcttke the wiodoira 

lord Buckburst, with sir Charles Sed- of tlie house. For this misdeoieanonr 

ley and sir Thomas Ogle, got drunk at they were indicted, ^nd Sedley waf 

the Cock in Bow-street by Covent-gar* fined five bnodred pounds: wliat was 

^en, and, going into the balcony, ex* the sentence of the otbe^ js.not koown* 

posed themselves to the populace in Sedley employed Kiliigrew and another 

Very indecent postures. At last, as to procure a remission from the king ; 

%bey grew warmer, Sedley stood Ibrth bat (mark the /riendsbip of ibe diaso- 

naked, and harangued the populace in lute !) they begged the fine for them* 

such profane language, that the pub- selves, and exacted it to the last groat." 
Ac indignation was awakened ; the Johnson's Lives. 

» ColHns's Peerage, by sir B, Bridges. — Wartaii*s Hittnry of Poetry;-^Biog. 
9«*it.— Bibliograpberj vol. I. — Hailewood's edition of the ^irrQr for Maeialf^lHL 
1815, 4to.^Park's edit, of the Royal andNoble Authors! 


now at land,^ which is generallj^ esteemed the happiest 
of his productions ; but there is reason to think it was not 
originally composed, but only revised on this occasion. Soon 
after he was made a gentleman of the bed-chamber ; and, 
on account of his distinguished politeness, sent by the 
king upon several short embassies of compliment inta 
France, Upon the death of his uncle James Craniield, earl 
of Middlesex, in 1674, that estate devolved on him; and 
he succeeded likewise to tlie title by creation in 1675«r 
His father dying two years after, he succeeded him in hia 
estate and honours. He utterly disliked, and openly dis- 
countenanced, the violent measures of James ITs reign; 
and early engaged for the prince of Orange, by whom be 
was n)ade lord chamberlain of the household, and taken 
ieto the privy •council. In 1692;: he attended king Wil- 
liam to the congress at the Hague, and was near losing hia 
life in the passage. They went on board Jan. 10, in a verjr 
severe season ; and, when they were a few leagues off 
Goree, having by bad weather been four days at sea, the 
king was so impatient' to go on shore, that he took a boat; 
when, a thick fog arising soon after, they were so closely 
surrounded with ice, a& not to be able either to make the 
sbore, or get back to the ship. In this condition they re« 
mained twenty-two hours, almost despairing of life ; and 
the cold was so bitter, that they could hardly speak or 
stand at thetr landing ; and lord Dorset contracted a lame* 
ness, which continued for some time. In 1698, his health 
insensibly declining, he retired from public afiairs ; only 
now and then appearing at the council* board. He died at 
Bath Jan. 19, 1705-6, after having married two wives; by 
the latter of whom he had a daughter, and an only son, 
Lionel Cran field Sackville, who was created a duke in 
1720, and died Oct. 9, 1765. 

Lord Dorset wrote several little poems, which, however, 
are not numerous Enough to make a volume of themselves, 
but are included in Johnson's collection of the '^ English 
Poets.'' He was a great patron of poets and men of wit, 
who have not failed in their turn to transmit his with lustre 
to posterity. Prior, Dryden, Congreve, Addison, and many 
more, have all exerted themselves in their several panegy* 
rics upon this patron ; Prior more particularly, whose ex- 
quisitely-wrought character of him, in the dedication of 
hia poems to his son, the first duke of Dorset, is to this 
da^ admired as a master-piece. He says, <<The brightness 


of his parts/ the solidity of his judgment, and the candour 
and generosity of bis temper, distinguished him in an age' 
of great politeness, and at a court abounding with men of 
the finest sense and learning. The most eminent masters 
in their several ways appealed to bis determination : Wsd« 
ler thought it an honour to consult him in the softness and 
harmony of his verse ; and Dr. Sprat, in the delicacy and 
turn of his prose: Dry den determines by him, under the 
character of Eugenius, as to the laws of dramatic poetry : 
Butler owed it to him, that the court tasted his * Hudibras :* 
Wycberley, that the town liked his * Plain Dealer; and^ 
the late duke of Buckingham deferred to publish his ^Re- 
bearsar till he was sure, as he expressed it, that my lord 
Dorset would not rehearse upon him again. If we wanted 
foreign testimony, La Fontaine and St. Evremond have 
acknowledged that he was a perfect master of the beauty 
and fineness of their language, and of all they call * les 
' belles lettres.' . Nor was this nicety of his judgment con- 
fined only to books and literature: he was the same in 
iftatuary, painting, ^nd other parts of art. Bernini 
tyould have taken his opinion upon the beauty and at-v 
titude of a figure ; and king Charles did not agree with 
Leiy^ that my lady Cleveland's picture was finished, till it 
bad the approbation of my lord Buckhurst." 

'^ He was a man,'- says Dr. Johnson, '< whose elegance 
and judgment' were universally confessed, and whose 
bounty to the learned and witty was generally known. To 
the indulgent affection of the public, lord Rochester bore 
ample testimony in this remark : ' I know not how it is, 
but lord Buckburst may do what he will, yet is never in 
tKe wrong.' If such a man attempted poetry, we cannot 
wonder that his works were praised. Dryden, whom, if 
Prior tells ti:uth, he distinguished by his beneficence, and 
\vho lavished his blandishments on those who are not known 
to have so well deserved them, undertaking to produce 
authors of our own country superior to those of antiquity, 
says, * I would instance your Lordship in satire, and Shak- 
s&peare in tragedy.' Would it be imagined that, of this 
rival to antiquity, all the satires were little personal in- 
vectives, and that his longest composition was a song of 
eleven staii:^as ? The blame, however, of this exaggerated 
praise falls on the encomiast, not upon the author ; whose 
performances are> what they pretend to be, the effusions 
9ff^man of wit; gay, vigorous, and airy* His verses to 


8 A C K V I L L E. ft 

JHoward shew great fertility of miad ; aod bis ^ Dorinda" 
lias been imitated by Pope. ' 

SADEEL (Anthony), one of tbe promoters of the re- 
jformatioD, was born in 1534, at the castle of Cbabot io 
the Maconais, and was descended of a noble and ancient 
family of the Forez. His father dying when he was very 
young, the care of his education devolved on his mother^ 
wbo sent him to Paris, where, he 6rst was initiated in the 
principles of the Protestant religion. These he afterwarda 
became better acquainted with at Tboulouse and Geneva, 
when iotroduced to Calvia and Beza. On the death of aq 
uncle he was, recalled home, and again sent to Paris, in 
£ODsequen<:e of a contest respecting the will of that uncle^ 
wl\o had left considerable property. While here, becom- 
ing more attached to the cause of the reformatron, he was 
induced to study divinity, instead of law, forVhipb he had 
been .originally intended ; and such was his progress and 
tbe promising appearance of his talents and zeal, that at 
the age of twenty, he was invited to preach to the congre- 
gation of the reformed at Paris* Their assembling, how* 
ever, was attended with great danger; and, in 1557, whea 
they met to celebrate the sacrament, about 150 were ap- 
prehended and thrown. into prison, their pastors only es- 
caping. The priests having circulated various scandalous 
reports of this meeting, which the judges found to be 
false, Sadeel was employed by his brethren in draining, 
up a vindication of them. Next year he was himself taken, 
up, and imprisoned, but the king of Navarre, who had 
often been one of his hearers, immediately seat to the 
officers to release him, as beiqg one of his own suite, and 
when they refused, went in person to. the prison, coip- 
plained of the affront, and released Sadeel. Jt not, how- 
ever, being thought safe for him to remain at this crisis in 
Paris, be retired for some time to Orleans, and when the 
danger seemed to be over^ returned again, and drew up 
a Confession of Faith, first proposed in a synod of the re-, 
formed clergy of France, held at Paris, which was pre- 
sented to the king by the famous admiral Coligni. The 
kjng dyii^ soon after, ^nd the .queen and the family oj^. 

* Biog. Brit. — Collins's Peerage by sir E. Bridges*— AUi. Ox* Tol. IL— ^ 
^rk*f editioB Of tbe Hoyal and Noble Avtborg. V 

U I A D E E L, 

Onise renewing with inore fmy than evet i;h# p«r^<^Gutioii 
of the reformed, Sadeel was obliged again lo leave the 
metropolis, which, however, he continued occasionally to 
visit when it could be done without danger. 

In 1562, he presided at a national synod at OrieanSji 
Urnd^ then went to Berne, and finally to' Geneva, where h^ 
was associated with* the ministers of that place, Henry 1V% 
tPho had a great respect for him, gave him an invitation- to 
his court, which, after some hesitation, from his aversioiiL 
to public life, he accepted, and was^ chaplain at the batttlts 
f)f Courtray, and had the charge of a mission to the pro^ 
testant prince^ of Germany ; but unable at length to beat? 
Ihe fatigues of a military life, which be was obliged t6 
]l>ass with his royal benefactor, he retired to Geneva iii 
15S9, and resumed his functions as a preacher, and under<r 
took the professorship of Hebrew until his death, Feb. 23, 
1591. Besides his sermons, which were highly popular 
and persuasive, he aided the cause of reformatiorr by taking 
an active part in the controversies which arose ouft of it, 
and by writingsr of the practical kind. One French bio- 
grapher tells us that Sadeel was an assumed name, but in 
^11 other authorities, welind him called by th^t hatpe only 
with the addition of CHANDi£Us, Which alluded to bis an. 
cestors, who were barons of Chandieu. Accordingly hi* 
works are entitled << Antonii Sadeelis Chapdaei, nobilissi- 
Aii viri, opera thedlogica," Geneva, 1592, folio ; reprinted 
1593, 4^0; and 1599 and 1615, folio. They consist, 
among others, of the following treiitisesf published aepa-^ 
lately, *' De verbo Dei scripto," Gen, 1592. " De vera 
peccatorum remissione^'* ibid. 1591. ** De «nico Christi 
Sfl^^rdotio et sacrificio,^' ibid. 1692. ^< De s[Sirituali et^ 
sacramentali manducatione Corporis Christi ;'^ two trea-^ 
tises, ibid. 1596. " Posnaniensiutn assertionutn refatatio,'^ 
ibid. 1596, ^^ Refutatio libelli Claudii de Sainctes, inti*" 
l^lati, Examen doctrines Calvinianae et BezansB de cceina; 
Dornini,^' ibid. 1592. He wrote also, in Frenebi " His- 
tbire des persecutions et des nnartyrs de Tegtise de Pari$y 
depuis Tan 1557, jusqu^au regne de Charles IX." printed 
at Lyons, in 1563, 8vo, tinder the name of Zamariel, He 
wrote also ^* Metamorphose de Ronsard en prettre," in 
verse, part of a controversy he had with that writer, who in 
his work on the troubles dur'mg the minority of Charles IX, 
bad attributed them to the reformers. His life, ,by Jaihes^ 
Xectius, was prefixed to \x\s works, wd published .sepa^ 

^ A D I. 95 

mdf Hi Geivet^ ih 1595, Sto. Tbe substonQe of it is givea 
in our 6rst authority.' 

SADI, or S A DE£> ai eelebrated Penian po€ft and mo« 
liiisty wa^b'oniin 1175, at Sheeraz, or Schiraz, ' tbe capi« 
tri of Persia, anrd wa9 educated af Damascus, btrt quitted 
Ills country when it was desolated by the Turks, and com-> 
flhefik;ed bis travels, He was afterwards taken prisoner, and 
§otfdefnned to work at the fortifications of TripoK. Wbile 
in this deplorable state, he was redeented by a^merclHint of 
. Aleppo, who had so much i^gard for him as to give him his 
ddu^bter in marriage, with a dowry of one hundred sequins. 
Thik lady, however, beti^ aii intolerable scold, proved the 
plague of his life, and gave him that unfavourable opinion 
of the ^r Which appears occasionally in his works. During 
one of tfaeif altercations she reproached him with tbe fa* 
TOurs-het family bad conferred-*-" Ae not you the man 
ay ftilfcer bought for ten pieces of gold ?'* — •* Yes," an* 
sa^e^ed Sadi, ''and he sold me again for an hundred se«' 
qurtts ?" 

Wt find few other particiilars of bis life, daring which 
h6 appeatis to have been admired for his wise sayings and 
hi^ wit; He is tfaid to have lited an hundred and twenty 
yifeM, that is, to the year 1295, but different dates are 
^ignedy some making hinf born in 1 193, and die in 1^12. 
He composed such a variety of works in prose and verse, 
Arabic and Persian, as to fill two lar^ folio volumes, which 
were printed at Calcutta, in 1795. It was not, botvever, 
metely as a poet, that he acquired fame, but as a phifloso- 
l^r and a moralist. His works are quoted by the Persians 
on the daily and hourly- occurrences of life ; and his tomb, 
a(^oining the city where he was born, is still visited with 
feneration. " Yet,'* says sir WWiam Ouseley, speaking 
of ibis author's works, '< I shall not here suppress that there 
is attriboted to Sadi a short collection of poetical composi«» 
tabns, inculcating lessons of the grossest sensuality ;*' and 
even bis most mot^l work, called *' Gulistan,'' or ^^ Garden 
of Flowers/' is by no means immitculate. Mr. Gladwin 
also, to whom we owe an excellent translation' Of it, pub^^ 
fished at Calcutta, 1806, in 4to, with the Original Persian, 
has been obliged to omit or disguise ^ few passages, which, 
be says, ** although not offensive to th6 coarse ideas of 

I Melchior Adain.«*Freheri Th«atniiiu«*Moreri et Biog. Uak. in art Chan* 

t6 S A D L 

native readers, couM not ppssibly be translated wilbout 
transgressing the bounds of decency.'* 

This work has been idng known in Europe by the edition 
and translation published by the learned Gentius, lender 
the title of '^ Rosarium politicum, sive amoenum sortis hU"« 
mans Theatrum, Persice et Lat.'' Arast. 1651, foi. There * 
was also a French ti^^nslation by P. du Ryer, 1634, Svo, 
and another by d'Alegr^, in 1704, 12 mo, since which the 
abbe Gaudin gave a preferable translation, first in 1789^ 
under the title of ^^,]£ssai historique sur la legislation de la 
Perse,'' and afterwards by the more appropriate titl^ of 
^'Gulistan, ou Tempire des roses," 17i^l, 8vo. The En« 
glish public was in soooe degree made acquainted with this 
work by a publication by Stephen Sullivan, esq. entitled 
** Select Fables from Gnlistan, or the Bed of Ros^i^, trans^ 
lated from the original Persian of Sadi," 1774, 12mo* 
These are chiefly of a political tendency, recommending; 
justice and humanity to princes. Mr. Gladwin's includes 
the whole, and is a valuable contribution to our knowledge 
of Persian manners and morals. Sadi's other works^are en- 
titled << Bostan, or the Garden of Flow^ers," which is in 
verse, and ^^ Molam^t ;" in Arabic, sparks, rays, or spe* 
cimens. We may add, that Olearius published the ^^ Gu- 
listan," in Geripan, wit^ plates, in 1634, fol. under i\xe 
tjtle of *^ Persianischjer Ros^ntbal.'*^ 

SADLER (JoH^), an English writer, descended of a^ 
ancient family in Shropshire, was born in 1615^ and admit* 
ted pensioner of Emanuel college, in .Cambridge, Nov. IS^ 
1.630, where he became eminent for his knowledge in the 
](iebrew and Oriental languages. After having taken his 
degrees ajt.tbe usual periods, that of M. A. in 163.8, in 
which year be Y^^ chosen fellpw qf his college, he removed 
to Lincoln's-Inh ; where he made a considerable progress 
in the study of the law, and was admitted Que of the mas- 
ters in ordinary in the court of chancery, June I, 1 644^ 
and was likewise one of the two masters of requests. In 
1649, he was chosen town -clerk of London, and published 
in tbe same year in 4to, a work with this title, " Rights of 
the Kingdom : or. Customs of our Ancestors, touching the 
duty, power, election, or succession, of our kings and 
partiaments, our true liberty, due allegiance, three estates^ 
their legislative power, original, judicial, and executive, 

* ' • • * 

1 D'Herbelot Bibl. Oriental.— Gladwin's Persian Classics, vol. I.— Waripf 'f^ 
Tour to Sheerez.'— Month. Re?. 1774.— JlriU Crit vol. XXI^ 

6 A D L £ R. . 9T 

with the militia J freely discussed through the British, Saxon, 
Normally laws and histories." It was reprinted in 1682, 
^d has always been valued by lawyers and others. He 
wa$ greatly esteemed by Oliver Cromwell ; who, by a let- 
ter from Cork, of Dec. 1, 1649, offered him the place of 
chief justice of Munster in Ireland, with a salary of 1000/. 
per annum ; but this he excused himself from accepting, 
lo August 1650, he was made master of Magdalen college, 
ID Cambridge, upon the removal of Dr. Rainbow, who 
again succeeded Sadler after the restoration. In 1653, he 
was chosen member of parliament for Cambri^e. In 
1655, by warrant of Cromwell, pursuant to. an ordinance 
for better regulating and limiting the jurisdiction of the 
hi^h court of chancery, he was continued a master in 
chancery, when their number was reduced tb six only. It 
was by his interest, that the Jews obtained the privilege of 
building a synagogue in London. In 1658, he was chosen 
member of parliament for Yarmouth ; and in December of 
the year following, appointed 6rst commissioner, under th# 
gte^Lt seal, with Taylor, Wbitelock, and others, for the^ 
probate of wills. In 1660, he published in 4to, his ^^ Ol- 
bia : The New Island lately discovered. With its religion, 
rites of worship, laws, customs, government, characters, 
and language; with edu<5atiou of their children in their 
sciences, arts, and manufacturet ; with other things re- 
markable ; by a Christian pilgrim driven by tempest from 
Civita Vecchia, or some other parts about Rome, through 
the straights into the Atlantic ocean. The first part." Of 
^fais work, which appears to be a kind of fiction. Dr. John 
Worthington, in a letter to Mr. Samuel Hartlib, dated* 
April 1, 1661, says, *^ Is the second part of Olbia like to 
come out shortly? It is said to treat of the religion, wor- 
ship, laws, ' customs, manner of education, &c. of that 
place. The design promiseth much variety." 

Soon after the restoration, he. lost all his employments, 
by virtue of an act of parliament 13 Caroli II, <^for the 
well-governing and regulating of corporations:" his con- 
science not permitting him to take or subscribe the oath 
and declaration there required, in w^hich it was declared, 
tha)b ^' it was not lawful, upon any pretence whatever, to 
tak^^ afms against the king;" an obedience so absolute, 
^at be thought it not due to any earthly power, though he 
had never engaged, or in .any manner acted, against the 
kteking. Ii> the fire of London, 1666, bis house in Sa?> 


lislmrj^^courty which he birilt at the erpeiis^ of 5000/1 lind 
several other of his houses in London vi^re destroyed ; »nd^ 
soon after, his inaBsion*iioiise in Shropshire had the same 
fate. He was also now deprived of Va»xball on the river 
Thames, and other estates which he had purchased, being 
crown lands, and of a considerable estate in the Fens in 
Bedford Level, without any recompence. These misfor- 
tjunes and several others coining upon him, he retired to 
his manor and seat of Warm^ell in Dorsetshire, which he 
bad obtained with bis wife ; where he lived in a private 
manner,* and died tti April 1674, aged fifty-nine. Thomas 
Sadler, esq. deputy to lord Walpole, clerk of the pells, 
who contributed the above account to the editors of the 
General Dictionary, and Daniel Sadler, chief clerk in the 
Old Annuity office, were his grandsons- Walker says he 
was informed that Mr. Sadler was a very insignificant man, 
and Calamy tells us that a clergyman of the church of Er^ 
gland gave him this character, *' We accounted him, not 
4Dly a general scholar, and an accomplished gentleman, 
but also a person of great piety; though it must be owned 
be was not always right in his kead.*'^ 

SADLER (Sir Ralph), an eminent English* statesman,, 
was born in 1507, at Hackney, in Middlesex. He was 
the son of Henry Sadler, who, though a gentleman by 
birth, and possessed of a fair inheritance, seems to have 
been steward or surveyor to the proprietor of the manor of 
Gillney, near Great Hadham, in Essex. Ralph in early 
life g^iJted a situation in the family of Thomas Cromwell, 
earl of .Essex, and by him was introduced to the notice of 
Henry VHL who took him into his service, hut at whatf 
time is not tery clear. He was employed in the great work 
of dissolving the religious houses, and had bis fuil share of 
the spoil. In 1537, he commenced a long course of diplo« 
matic services, by an embassy to Scotland, whose monarch' 
was then absent in France. The objects of his mission 
were to greet the queen dowager, to strengthen the En* 
glisb interests in the councils of regency which then go- 
verned Scotland, and to discover the probable convequences 
of the iiuimate union of Scotland with Fraiace. Having- 
collected such- information as he could procure on these' 
topics, be returned in the beginning of the following year, 
but went again to Scotland soon after, ostensibly to main* 

1 Gen. Diet. — OaUmy.— Hutchins's Dorsetshire. — Walker's SufferiDg9» art« 
Rainbow. — Cole's MS Athena iu Brit. Mus.— Birch's MSS. in Ayscough's Ca« 



ftm a good correspondence between the two crowns, but 
Maily, asapj^ars from his state-papers, to detach the king 
of Scotland from the councils of cardinal Beaton, who was 
mt the bead of the party most in the interest of France. H^ 
was instrocted also to direct the king's attention to the orer- 
grown possessions of the chcirch as a source of revenue, 
and to persuade him to imitate his uncle Henry Vllfth's 
eonduct to 'the see of Rome, and to make coiifimon cause 
with England against France. In all this, however, he 
appears to have failed, or at least to have left Scotland 
mthout having viaterially succeeded in any part of his 

In the same year, 1540, be lost his patron Cromwell, 
who was beheaded ; but he retained his favour with Henry, 
and in 154 1 was again sent to Scotland, to detach the king 
from the pope and the popish clergy, and to press upon 
him the propriety of a personal meeting with Henry. This 
however the king of Scotland appears to have evaded with 
considerable address, and died the following year of a broken 
heart, in-coaaequeace of hearing of the fatal battle of Sol- 
way. The crown was now left to James V.*s infant daughter 
Mary; and sir Ralph Sadier^s next employment was to lend 
his aid to the match, projected by Henry VIII. between his 
son Edward and the young queen. Bat this ended so un-^ 
successfully, that Sadler was obliged to return to England 
in Oee. 1549, and Henry declared war against Scotland, 
in the niean tine be was so satisfied with Sadler's services, 
ereo in ibis last negociation, that he included him, by the 
title of sir Ralph Sadleyr, knight, among the twelve per- 
sons whom he named as a privy ^council to the sixteen no- 
bles to whom, in his will, he bequeathed the care of his 
sen, and of the kingdom. When this will, was set aside by 
the protector duke of Somerset, and it became necessary 
to. reconcile the feing^s executors and privy-counsdlors, by 
wealth and honours, sir Ralph Sadler received a confirma- 
tion wf alt the churchy-lands formerly assigned to him by 
Henry, with splendid additions. 

When the war with Scotland was renewed, sir Ralph so 
distingvished himself at the battle of Pinkie, that he was 
00 :ihe field raised to the degree of knight banneret; but 
we bear nothing more of him during the reign of Edward 
VL except that in a grant, dated the 4th of that king's 
reign, be is termed master of the great wardrobe* In 
Marj*s reign, although be appears to have been in ber 

*o jS A D L E R, 

favour^ be Retired to his estate at Hackney, atid resigned 
the office of knight of the bamper, which bad been con« 
ferred oc^ him by Henry VIII. On (be accession of £ii^ 
zabetb, he again appeared at court, «vas called to tbe privy 
.council, and retained to bis death a great portion of tbe 
esteem of that princess. He. was a mciniber of her first 
parliament, ,as one of the knights of the shir« for the 
. county of Hertford, and continued to be a representative 
of the people during the greater part^ if not the whole, of 
her reign. When queen Elizabeth thought proper to [9^ 
yom the cause of the reformation in Scotland^ and to sup'* 
port the nobility who were for it against Mary, sir Ralph 
Sadler was her principal agent, and so negotiated as to 
prepare the way for Elizabeth's great influence in the afr 
fairs of Scotland. He was also concerned in tbe sub^ 
sequent measures which led to the death of queen Mary, 
and was appointed her keeper in the castle of Tutbury ; 
but such was Elizabeth's jealousy of this unfortunate prin-^ 
cess, that even Sadler's watchfulness became liable to her 
suspicions, and on one occasion, a very heavy compiaint 
>was made against him, that he had permitted Mary to ac* 
company him to some distance from the castle of Tutbury^ 
to enjoy tb^ sport of hawking* Sir Ralph bad been hither** 
to so subservient to his royal mistress, in all her measures^ 
and perhaps in some which he could not altogether approve^ 
that this complaint gave him great uneasiness and he ans- 
wered it rather by an expostulation than an apology. He 
admitted that he bad sent for his hawks and falconeriS to di^^ 
vert '^ the miserable life" which he passed at Tutbury, and 
that be had been unable to resist the solicitation of the 
prisoner, to permit her to see a sport in which she greatly 
delighted, fiut he adds, that this was under the strictesl 
precautions for security of her person; and he declares 
to the secretary Cecil, that, rather than continue a charge 
.whicli subjected him to such misconstruction, were it not 
more for fear of offending the queen than dread of .the 
punishment, he would abandon his present charge on coa* 
dition of surrendering himself prisoner to the Tower for 
all the days of his life, and concludes that be is so wearjF 
of this lite, that death itself would make him more happjb 
Elizabeth so far complied with his intimation as to com'' 
mit Mary to a new keeper, but she did :not withdraw bet 
ponfidence from sir Ralph in other matterS| and after the 
execution of Mary, employed him to go to the court of 

8 A b L E It. 31 

'lames 'VI. tb dissuade him from entertaining thoughts of a 
war with England on his mother^s account, to which thera 
was reason to think he might have been excited.' In this 
sir Ralph had little difficulty in succeeding, partly from 
James's love of ease, and partly from the prospect he had 
of succeeding peaceably to the throne of England. This 
was the last time sir Ralph Sadler was employed in the 
fiublic service, for soon after his return from Scotland, hb 
died at his lordship of Standon, March 30, 1587, in the 
eightieth year of his age, and was buried in the church df 
Standon, where his monument was decorated with the king 
of Scotland's standard, which he took in the battle of Mus- 
selburgh. He left behind him twenty-two manors, several 
parsonages, and other great portions of land, in the several 
counties of Hertford, Gloucester, Warwick, Buckingham, 
and Worcester. He married Margaret Mitchell, a laundress 
in the family of his first patron, Thomas Cromwell, earl 
of Essex, in the life-time, though in the absence, of her 
husband, Matthew Barr6, a tradesman in London, pre- 
sumed to be dead at that time, aud he afterwards procured 
an act of parliament, 37 Henry VIH. for the legitimatiotf 
of the children by her, who were three sons^ and four 
daughters; Anne, married to sir George Horsey of Digs^ 
well, knight ; Mary, to Thomas Bollys aliter Bowles Wai- 
lington, esq. Jane, to Edward Baesh, of Stanstead, esq. 
(which three gentlemen appear to have been sheriffs of the 
county of Hertford, 14, 18, and 13 Eliz.); and Dorothy, 
to Edward EIryngton of Berstall, in the county of Bucks, 
^q. The sons were, Thomas, Edward, and Henry. Tho- 
mas succeeded to Standon, was sheriff of the county 29 
aud 37 Eliz. was knighted, and entertained king James 
there two nights on his way to Scotland. He had issue, 
Ralph and Gertrude married to Walter the first lord Aston 
of the kingdom of Scotland ; Ralph, his son, dying with- 
out issue^ was succeeded in bis lordship of Standon and 
other estates in the county of Hertford, by Walter, the 
aetond lord Aston, eldest surviving son of his sister Ger-^ 
trude lady Aston. The bnrying-place of the family is in 
the chaocel of the church at Standon. Against the south 
wall is s monument for sir Ralph Sadler, with the effigies 
of jiimself in armour, and of his three sons and four 
daughters, and three inscriptions, in Latin verse, in En- 
glish verse, and in English prose : against the north wall is 
fitaother' for air Thomas^ with the effigies of himself io 

32 B A D L E R. 

armour, his lady, son and d^lughter, i^nd sin epitaph iH £tt-« 
glish prose. 1 here are also several inscriptions for tarioiis 
persons of the Aston family. 

The transactions of sir Ralph Sadler^s inost meypoi'abk? 
embassies are recorded in ^' Letters and NegociatioB^s of 
Sir Ralph Sadler/' &c. printed at Edinburgh, 1720, Syq^ 
from MSS. in the advocates' library ; but a more complete 
collection was recently published of his. '* State papers and 
Letters," from MSS« in the possession of Arthur Clifford^ 
esq. a descendant, 1809, in 2 vols. 4to, with a life by WaU 
ter Scott, esq. to which we are principally indebted for thief 
preceding account. From this valuable and interesting 
publication the character of sir Ralph Sadler will be esti>» 
mated according to the views the reader has been ace us-* 
tomed to take of the measures of die reigjYs in which be 
lived ; and on this account bis character will probably be 
more highly esteemed in England thap in Scotland. That 
be should have preserved the favour of four such discordatit 
sovereigns as Henry, Edward, Mary, aiid Elizabeth, is' 
extraordinary, but not a solitary instance.^ 
. SADELER (John), the first of a family of distinguished 
engravers, the son of a founder and chaser, was boru 
at Brussels in 1550. He applied early in life to drawing 
and engraving, and published some prints at Antwerp^ 
which did him great honour. Encouraged by this success, 
he travelled over Holland that he might work under the 
inspection of the best masters, and found a generous be^ 
nefactor in the duke of Bavaria. He went afterwards into 
Italy3 and presented some of his prints to pope Cleaienl: 
VllJ. but receiving only empty compliments from that 
pontiff, retired to Venice, wher^ be died 1600^ in his fif* 
tieth year, leaving a son named Juste or Justin^* by wbons 
^1^ we have some good prints. Raphael Sadeler, John's 
brother, and pupil, was born in 1555, and distinguished 
himself as an engraver, by the correctness of his drawings 
and the natural expression of his figure^. JJe accompanied 
John to Rome and to Venice, and died in the lajtt^ city* 
Raphael engraved some plates for a work entitled *' de 
opificio mundi,^* 1617, 3vo, which is seldom found per^ 
feet. The works executed by him aod John in conjunction^ 
are, "Solitude, sive'vitae patrum eremicolarum,^' 4to; 
*♦ SylvoB sacrff:," " Trophaeum vitae solitariss ;*' ^' Oraou* 

* Life by Walter Scott, esq. &c.— Brit. Grit. vol. XXXVII. 

S A D E L E It. 33 




liim aitacboreticum," << Solitudo sive vitas feminartim ftna« 
choreticarum ;'' *' Recueil d^Ettampes, d>apres Raphael^ 
Titieo, Carrache,'' &c. amounting to more thto 500 
prinisy in 2 vols. fol. Giles Sadeler was nephew and pupil 
of John and Raphael, but excelled them in correct draw- 
ingi and in the taste and neatness of his engraving. - After 
having remained some time in Italy, he was invited into 
Germany by the emperor Rodolphus II. who settled a pen- 
sbn upon him ; and Matthias and Ferdinand, this emperor*s 
Miccessorss continued also to esteem and honour him. He 
died at Prague in 1629, aged fifty-nine, being born at 
Antwerp in 1570, leaving ^* Vestigi delP antichit^ di Ro- 
ma,'* Rome, 1660, fol. obi. These engravers employed 
their talents chiefly on scripture subjects. Mark Sadeler^ 
related to the three above mentioned, seem^ to have been 
merely the editor of their works.' 

SADO LET (James), a polite and learned Italian, was 
born at Modena in 1477, and was the son of an eminent 
civilian, who, afterwards becoming a professor at Ferrara, 
took him along with him, and educated him with great care. 
He acquired a masterly knowledge in the Latin and Greek 
early, and then applied himself to philosophy and elo- 
queace ; taking Aristotle and Cicero for his guides^ whom 
he. considered as the first masters in these branches. He. 
also cultivated Latin poetry, in which he displayed a very 
high degree of classical purity. Going to Rome under the 
pontificate of Alexander Vh when he was about twenty- 
two, be was taken into the family of cardinal Caraffa, who 
loved men of letters; and, uponrthe death of this cardinal 
in 1511) passed into that of Frederic Fregosa, archbishop 
of Salerno, where he found Peter Bembus, and contracted 
ao intimacy with him. When Leo X. ascended the papal 
throne in 1513, be chose Bembus and Sadolet for his se- 
cretaries; men extremely qualified for the office, ias both 
of them wrote with gredt elegance and facility: and soon 
after made Sadolet bishop of Carpentras, pear Avignon, 
Upon the death of Leo, in 1521, he went to his diocese, 
and resided there during the pontificate of Adrian V I,; • but 
Clement YII. was no sooner seated in the chair, in 1123, 
than lie recalled him ta Rome* S9>dolet submitted to his 
holiness, but on condition that he should return to bis dio- 
cese at the end of three years* Paul IIL who succeeded 

» Slrutr* Dict->Diet. Hiit. ^ 


S4 * A D O L E T. 

.Clement VII. in 1534, called bim to Rome again ; made 
him a cardinal in 1536, and employed him in mieiny impor- 
laat embassies and negociations* Sadolet, at lengthy grown 
^too old to perfonn the duties of bis bishopric, went no 
.more from Rome ; but spent the remainder of bis days 
there in repose and study. He died in 1547, not without 
poison, as some have imagined ; because he corresponded 
too familiarly with the Protestants, and testified much re- 
gard for some of their doctors. It is true, he had written 
in 1539 a Latin letter to the senate and people of Geneva, 
with a view of reducing them to an obedience to the pope; 
add had addressed himself to the Calvinists, with the affec- 
tionate appellation • of *^ Charissimi in Christo Fratres;'* 
but this proceeded entirely from his moderate and peace- 
able temper and courteous. disposition. He was a sincere 
adherent to the Romish church, but without bigotry. The 
liberality of sentiment he displayed in his commentary on 
the epistle pf St. Paul to the Romans incurred the censure 
of the Roman court. 

Sadolet in his younger days was somewhat gay, but re- 
formed bis manners very strictly afterwards, and became 
a man of great virtue and goodness. He was, like other 
scholars of his time» a close imitator of Cicero in his prose 
works, and of Virgil in his poetry. In the best of bis La- 
tin poems, his ^^ Gurtius,** he is allowed to have adorned a 
dignified subject with numbers equally chaste, 'spirited, 
and harmonious. His works consist of epistles, disserta^ 
tions, orations, poems, and commentaries upon some parts 
<>f holy writ. They have been printed oftentimes sepa* 
rately : and were first collected and published together, in 
a large 8vo volume, at Mentz, in 1607 ; but a more com- 
plete and excellent edition was published at Verona, in 
1737, 4 vols. .4to* All. his contemporaries have spoken of 
bim in the highest terms ; Erasmus particularly, who calls 
bim ^^ eximium eetatis suae decus."^ 
. SAEMUND (SiGFUSSOV), a celebrated Icelandic writer, 
was the son of a priest named Sigfus,' and was bom about 
the middle of the eleventh century, between 105a and 
1Q60. He travelled at a very early period into Italy and 
Germany, in order to improve himself in knowledge, and 
for a considerable time his countrymen were not at all aware 
of what had become of him. At length Jonas, the son of 

Tinboschi.— NiotroD, ? oL XXVIII.--«Ftfl8weH*8 Politiaa.— Roseoe't tinot 

S A £ M y N D. 35 

Ogmund, who was afiterwards a bishop, found him at Paris, 
aod carried him back to Iceland.. Here he took the order 
of priesthood, and succeeded his father as priest of Odda.- 
fie also established a school, and contributed with others 
to induce the Icelanders to pay tithes, and took a consi- 
derable part with regard to the formation of the ecclesias- 
tical code of laws. He died in 1 133 or 1 ld5, being about 
^iglity years of age. At the age of seventy he wrote a 
History of Norway, from the time of Harold Haarfager to 
that of Magnus the Good« He is generally allpwed the 
merit of having collected the poetical Edda, by which 
means he preserved these curious and valuable remains of 
the ancient Scandinavian mythology, poetry, and morality, 
from being lost They were printed at Copenhagen, 1787, 
4t0y with a Latin translation, the editors of which, in their 
preface, give a full account of the supposed authors, and 
the claim of Saemund to be considered as the principal 

SAGE (Alain Rene' Le), the first of French novelists, 
was born, according to one of bis biographers, in 1677, at 
Ruys, in Britanny; or, according to another, in 1668, at 
Vannes. At tlie age of twenty-five he came to Paris, with 
a view to study philosophy. His talents, although they 
did not display themselves very early, proved to be equally 
brilliant and solid. He made himself first known by a pa- 
raphrastic translation of the ^' Letters of Aristasnetus," 
which he published in two small volumes* He then travelled 
through Spain, and applied to the study of the Spanish 
language, customs, and writers, from whom he adopted 
plots and fables, and transfused them into his native tongue 
with great facility and success. His works of this kind are, 
** Guzman D'Alfarache ;'* the ** Bachelor of Salamanca;*' 
" Gil Bias;'* "New Adventures of Don Quixote,'* origi- 
nally written by Avellaneda; **-The Devil on two Sticks,** 
as it is called in our translation, in French '< Le Diable boi- 
teux,**.and some others of less note. Of the "Devil on 
two Sticks,** we are told that the first edition had amazing 
success, and the second sold with still greater rapidity. 
Two noblemen coming to the bookseller's, found only one 
lingle copy remaining, which each was for purchasing: 
and the dispute grew so warm, that they were going to 
decide it by the sword, had not the bookseller interposedi 

• Work aboTe inentioft«d,«-5ee Aiulytiatl Itevicw, vol. Il 


it iS A G ic. 

He was also dbtinguisbed for some dramatic pieces, of 
which "Crispin,** and "Turcaret," both comedies, wer* 
the most successful, and' allowed to fall very little short of 
the genius of Moliere. " Turcaret,*' which was first played 
in 1709, has been praised by the French critics, as com- 
prebending a dialogue just and natural, characters drawn 
with peculiar fidelity, and a well-conducted plot He 
composed also many pieces for the comic opera, which, 
if somewhat deficient in invention, were in general sprightly, 
and enriched with borrowed fancies very happily adapted 
to the genius of the French theatre. 

When a favourite with the town, he appears to have pre- 
sumed a little on that circumstance. It was his custom to 
read his plays in certain fashionable circles, before they 
were publicly represented. On one of those occasions, 
when engaged to read a piece at the duchess de Bouil- 
lon's, an unexpected affair detained him until a considera- 
ble time after the appointed hour. The duchess, on his 
entrance, began to reproach him, but with pleasantry, for 
bis having made th^ company lose two hours in waiting for 
him. " If I have made them lose them,^' said Le Sage, 
^^ nothing can be more easy than to recover them. I will 
not read my play,'' and immediately took his leave, nor 
could any invitation induce him to visit the duchess a se- 
cond time. 

He had several children, the eldest of whom was long a 
distinguished actor on the French stage, under the name of 
Montmenil, and amidst all the temptations of a theatrical ' 
life, was a man of irreproachable character. ^ He died sud- 
denly white partaking of the pleasures of the chase, Sept. 
8, 1743, and his death was a loss ^o the public, and parti- 
cularly to his father, who was now grown old, and had 
been poorly rewarded by the age which he contributed so 
often to entertain. He was likewise at this time very deaf^ 
and obliged to have recourse to an ear-trumpet, which he 
used in a manner that bespoke the old humourist. It was 
his practice to take it out of his pocket when he had* reason 
to think that his company was composed of men of genius^ 
but he very gravely replaced it, when he found that thej 
were of an inferior stamp. 

This infirmity, however, depriving him of the pleasure! 
of society, he left Paris for Boulogne-sur-mer, in the ca-. 
ihedral of which one of bis sons held a canonry: and al- 
though of ao adyaQced age, Le Sage left the metropolian ^f 

SAGE. 3^ 

taste, literature, and gaiety, with considerable regret. He 
did not enjoy his retirement long, being cut off by a severe 
illness, Nov. 17, 1747, in his eightieth year. He was in- 
ttrred at Boulogne, with the following epitaph : 

** Sous ce tombeau git Le Sage, abattu 
Par le ciseau de la Parque importune : 
S*il ne fut pas ami de la Fortune, ^ 

II fut toq^ours ami de la Vertu." 

His character is said to have been truly amiable, and his 
conduct strictly moral and correct, free from ambition, and 
one who courted fortune no farther than was necessary to 
enjoy the pleasures and quiet of a literary life. 
' Of all his works, his '* Gil Blas^* is by far the most po- 
pular, and' deservedly ranks very high among the produc- 
tions of historical fancy. It has been, we believe, trans- 
lated into every European language, iind received in all 
nations, as a faithful portrait of human nature. Few books 
have been so frequently quoted, as affording happy illus- 
trations of general manners, and of the common caprices 
and infirmities incident to man. Le Sage, says Dr. Moore, 
proves himself to have been intimately acquainted with 
human nature. And asjthe moral tendency of the character 
of Gil Bias has been sometimes questioned, the same au- 
thor very properly remarks that he never intended that 
character as a model of imitation. His object seems to 
have been to exhibit men as they are, not as they ought to 
be : for this purpose he chooses a youth of no extraordi-* 
nary talents, and without steady principles, open to be 
duped by knavery, and perverted by example. He sends 
him like a spaniel, through the open fields, the coverts, 
the giddy heights, and latent tracts of life,* to raise the 
game at which he wishes to shoot ; and few moral bunts- 
men ever afforded more entertaining sport. 

The popularity of this novel, which equals that of almost 
any of our own most favourite productions, may afford a 
lesson to the writers of fiction, who are ambitious that their 
works may live. Had Le Sage drawn those extravagant 
and distorted characters which are so common in the novels 
published within the last twenty years, he could not have 
expected that they would outlive the novelty of a first pe- 
rusal ; but, depicting nature, and nature only, as he found 
her in men of all ranks apd stations, he knew that what 
would please now would please for ever, and that he was ^ 
speaking a ian|[uage that would be understood in every 


38 SAGE 

spot of- the globe. The artifices of refined and highly po* 
lished society may introduce variations and disguises 
which give an air of novelty, to the actions of men ; but 
original manners and caprices, such as Le Sage has describ- 
ed, will perhaps at all times be acknowledged to be just, 
natural, and faithful, whether we apply the test of self- 
exafpination, or have recourse to the more easy practice of 
remarking the conduct of those with whom we associate.^ 

SAGE (John), a bishop of the old episcopal church of 
Scotland, a man of great learning and worth, and an able 
Controversial writer in defence of the church to which he 
belonged, was born in 1652. He was the son of captain 
Sage, a gentleman of Fifeshire in Scotland, and an officer 
of merit in lord DufFus's regiment, who fought on the side 
'of the royalists when Monk stormed Dundee in 1651. Al- 
' though, like many other royalists, he was scantily rewarded 
for his services, he was able to give his son a liberal edu- 
cation at school, and at the university of St. Andrew's, 
where he tooH his degree of master of arts in 1672. He 
passed some years afterwards as schoolmaster of the pa* 
rishes of Bingry in Fifeshire, and of Tippermoor in Perth- 
shire, and as private tutor to the sons of a gentleman of 
focjtune, whom he attended at school, and accompanied to 
the university of St. Andrew's. Jn 1684, when his pupils 
left him, he removed from St. Andrew's, and when uncer- 
tain what course to pursue, was recommended to archbishop 
Hose, who gave him priest's orders, and advised him to 
officiate at Glasgow. Here be continued to display his 
talents till the revolution in 1638, when the presbyterian 
form of church government was established, and then went 
to Edinburgh. He preached in this city a while, but re- 
fusing to take the oaths of allegiance, was obliged to de- 
sist, and found an asylum in the house of sir William 
Bruce, the sheriff of Kinross, who approved his principles, 
and admired bis virtues. Returning to Edinburgh in 1695^ 
where he appears to have written some defences of the 
church to which he belonged, he was observed, and obliged 
again to retire. At length he found a safe retreat with 
the countess of Caliendar, who employed him as chaplain, 
and tutor to her sons, and afterwards he lived with sir John 
Steuart of GarntuUy as chaplain, until Jan. 25, 1705, when 

1 Diet Hist — Moore's Life of Smollett.— Blair's Lectares,— BeaUie's Disser* 
tatiODS, p. 570. 

SAGE. 89 

be was consecrated a. bishop. In the folio wing year his. 
health began to decay, and after trying the waters of Bath, 
in 1709, and change of air in other places, without much 
benefit, he died at Edinburgh June 7, 1711. 

Bishop Sage was a man profoundly skilled in all the an- 
cient languages, which gate him an eminent advantage 
over his adTersaries, the most distinguished of whom was 
Mr. Gilbert Rule, principal of the college of Edinburgh, 
who, with mneh zeal^ and no mean abilities, was over- 
matched by the superior learning and historical knowledge 
of his antagonist. Sage wrote the second and third letters^ 
concerning the persecution of the episcopal clergy in Scot* 
land, which were printed at London, in 1689, the rev.- 
Thomas Merer having written the first, and professor 
Monro the fourth'. 2. ** An account of the late establish" 
ment of Presbyterian Government by the parliament of 
Scotland in 1690,'* Lond. 1693. 3. '< The fundamental 
charter of Presbytery,'\ibid. 1695. 4. "The principles of 
the Cyprianic age — with regard to episcopal power and 
jurisdiction," ibid. 1695. 5. "A Vindication** of the pre-' 
ceding, ibid. 1701. 6. ^VSome remarks on a Letter from 
a gentleman in the city, to a minister in the country, on 
Mr. David Williamson's sermon before, the General As- 
sembly,'* Edin. 1703. 7. ^^A brief ' examination of some 
things in Mr. Meldrum's sermon, preached May 16, 1705, 
against a toleration to those of the episcopal persuasion," 
ibid. 1703. 8. << The reasonableness of a * toleration of 
those of the Episcopal persuasion inquired into purely on 
chnreh principles,'* ibid. 1704; 9. ^'The Life of Gawin 
Douglas," bishop of Dunkeld, prefixed to Ituddiman*s edi- 
tion of ^* Douglas's Virgil,** 1710. 10. '^ An Introduction to 
Drummond's History of the Five James*s,** Edio. 1711, with 
notes by Ruddiman, who always spoke highly of Sage as 
a scholar and companion.^ 

SAGITTARIUS (Gaspar), an eminent Lutheran divine, 
historian to the duke of Saxony, and prpfessor of history 
at Halley was bom Sept. 23, 1643, at Lunenburg. He stu« 
died in, or visited the greatest part of the German univer- 
sities, where he was much esteemed for his extensive know« 
ledge of history and antiquities. He died March 9, 1694, 

* Life of Sage, anoninaouSy but written by. Mr. Jobn Gillan, a bishop of the 
same churchy Lond. 1714, 8vo.— Chalmers's Life of Raddiman, p. 54.— Tytler*! 
Life of Kaimes.— Gillan's Life of Sage is scaree ^ but an ample abridgment may 
be Men in the Encyclopedia Britannica. 



leaving nearly TO yolumes of dissertationsi principally en 
historical subjects ; on oracles ; on the gates of the an- 
cients; ^^Tfae succession of the Princes of Orange/' 4to; 
** History of the City of Herderwich ;" a life of St Norbert, 
1683 ; ^^Tractatus varii de historia legenda/' 4to ; ** His- 
toria antiqua Noribergse/' 4to; '^ Origin of the Dukes of 
Brunswick ;" " History of Lubec ;" " Antiquities of the 
kingdom of Thuringia ;*' " History of the Marquises and 
Electors of Brandenburg/' and many others, enumerated by 
Niceron. His life was written by Schmid, and published 
in 1713, 8vo.' 
SAINCTES (Claudius de), in Latin Sanctesius, was 

. born in 1525, at Perche. He entered as a regular canon 
in the abbey de St. Cheron, nea^ Chartres ; at the age of 
fifteen was admitted doctor of the Sorbonne, 1555, and re^ 
sided afterwards in the house of cardinal de LoiYaine, who 
employed him at the conference of Poissy, in 1561, and 
persuaded king. Charles IX. to send him to the council of 
Trent, with eleven other doctors. In 1566 De Sainctes, 
with Simon Vigor, afterwards archbishop of Narbonne, dis- 
puted against two protestant ministers, at the house of the 
duke de Nevers, and published the records of this con- 
ference two years after, and had also a controversy with 
Sadeel, as we have recently noticed in his article. He 
became so celebrated for his writings, sermons, and zeal 
against the protestants, as to be promoted to the bishopric 
of Evreux in 1575. The following year he attended the 
states of Blois, and in 1581, the council of Rouen; but 
having afterwards joined the most violent among the 
Leaguers^ was seized at Louviers by Henry IVth^s party, 
who found a writing among his papers, in which he pre- 
tended to justify the assassination of Henry III. and de- 
clared that the present king deserved the same treatment. 
Being carried as a prisoner to Caen, he would there have 
received the punishment due to his attempt, had. not car- 
dinal de Bourbon, and some other prelates, interceded that 
his punishment should be perpetual imprisonment. He 
vas accordingly confined in the castle de Crevecoeur, in 
the diocese 4f LisieUx, where he died in 1591. De Sainctea 
left many learned works, the largest and most scarce among 

' which is a " Treatise on the Eucharist,^' in Latin, folio, au 
edition of St. James's, St. Basil's, and St. Chrysostom^s 

1 NioeroDy toI. IV.— Mortrl— Diet* Hitt. 



Liturgies," Antwerp, 1560, 8vo, afterwards reprinted, 
bat this is the only edition that is valued.' 


ST. AMAND (James), a classical scholar and critic, was 
probably the descendant of a French family^ but we find no 
mentbn of him in any French biographical work, and are 
unable to say much of his early history. In 1705, he was 
a student at Lincoln college, Oxford, but made no long 
stay there. His passion for Greek literature, but particu* 
lariy for acquiring materials towards a new edition of Theo» 
critus, led him to Italy, where, though yoi:^ng, for he was 
scarce twenty, he obtained a distinguished reputation for 
learning, and became acquainted with men of the first 
erudition, among whom were Gravina, Fontanini, and 
others. By their acquaintance he was easily introduced 
into the best libraries ; and at Florence in particular, he 
was favoured with the friendship of the learned professor 
Salvini, who furnished him with several materials relating 
to Theocritus from the Laurentian library and St. Mary's 
monastery of Benedictines. The patronage and friendship 
of Mr. Newton too, the English ambassador at the grand 
duke's court, were of signal service to him. After spend- 
ing some time with these and other learned men, in a mu-- 
tual exchange of literary treasures and observations, he 
returned to England by way of Geneva and Paris, and died, 
not about 1750, as Mr. Warton says, but Sept. 5, 1754, at 
his house in Red-lion-square, leaving the valuable collec- 
tion of books and MSS. he had made abroad to the Bodleian 
library, and the duplicates of his books to Lincoln college. 
Of the MSS. Mr. Warton availed himself in his edition 
of Theocritus. Mr. St. Amand left also 8006/. to Christ's 
hospital^ and other legacies, which shew that he was a man 
of considerable opulence.* 

ST« AM ANT (Mark-Anthony- Gerard, sieur de), a 
French poet, was born at Roan in Normandy in 1594. In 
the epistle dedicatory to the third part of his works, he tells 
us, that his father commanded a squadron of ships in the 
service of Elizabeth queen of England for twenty-two' 
years, and that he was for three yeass prisoner in the Black 
Tower at Constantinople. He mentions also, that two 
brothers of , bis had been killed in an engagement against 

1 Gen. Diet. art. Sabctesiut.— Moreri. 

• Warton's Preface to bii Tbeocritas.— Gent, Mag. Tol. XXIV.— Wood*t Col« 
Icf 61 and Ball8» and Annali* 


42 ST. A M A N T. 

the Tiirks. His own life was spent in a continual succes- 
sion of travels, which were of no advaiftage to his fortune. 
There are miscellaneous poems of this author, the greatest 
part of which are of the comic or burlesque, and the ama- 
tory kind. The first volume was printed at Paris in 1627, 
the second in 1643, and the third in 1649, and they bare 
been reprinted several times. " Solitude, an ode," which 
is one of the first of them, is his best piece in the opinion 
of Mr. Boileau. In 1650 he published <^ Stances sur la 
grossesse de la reine de Pologne et de Suede.'* In 1654 
he printed his ^< Moise sauv6, idylle heroique," Leyden ; 
which had at first many admirers: Chapelain called it a 
"speaking picture ; but it has not preserved its reputation. 
St. Amant wrote also a very devout piece, entitled " Stances 
it M. Corneilie, sur son imitation de Jesus Christ,^' Paris, 
1656. Mr. Brossette says that he wrote also a poem upon 
the moon, in which he introduced a compliment to Lewis 
XIV. upon his skill in swimming, an amusement he often 
took when young in the river Seine ; but the king's dislike 
to this poem is said to have affected the author to such a 
degree, that he did not survive it long. He died in 1661, 
aged sixty-seven. He was admitted a member of the 
French academy, when first founded by cardinal Bichelieu, 
in 1633; and Mr. Pelisson informs us, that, in 1637, at 
his own desire, he was excused from the obligation of 
making a speech in his turn, on condition that he would 
compile the comic part of the dictionary which the academy 
had undertaken, and collect the burlesque terms. This 
was a task well suited to him ; for it appears by his writings 
that he was extremely conversant in these terms, of which 
he seems to have made a complete collection from the 
markets and other places where the lower people resort.^ 

ST. AMOUR (William de), doctor of the Sorbonne, 
and one of the greatest ornaments of Christianity which 
appeared in the Romish communion in the thirteenth cen- 
tury, had his name from St Amour in Franche Compt6, 
where he was born about the, commencement of that cen- 
tury. The zeal which he showed against the new institu- 
tion of mendicant friars, both in his sen^pns, and as theo- 
logical professor, induced the university of Paris to make 
choice of him to defend their interests against the Domini- 
cans and Franciscans, who wished to engross the power and 

1 Gen. Diet*— -Aforeri. 

ST. A M O U »• 43 

influence of tbe unirersity to themselves. In 1255, the de- 
bate was brought before the pope Alexander IV. who^-with 
intolerable arrogance, ordered the university not only to 
restore the Dominicans to their former station, but also to 
grant them as many professorships as they should require. 
The magistrates of Paris, at first, were disposed to protect 
the university ; but the terror of the papal edicts reduced 
them at length to silence; and not only the Dominicans, 
but also the Franciscans, assumed whatever power they 
pleased in that famous seminary, and knew no other restric- 
tions than what the pope imposed upon them. St. Amour, 
however^ wrote several treatises against the mendicant or- 
ders, and particularly, in 1255, or 1256, his famous book, 
*^ Perils des derniers temps," concerning the ^^ perils of 
the latter days," in which he maintained that St. Paul's 
prophecy of the latter times (2 Tim. iii. 1.) was fulfilling in 
the abominations of the friars, and laid down thirty-nine 
marks of false teachers. 

Some years before the pope had decided in favour of the 
mendicants, a fanatical book under the title of' an *' Intro- 
duction to the Everlasting Gospel" was published by a 
Franciscan^ who exalted St. Francis above Jesus Christ, 
and arrogated to his order the glory of reforming mankind 
by a new gospel. The universal ferment, excited by thrs 
impious book, obliged Alexander IV. to suppress it, but he 
ordered it to be burnt in secret, being willing to spare the 
reputation of the mendicants. The university of Paris, 
however, insisted upon a public condemnation of the book ; 
and Alexander, great as he was in power, was obliged to 
submit. He then took revenge by condemning St. Amour*s 
work to be burnt, and the author to be banished from 
France. St. Amour retired to his native place, and was 
Hot permitted to return to Paris until the pontificate of Cle- 
ment IV. He died at Paris in 1272* His works were pub- 
lished there in T632, 4to. He was a man of learning and 
correct manners, of great zeal, and, in the opinion of a 
late writer, wanted only a more favourable soil, in which 
he might bring to maturity the fruits of those protestant 
principles, the seeds of which he nourished in bis breast.^ 

SAINT-ANDRE' (NathaNAEL), an anatomist, well 
known in this country on account of the imposture of the 

> Biog. Uttiv. art. Amoar*— Milaer't Eccl. Hist. toI. IV. p. 20.— Dapin.— 

*4 S A 1 N T - A N D R E'. 

RabbiUwoman^ and for various eccentricities of conduct, 
was a native of Switzerland, but, on coming over to Eng- 
land, was placed by some friends under a surgeon of emi- 
nence, in which profession be became skilful. , He, for a 
time, read public lectures on anatomy, and obtained con* 
siderable reputation ; which was ruined by the part he took 
in the affair of Mary Tofts, as well as by many other irre^* 
gularities of character. He died in 1776, after having 
been for many, years the subject of more curiosity and con- 
versation than any of his contemporaries, though without 
eny extraordinary-talents, or claims to distinction. They 
'who are curious to know more of his character may have 
their curiosity gratified in the ^^ Ane'cdotes of HogarthV by 


ST. GERMAN, or SEINTGERMAN (Christopher), 
90 English lawyer and law-writer of the sixkeenthcentury^ 
is supposed to have been born at Skilton, near Coventry, 
ia Warwickshire, and educated for some time at Oxford, 

' whence he removed to the Inner Temple for the study of the 
law. After being admitted to the bar, he became'an emi- 
nent counsellor, and we should suppose a very popular one, 
as he frequently refused or returned his fees. What he 

" go^ by honourable practice and #ome paternal estate, he 
expended in the purchase of books, and gathered a very 
fine library, which was all the property he left to his heirs. 
Besides his legal knowledge, be was conversant in philo- 
sophy and the divinity of tb^ times, and jirrote on tlie. latter 
subject with so much freedom as to render his sentiments 
suspected, for which reason Bale has given him a very adi* 
vaQtageous character. He is jcommended too for bis pietjr, 
ivnd pious ordering of his family, to whom he xead .every' 
night a chapter in the Bible, and expounded it. He died 
Sept. 28, 1540, and npt 1539, as Bale states. He was 

^ buried in the church. of St. Alphage,. within Cripplegate, 
London. It appears by his will that be was a considerable 
l^enefactor to Skilton church, where bis father sir Henry 
St. German, knt. and his mother lie buried, and to that of 

. Laleford. St. German has immortalized his name by his 
valuable and well-known work, which bears the title of 
^VThe Doctor and Student, or Dialogues between. a. doctor 
•f divinity, and a student in the laws of England, concern- 


I Nichols's Hogarth. 


log the grounds of those liws,** first printed by Rastell, in 
Latin, 1523, 12mo, and reprinted in 1528. ]i|r* Bridgoian 
eouoierates above twenty editions which followed, the last 
in 1787, 8vo,' with questions and cases concerning the 
equity of the law, qorret.ted and improved by Wiiliam 
Muchall^ or MiirchaU. On the subject of this celebrated 
work, A^.iiargrave (in his Law Tract8j52 1), has published 
•from a 'MS. in the Cotton library, *^ A Replication of a 
Seijftante at the Laws of England, to certayne pointes al- 
leaged by a student of the said lawes of England, in a Dia*- 
logue in Englishe, between a doctor of divinity and the 
said student ;" and a little ^* Treatise concerning writs of 
Subpoena.'' Two other tracts are attributed by Ames to 
.St German, though they bear the name of Thomas God- 
frey, viz. ^^ A Treatise concerning the power of the Clergy 
and of the lawes of the Realme,'* 12mo, no date ; and ^* A 
Treatise concernynge divers of the Constitucyons provya- 
cyall and legantines,'' 12mo, no date. Tanner attributes 
to him ^< A Treatise concerning the division between the 
.Spiritualitie and the Temporaltie," printed by Redman 
without date ;. and this seems to be the same work as ** The 
•PacyfyeV of the division between the Spiritualitie and Tem« 
poraltie,'V printed by . Berthelet, which being remarkable 
for impartiality and temperate language, was pointed out 
to sir Thomas More^ as an example for him to follow in 
his controversial writings. This incited sir Thomas to pub* 
lish <^ Ao Apology e made by him, anno 1533, after he had 
gevin over th'.'office of lord chancellor of Englande,'' print- 
ed by Rastell, 1 5 3 3, ' 1 2 mo. St. German was also proliibly 
the author of ^* Newe addicions treating most specially, of 
the power of .the Parlyament concernynge the Spiritualitie 
and the Spiritual Jurisdiction,'' 1531, 12mo, now reprinted 
in all the modern;, editions of the ** Doctor and Student.'^ 
He had a. controversy with sir Thomas More, which pro- 
duced ^^ Salem and 6i:Saucej being a dialogue between two 
Englishmen, one called Salem, and llie other Bizance,*' 
1533, 8vo. This wa^ written in answer to More's ^^ Apo- 
logye" above mentioned ; and sir Thomas replied in the 
'^Debellation of Salem and Bisance," by Rastell, in 153S(« 

SAINT-JOHN (Henry), lord viscount Bolingbroke, au 
Eminent statesman atid writer^ >yas descended from an 

^ T^if^.-T'Bale.— Ath. Ox. vol. I.-'Bridsman's Legal Bibliography. 

W S A IN T- J OH N; 

ancient and noble family, and born, as all his biographers 
say, in 16]g, but it appears by the register of Battersea 
parish that he was baptised Oct. 10, 1678. Hisfather, sir 
Henry St. John, son of sir Waiter St. John, died at Bat- 
tersea, his family-seat, July 3, 1708, in his eighty-seventh 
year : his mother was lady Mary, second daughter and co- 
heiress of Robert Rich, earl of Warwick. He was bred 
up, with great care, under the inspection of bis grand- 
father, as well as his father, who neglected no means to 
cultivate bis mipd. It was once noticed in parliament that 
he was educated in dissenting principles, and it is very 
certain that the first director of his studies was the famous 
I>aniel Burgess, who, with all his oddities (See BuROESS) 
was frequently employed s^ tutor tct the sons of men of 
rank. Goldsmith seems desirous to impute Bolingbroke^s 
infidelity to this divine, and to his being obliged to read 
Manton's Sermons on the 1 19th Psalm ; but such an opi- 
nion is as dangerous as it is absurd. From Bui^ss or 
Manton, he could have imbibed owiy a higher reverence 
for religion than was to be expected from a lively youth ; 
end as to the disgust he felt, to which his biographer 
seems inclined to trace his infidelity, it is probable that a 
boy would not have entertained much less dislike to a vo*' 
luminous history of England, if pbliged to read it when he 
wished to be idle. But, whatever instruction he might re- 
ceive from his first tutors, it is very certain, that he had |i 
regular and liberal education. He was sent to Eton, 
where he had for his companion and rival sit* Robert Wal- 
poldb " The parts of Mr. St. John,*' says Coxe, *• w^re 
more lively and brilliant, those of Walpole'more steady 
and solid. Walpole was industrious and diligent, because 
his talents required, application ; St. John was negligent, 
because >his quickness of apprehension rendered labour 
less necessary.'* These characteristics prevailed in both 
throughout life. From £ton Mr. St. John was removed to 
ChrisJ^churcb, Oxford, where he made a shining figure<aa 
a polite scholar, and when he left the university, he was 
considered las a youth highly accomplished for public life. 
His person was agreeable, and he had a dignity mixed with 
sweetness in his looks, and a manner very prepossessing, 
and, as some of his contemporaries said, irresistible* He 
bad much acuteness, great judgment, and a prodigious 
memory. Whatever he read he retained so as to make 
it entirely hi3 own ^ but in youth, he was not in general 

S A I N T . J O H N. 47 

much given either to reading or reflection. With great 
parts, be had, as it usually happens, great -passions; 
which hurried him into those indiscretions and follies that 
distinguish the libertine. He does not, however, appear 
to have been without his serious moments, nor always un- 
willing to listen to the voice of conscience. ^' There has 
been something always," says he, ^^ ready to whisper in 
my ear, while I ran the course of pleasure and of business^ 
f Solve senescentem mature sanas equum;* ^ and while 'tis 
well, release thy aged horse.* But my genius, unlike the 
demon of Socrates, whispered so softly, that very often I 
heard him not, in the hurry of those passions with which I 
was transported. Some calmer hours there were ; in them 
I hearkened to him. Reflection had often its turn ; and 
the love of study and 'the desire of knowledge have never 
quite abandt>ned me« I am not, therefore^ entirely unpre- 
pared for the life I will lead ; and it is not without reason 
that I promise myself more satisfaction in the latter part of 
it than I ever knew in the former.** 

As these youthful extravagances involved him in discre- 
dit, bis parents were very desirous to reclaim bim. With 
this view, when in his twenty-second year, they married 
him toi the daughter and coheire;ss of sir Henry Winche- 
pomb of Bucklebury, in the county of Berks, hart.; and 
upon this marriage a large settlement was made, which 
proved very serviceable to him in his old age, though a 
great part of what his lady brought was taken from him, in 
consequence of his attainder. The union in other respects 
was not much to his liking. . The same year he was elected 
for the borough of Wotton^Basset, and sat in the fifth 
pariiament of king William, which met Feb. 10, 1700; 
and in which Robert Harley, esq. afterwarda earl of Ox- 
ford, was chosen for the first time speaker. Of this short 
pariiament, which ended June 24^ 1701, the business waa 
the impeachment of the king's ministers, who wer^^ con- 
cerned in the conclusion of the two partition-treaties ; and^ 
Mr. St. John siding with the majority, who were then con- 
sidered as tories, ought to be looked upon a» commencing 
his politicid career in that character. He sat also in the 
next, which was the last parliament in the reign of William, 
and the first in that of Anne. He was charged, sfo early 
as 1710, with having voted this year against the succes- 
sion in the House bf Hanover ; but this he has peremp- 
tiprily. denied^ becfiuse in 1701 a bill wa» brought into par- 


Jiament, by sir Charles Hedges and himself^ entitled ** A 
Bill for tte farther security of bis majesty's person, and 
the succession of the crown in the Protestant line, and 
extinguishing the hopes of the pretended prince of Wale?, 
«nd all other pretenders, and their open and secret abet*- 
•tors." In July 1702,' upon the dissolution of the second 
parliament, the queen making a tour from Windsor to 
Bath, by way of Oxford, Mr. St. John attended her; and, 
at that university, with several persons of the highest dis- 
tinction, had the degree of doctor of laws conferred upon 

Persevering steadily in the same tory-connections, to 
which he adhered against the whig principles of his faniily, 
.his fathe^ and grandfather being both of that party, be 
gained such au influence in the house, that on April 10^ 
1704, be was appointed secretary pf war, and of the ma- 
rines. As this post required a constant correspondency 
with the duke of Marlborough, it appears to have been the 
principal foundation of the rumours raised many ye^ra 
after, that he was in a particular manner attached to the 
duke. It is certain, that he knew his worth, and was a 
Mncere admirer of him ; but he always denied apy particu* 
lar connection ; nor was he ever charged by the duke or 
duchess with ingratitude or breach of engagement to them; 
In all political measures, Mr. St. John acted with Mr. 
Harley : and, therefore, when this minister was removed 
from the seals in 1 707, Mr. St. John chose to follow his for- 
tune, and the next day resigned his place. He was not 
returned in the subsequent parliament ; but, upon the dis-^ 
solution of it in 1710, Harley being made chancellor and 
under^treasurei^ of the Exchequer, the post of secretary of 
state was given to St. John. About the same time he wrote 
the famous *^ Letter to the Examiner,^ to be found among 
the first of those papers : it was then universally ascribed 
to him, and gave no inconsiderable proofs of his abilities 
as a writer ; for in this single short paper are comprehended 
the outlines of that design on which Swift employed him- 
self for near a twelvemonth. 

Upon the calling of a new parliament in November, he 
was chosen knight of the shire for the county of Berks^ 
and also burgess for Wotton-Basset; but made bis election- 
for the former. He appeared now upon a scene of action^' 
which called forth all his abilities. He sustained almost 
tbe whole-weight of the business of the peace of Utrecht, 

S A I NT- J O H N. 49 

which bovtfwer he vras not supposed to negotiate to the 
adiracitage of his country: and therefore bad an ample 
abare of the censure bestowed on that treaty ever since. 
The real^ state of the case is, that '^ the two parties/' as 
be bioiseif owns, ** were become factions in tbe strict sense . 
of the word." He was of that which prevailed for peace, 
againsv those who delighted in war ; for this was the Ian-* 
guage of the times : and, a peace being resolved on by the 
English ministers at all risk^, it is no wonder if it was made 
with less advantage to the nation. He owns this, yet justi^ 
fies the peace in general : '< Though it was a duty,'* saya 
he, '* that we owed to our country, to deliver her from the 
necessity of bearing any longer so uneqtol a part in so 
unneoessary a war, yet was there some degree of merit in 
performing it, I think so strongly in this manner, I am 
so incorrigible, that, if I could be placed in tlie same cir<» 
camstances again, I would take the same resolution, and 
act the same part. Age and experience might enable me 
to act with more abili^and greater skill; but all I have 
suffered sipce the death of the queen should not hinder me 
froin acting. Notwithstanding this, I shall not be surprised 
if you think that the peace of Utrecht was not answerable' 
to the success of the war, nor to the e({brts made in it. I 
think so myself; and Have always owned, even when it 
was making and made, that I thottght so. Since we had 
committed a successinl folly, we ought to have reaped 
more advantage from it than we did." 

In July 1712, be was created baron St. John of Lediard* 
Tregoze in Wiltshire, and viscount Bolingbroke ; and was 
also, the same year, appointed lord-lieutenant of tbe county 
of Essex. Biii^ these honours not coming up to the mea- 
sure of his mtibitionl, he meditated supplanting Harley, 
now earl of Oxford, who had ofiended' him, even in the 
matter of tbe peerage. Paulet St. John, the last earl of 
Bolingbroke, died the 5th of October preceding his crea-- 
tion ; and the earldon^ became extinct by bis decease, add 
this honour had been proudised to him; but, bis presence 
in the House of Cottkmons being so necesf^a^y at that tiine^ 
Barley prevailed upon him to remain there daring that 
session; with an assurance, that bis rank should be pre-^ 
served for him. But, whe» be expected t heboid title should' 
have been renewed in his favour, be received only that of 
viscount; which he resented as an intended alfr^nt on the 
part of Harley, who had got an earldom for himself. " I 

Vol. XXVII. E 

50 S A I N T - J O H N; 

eontinuecl>*' says Bolingblroke, <^ in the House of Com*' 
mons during that important session which preceded the 
peace; and which, by the spirit shewn through the whole 
course of it, and by the resolutions taken in it, rendered 
the conclusion of the treaties practicable. After this, I 
was dragged into the House of Lc^rds in such a manner as 
to make my promotipn a punishment, not a reward*; and 
was there left to defend the treaties alone. It would not 
have been hard," continues he, *^ to have forced the earl 
of Oxford to use me better. His good intentions began to 
be very much doubted of: the truth is, no opinion of his 
sincerity had ever taken root in the party; and, which 
was worse for a man in his stiation, the opinion of his 
capacity began to fall apace. 1 began in my heart to re- 
nounce the friendship which, till that time, I had preserved 
inviolable for Oxford. I was not aware of all his treachery, 
nor of the base and little' means which he employed then, 
' and continued to employ afterwards, to ruin me in the 
opinion of the queen, and every where else. I saw, how- 
ever, that he bad no friendship for any body; and that, with 
respect to me, instead of having the ability to render that 
merit, which I endeavoured to acquire, an addition of 
strength to himself, it became the object of his jealousy, 
and a reason for undermining me.'^ There was also ano- 
ther transaction, .which passed not long after lord Boling- 
broke^s being laised to the peerage, SLud which aggravated 
bis animosity to that minister. In a few weeks after his 
return from France, her majesty bestowed the vacant rib- 
bons of the order of the garter upon the dukes Hamilton, 
Beaufort, and Kent, and the earls Powlet, Oxford, and 
Strafford. Bolingbroke thought himself here again ijl 
used, having an ambiuon, as the minister Well knewy to 
receive such an instance as this was of his mistress's grace 
and favour. Indignant at all these circunxstances, we are 
told that Bolingbroke, when the treasurer's staff was taken 
from Oxford, expressed his joy by entertaining that very 
day, July 7, 1714, at dinner, the general Stanhope, Ca- 
dogan, and Palmer, sir William Wyndham, Mr. Craggs, 
and other gentlemen. Oxford said upon his going out, 
that *^ some of them would smart for it ;'' and Bolingbroke 
was far from being insensible of the danger to which he 
stood eicposed ; yet he was not without hopes still of se- 
curing himself, by making his court to the whigs ; audit 
is certain, that a little before. this he had proposed to bring 


in a bill to the House of Lords, to make it treason to' enlist 
soldiers for the Pretender, which was passed into an act. 

Soon^ however, after the accession of king George L in 
1714, the seals were taken from him, and all the papers 
in his office securedi During the short session of parlia- 
ment at this juncture, he applied himself with his usual 
industry and vigour to keep up the spirits of the friends to 
the late administration, without omitting* any proper occa- 
sion of testifying his reapect and duty to his majesty, by 
assisting in settling the civil list, and other necessary 
points. But, when after the meeting of the new parlia- 
ment, his danger became more imminent, be withdrew 
privately to France^ in March 1715. It is said, by the 
continuator of Rapines history, that bis heart began to fail 
him as soon as he heard that Prior was landed at Dover, 
and had promised to reveal all he knew. Accordingly that 
evening his lordship^ who had the night before iappeared 
at the play-^house in Drury-lane, and bespoke another play 
for the next night, and subscribed to a new opera that was 
to be acted some time after, .went off to Dover in disguise, 
as a servant to Le Vigne/one of the French king's messen-^ 
gers. His lordship, however/ al\^ays affirmed that he took 
this step upon certain and repeated informations, that a 
resolution was taken, by tbe men in power, not only to 
prosecute, but to pursue him to the scaffold. 

Upon his arrival at Paris^ he received an invitation from 
the Pretender, then at Barr, to engage in his service : 
which he at first absolutely refused, and thought it wiser 
to make tbe best application, that his present circumstances 
would admit, to prevent the progress of his prosecution in 
England. While this was in doubt, he retired into Dau^ 
phio£, where he continued till the beginning of July ; and 
then, upon receiving unfavourable news from some oif his 
party in England, he complied with a second invitation 
from tbe Pretender; and, taking the seals of tbe secretary's 
office at Commercy, set out with them |br Paris, and ar» 
rived thither the latter end of the same month, in order to 
procure from that court tbe necessary succours for his new 
master^s intended invasion of England. The vote for im- 
peaching him of . high treason bad passed in the House 6i 
Commons .the June preceding;' and six articles were 
brought into the house, and read by VV^alpole^ August 4^ 
1715, which were in substance as follows: 1. ^^ That 
whereas he had assured the ministers oC tfa^Stat^s General, 

52 S A I N T - J O H N. 

by order from her majesty in 1711) that she would make 
no peace but in concert with them ; yet be sent Mr. Prior 
to France, that same year, with proposals for a treaty of 
peace with that monarch, without the consent of the allies.'' 
2. ** That he advised and promoted the making of a sepa- 
rate treaty or convention, with France, which was signed 
in September/' 3. ** That he disclosed to M. Mesnager, 
the French minister at London, this convention, which was ' 
the preliminary instruction to her majesty's plenipotenti' 
aries at Utrecht, in October." 4. ^^ That her majesty's 
final instructions to her said plenipotentiaries were disclosed 
by him to the abbot Gualtier, an emissary of France." 5. 
** That he disclosed to the French the manner how Tour* 
nay in Flanders might be gained by them." 6. ^< That be 
advised and promoted the yielding up of Spain and the 
West-Indies to the duke of Anjou, then an enemy to her 
majesty." These articles were sent up to the Lords in 
August; in consequence of which, he stood attainted of 
high-treason, September the 10th of the same year. 

In the mean time, his new engagements with the Pre* 
tender were so unsuccessful as to bring on him a similar 
disgrace; for the year 1715 was scarcely expired, when 
the seals and papers of his new secretary's office were de« 
manded, and given up ; and this was soon followed by an 
accusation branched into seven articles, in which be was 
impeached of treachery, incapacity, and neglect. Thus 
discarded, he turned his thoughts once more to a reconci* 
liation with his country, and in a short time, by that cha- 
racteristic activity with which he prosecuted all his designs, 
he procured, through the mediation of the earl of Stair, 
then the British ambassador at the French court, a promise 
of pardon, upon certain conditions, from the king, who, 
in July 1716, created his father baron of Battersea and vis* 
count St. John. In the mean time these vicissitudes had 
thrown Jiim into a state of reflection ; and this produced, 
by way of relief, a <^ Consolatio Philosophica," which he 
wrote the same year, under the title of *^ Reflections upon 
Exile." In this piece he has drawn the picture of his own 
exile ; which, being represented as a violence, proceeding 
solely from the malice of his persecutors, to one who had 
served his country with ability and integrity, is by the 
magic of his p^n converted not only into a tolerable, but 
what appears tb be an honourable, station. He bad ats^ 
this year writtei,^ several letters, in answer to the charge 
brought against him by the Pretender and his adherents, 



wbicb were primted at London in 1735, 8vo, together with 
answers to them by Mr. James Murray, afterwards made 
earl of Dunbar by the Pretender ; but, being then imme- 
diately suppressed, are reprinted in ^' Tindal's Contii^a- 
tion of Rapin's History of England." The following year, 
be drew up a vindication of his whole conduct with respect 
to the tories, in the form of *a letter to sir William Wynd- 
ham, which was printed in 1753, 8vo. It is written with 
the utmost elegance and address, and abounds with interest- 
ing and entertaining anecdotes. 

His first lady being dead, be espoused about this time, 
17 16, a second of great merit and accomplishments-, niece 
to madam de Maintenon, and widow of the marquis de 
Villette ; with whom he had a very large fortune, encum- 
bered, however, with a long and troublesome law-suit. In 
the company and conversation of this lady, be passed &is 
time in France, sometimes in the country, and sometimes 
at the capita], till 1723; when the king was pleased to 
grant him a full and .free pardon. Upon the first notice of 
this favour, the expectation of which had been the govern- 
ing principle of his political conduct for several years, he 
returned to his native country. It is observable, that bi- 
shop Atterbury was banished >at this very juncture ; and 
happening, on his being set ashore at Calais, to hear that 
lord Bolingbroke was there, he said, ^* Then I am ex- 
changed V* His lordship having obtained, about two years 
after his return, an act of parliament to restore him to his 
family-inheritance, and to enable him to possess any pur- 
chase he sjiiould make, chose a seat of lord Tankerville, at 
Dawley near Uxbridge in Middlesex"; where he settled 
with his lad}^ and gratified his taste by improving it into a 
aiost elegant villa. Here he amused himself with rural 
employments, and with corresponding and conversing with 
Pope, Swift, and other friends ; but was by no means sa- 
tisfied within : for he was yet no more than a mere titular 
lord, and stood excluded from a seat in the House of Peers. 
Inflamed with this taint that yet remained, in his blood, he 
entered again, in 1726, upon the public stage; and, dis- 
avowing ail obligations to the minister Wal|!)ole, to whose 
secret enmity he imputed his not having received the full 
effects of the royal mercy intended, he embarked in the op- 
position, and distinguished himself by a multitude of pieces, 
written during the short remainder of that reign, and for 
ome years upder the following, with great boldness against 
^ measures that were then pursued. Besides his papers 



in the ^* Craftsman^^' which were the most popular in that 
celebrated collection, he published several pamphlets, 
which were afterwards reprinted in the second edition of 
h\^*^ Political Tracts/' and in the authorized edition of 
his works. 

Having carried on his part of the siege against the mini* 
ster with inimitable spirit for ten years, he laid down hit 
pen, owing to a disagreement with his principal coadju- 
tors; and, in 1735, retired to France, with a full resolu- 
tion never to engage more in public business. Swift, who 
knew that this retreat was the effect of disdain, vexa- 
tion, ^l\d disappointment, that his lordship's passions ran 
high, anci'that his attainder unreversed still tingled in his 
veins, cpncluded him certainly gone once more to;tfae Pre- 
tender, as bi^ enemies gave out ; but he was rebuked for 
this by Pope, who assured him, that it was absolutely un- 
true in every circumstance, that he had fixed in a very 
agreeable retirement near Fontaiobleau, and made it his 
whole business vacate lileris. He had now passed the 60th. 
year of his age ; and through a greater variety of scenes^ 
both of pleasure and business, than any of his contempo- 
raries. He had gone as far towards reinstating himself in 
the full possession of his former honours as great parts and 
great application could go ; and seemed at last to think, 
that the door was finally shut against him. He had not 
been long in his retreat, when he began a course of ** Letf 
ters on the study and use of History," for the use of lord 
Cornbury, to whom they are addressed. They were pub- 
lished in 1752 ; and, though they are drawn up, as all his 
works are, in . an elegant and masterly style, and abound 
with just reflections, yet, on account of some freedoms 
taken with ecclesiastical history, they exposed him to much 
censure. Subjoined to these letters are, his piece *'upon 
Exile," and a letter to lord Bathurst ^' on the true use of 
study and Retirement." 

Upon the death of his father, who lived to be extremely 
old, he settled at Battersea, the ancient seat of the family, 
where he passed the remainder of his life. His age, his 
genius, perfected by long experience and much retiection, 
gave him a superiority over most of bis contemporaries, 
which his works have not altogether preserved. Pope and 
Swift, however, were among his most ardent admirers; 
and it is well known, that the former received from him 
the materials for his ** Essay on Man." Yet, even in thi' 



retirement, he did not neglect the consideration of pnbhc 
affairs ; for, after the conclusion of the war in 1747, upoti» 
measures being taken which did not agree with his notions 
of political prudence, he began «' Some Reflections on 
the present sute of the nation, principaUy with regard to 
her taxes and debts, and on the causes and consequences 
of them :'* but he did not finish them. In 1749, came out 
his « Letters on the spirit of Patriotism, on the idea of a 
Patriot King, and on the state of parties ^t the accession of 
king George I ;" with a preface in which Pope's conduct, 
with regard to that piece, is represented as an inexcusabla 
act of treachery to him. Of this subject wc have already 
taken sufficient notice in our accounts of Mallet and Pope. 
Bolingbroke was now approaching his end. For some Ume 
a cancerous humour in his face bad made considerable pro- 
greds, and he was persuaded to apply an empirical remedy, 
which exposed him to the most excruciating tortures. Lord 
Chesterfield saw him, for the last time, the day before 
these tortures began. Bolingbroke, when they parted, 
embraced his old friend with tenderness, and said "God, 
who placed me here, will do ^vhat he pleases with me h»e- 
after, and he knows best what to do. May he t^less you ! 
About a fortnight after be died, at his house at >attersca, 
Nov. 15, 1751, nearly eighty years old, if the date usually 
assigned to his birth be correct. His corpse was interred 
with those of his ancestors in that church, where there is a 
marble monument erected to his memory. 

His lordship's estate and honours descended to his ne- 
phew; the care and profits of his manuscripts he left to 
Mallet, who published them, together with his works already 
printed, in 1754, 5 vols. 4to. They may be divided into 
political and philosophical works : the former of which have 
been mentioned already, and consist of « Letters upon 
History," " Letterto Wyndham," " Letters on Patriotism, 
and papers in the " Craftsman;'' which had been sepa- 
rately printed in 8 vols. 8vo, under the title of '' Disserta^ 
tion upon Parties," '' Remarks on thie History of England," 
and « Political Tracts." His philosophical works consist 
of, " The substance of some letters written originally m 
French kbout 1720 to Mr. de Pouilly ; letter occasioned by 
one of abp. Tillotson's sermons ; and letters or essays ad- 
dressed to Alexander Pope, esq." As Mallet had published 
an 8vo edition of the " Letters on History," and the '^ Let- 
ter to Wyndham," before the 4to edition of the works 

56 SAIN T-J O H N, 

came out, he afterwards pabHsbed separately tbe pUlos^r 
pbical writings, 5 vols. Bvo. These esyajrs, addressed to 
Pope, on philosophy and religion, contain iqany tbingf 
which deny o^ ridicule the great truths of revelation ; and^ 
on this account, not only exposed the deceased author tp 
the just animadversions of several writers, but occasionecl. 
also a presentment of his works by the grand jmy of West-» 
minster ; but the sale of them was very slow, and of li^e 
years they are perhaps still less consulted. An edition, 
however, was published in 1809, in 8 vols. Svo, with many 
additions, from subsequent authorities, to the l^ of Boling-^ 
broke, which was written by Dr. Goldsmith. Soine tintie 
before this, a valuable collection of lord BohDgbroke^s po-r 
litical correspondence was published in 4to,and 4 vols. Svo, 
by the rev. Gilbert iParke, which contains mocli inforana* 
tiqn respecting the memorable peace of Utrecht. His cha* 
looter has been (Irawn by various able pens, by Chestei^M, 
Mrs. Cockburn, Ruffbead (under the guidance of Warbur* 
ton), lord Walpole, Horace Walpole, lord Orrery, Ac. &c. 
and although they differ in some points, coincide in proving 
that lord Bolingbroke was cpnsidiered by all as a politician 
of an impqttant class ; that those who have been at most 
pains to dl'^ame him as an enemy, would ^hav4e been very 
desirous to secure him as a friend., and that they may be 
credited in every thing sooner than in their affecting to 
undervalue his talents. Ambition and immorality consti- 
tute the great objections tp his public and private charac- 
ter. His infidel principles were not much known before his 
death, except to his friends. Like Chesterfield and Hume, 
be left something behind him worse than be had prodiicea 
in bis life-time, and subjected himself to accusations to 
which he could no longer reply. In his character since, he 
has suffered equally by tbe just resentment of piety, and 
By the unforgiving prejudices qf party ; and an impartial 
history of his conduct and opinions is perhaps yet a desir 

ST. LAMBERT {Charles Francis de), fiwrmerly a 
member of the French academy, was born in Nancy, Dee. 
16, 17 17, of a family of Lorrain. He was educated amoag 
tbe Jesuits at the college of Pont-a-Moussori, but in early 

1 Life by Goldsmith, io edit. 1909.— Biog. Brit.— Swill's Works.— Po|ie'| 
Works by Bowles. — Coxe's Waljjolt* .-:-LysoDs'* Environs, vol. I.-— Royal and 
Nebl« Authors by Park.— Chesterfield's Memoirs and Letters.— Leiand'sOteisti • 
cal Wffkera. — Warburton^s LeUerif to Q[ard, ^c* l^c. 

ST. L A M B E E T. 57 

life eintered into the army^ which be qaitted at the peace 
of Aix^ia-Cbapelle in 1748, and joined the gay party as- . 
sembled by Stanislaus, king of Poland, at Luneville. There 
be becaaae an admirer of Madame de Cbatelet, who return- 
ed his attachment He was afterwards intimate with, and 
the egregious, flatterer of Voltaire. It is not said what 
part he took in the revolution, but he escaped its dangers, 
and died at Paris Feb. 9, 1805. He was a man of genius, 
but his steps in the literary career were rather slow, afid in- 
commensurate with the actitity of his genius; for his first 
poetical work, ^^ Les F£tes de 1' Amour et de P Hymen,** a 
theatrical performance, was published about 1760, when 
be was already turned of forty years of age. His poem 
entitled ^' Les quatres parties du jour" appeared in 1764, 
and soon ranked him unong the greatest poets of his age. 
The composition was acknowledged to possess novelty in 
the descriptions, interest iu the details, and elegance in 
the style ; although, on the other side, it was charged with 
coldness, want of unity, and monotonous episodes. The 
same year he published his *' Essai sur le luxe," 8vo. His 
next, abd jut»tly celebrated, poetical performance, ** Les 
Saisons,*' which was published in 176d, raised him to the 
highest degree of reputation. It was generally admitted 
that he exhibited here a large share of ingenuity and inven- 
tion, by introducing pastoral poetry into a composition of 
a different sort, making it still preserve its native simplicity, 
and yet associate naturally with more elevated subjects. 
An additional merit was discovered, with regard to this 
elegant work, in the motive of the author ; as his professed 
design was to inspire the great proprietors of land with an 
incliiiation to live on their manors, and contribute to the 
happiness of the cultivators. 

In 1772, he published his '< Fables Orientales," which 
did little either to increase or to diminish his poetical fame : 
and many years after he produced his ^^ Consolation de la 
Vieillesse," a proof that his talents had suffered no dimi- 
nution from age or infirmity. The last publication of Saint 
Lambert is a philosophical work in prose. It appeared in 
1798, in 3 vols. 8vo, under the title of ^^ Catecfaisme Uni- 
versel.'^ It was intended to exhibit a system of morals 
grounded on human nature; and the favourite object of 
the author was to confute the doctrine of a moral sense, 
which has been supported by many eminent metaphysicians, 
ever since the writings of Shaftesbury and of Hutcheson. 

58 S T. L A M B E R T. 

This work was justly denominated ^by some French critics, 
alluding to the age of the author, Le soir i^un beau jour 
(the evening of a beautiful day !) He wrote also some ar- 
ticles for the £ncyclopedie, and many fugitive pieces in 
the literary journals.' 

SAINTE-MARTHE, in Latin Sammarthanus, is the 
name of a family in France, which produced many men of let- 
ters. The first, Gaucher de SAinte-Marthe, had a son 
Charles, born in 1512, who became physician to Francis 11. 
and was remarkable for his eloquence. Queen Margaret of 
Navarre and the duchess of Vendome honoured him with 
their particular esteem ; and when they died in 1550, he 
testified his grief by a funeral oration upon each, published 
the same year. That upon the queen was in Latin, the 
Other in French. There is also some Latin and French 
poetry of bis in being. He died in 1555. — Scevole,' or 
ScAVOLA, the nephew of Charles, was born at Loudun in. 
I5.S6, and became very distinguished both in learning and 
business. He loved letters from his infancy, attained an 
intimate acquaintance with the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew 
tongues ; and became an orator, a lawyer, a poet, and an 
historian; he, is also represented as a good friend, zealous 
for his country, and of inviolable fidelity to his prince. He 
bad, in the reigns of Henry IIL and Henry IV. several con* 
siderable employments, which he filled with great reputa- 
tion. In 1579, he was governor of Poitiers, and afterwards 
treasurer of France for this district. In 1593 and 1S94, he 
exercised the office of intendant of the finances, in the 
army of Bretagne, commanded by the duke de Montpen- 
sier : aud, in the latter of these years, he reduced Poitiers 
to the subjectioQ of Henry IV. Some time after, he con- 
ceived thoughts of retiring to his own country, and de« 
voting the remainder of his life to contemplation : but was 
again made governor of Poitiers, in so honourable a man- 
ner that he could not decline it. Upon the expiration of 
this office^ he went to Paris, and thence to, Loudun, where 
he passed the rest of his days ^' in otio cum dignitate." 
This town had been often protected from ruin in the civil 
wars merely by his credit, and therefore regarded him as 
its protector. He died there in 1623, universally regretted ; 
and his funeral oration was pronounced by the famous 
Urban Grandier. He was the author of ** La loUange de 

1 Diet. Uist.— Baldwin's Literary Journal. 


laville de jPoitiers," 157S; ** Opera Poetica,*' consisting 
of odesy elegies, epigrams, and sacred poems, in French 
and Latin^ 1575; ^< Galiorum dootrina illustrium elogia/* 
1598 :'' bat his chief work, and that which keeps his naine 
still alive in the republic of letters, is bis work called ** Ps* 
dotrophia, sea de puerorum educattone,*' printed in 1584, 
and dedicated to Henry III. This poem went through tea 
editions in the author's life -time, and hath gone through as 
many since* It was neatly printed at London in 1708, in 
12mo, together with tlie^^ Callip^dia^' of Quillet. It is, 
also printed with a complete edition of his and his son 
Abel's works, under the title ^^ Sammarthanorum patris et 
filii opera Latina et Gallica, turn soluta oratione, tum versa 
schpta," ,Paris^ 1633, 4to. Scevole left several sons; of 
whom Ab£L, the eldest, born at Loudun in 1570, applied 
himself, like his father, to literature. He cultivated 
French and Latin poetry ; the latter^ were printed with 
those of his father in the edition just mentioned, but are 
inferior to them. Lewis XIII. settled on him a pension,, 
for the services he had done him, and made him a coun* 
sailor of state. In 1627, he was made librarian to the 
king at Fontainebleau ; and had after that other commis- 
sions of importance. He died at Poitiers in 1652, where 
his ^^ Opuscula Varia^' were printed in 1645^ 8vo. This 
Abel had a son of his own name, bom in 1630, and after- 
wards distinguished by his learning. He succeeded his fa- 
ther as librarian at Fontainebleau, and in that quality pre- 
sented to Lewis XIV. in 1668, ^' Un Discours pour le r£- 
tablissemeot de cette Bibliotheque." He died in 1706. 

Scevole's second and third sons, Scevole and Lewis,. 
were born in 1571. They were twin-brothers, of the same 
temper, genius, and studies ; with this difference only^ 
that Scevole continued alayman, aiid married, while Lewis 
embraced the ecclesiastical state. They spent tbeir lives 
together in perfect union, and were occupied in the same 
labours. They were both counsellors to tiie king, and his- 
toriographers of France. They were both interred at St. 
Severin in Paris, in the same grave ; though Scevole died 
in 1650, and Lewis did not die till 1656. They distin- 
guished themselves by their knowledge, and in conjunc- 
tion composed the '^ Gallia Christiana, seu series omnium 
Episc. &6. Francia;,*' of which there is an edition in 13. 
vols, folio, 1715 — 1786, but three more volumes are yet 
necessary to complete it. 


Besides these, there were Denis, Pet^e Scevole^ 

' Abel Lewis, and Claude, ]>e Saikte-Marthe, all men 

of learning, and who distinguished themselves by various 

publicaUons ; but their works are not of a natare to make 

a particular enumeration of them necessary here.' 

ST, PALAY£ (John Baptist de la Cuane de), an in^ 
genious French writer, was borp at Auxerre in 1697. TIm 
only information we have of his early life is restricted to a^ 
notice of the affection which subsiatwi between him and his 
twin-brother M. de la Corne. It appears that he devoted 
himself to researches into the language and antiquities of. 
bis country, and was admitted a member of the French 
academy, and that of inscriptions. In all his labours he 
was assisted by his brother, who liv^ with him, and was 
his inseparable associate in lus studies, and even in his 
amusements; St. Palaye died in 1781. La Harpe haa 
published some spirited verses which he addressed in his 
eightieth year to a lady who had embroidered a weistcoat 
for him ; but he is chiefly known as an author by . '^ Me* 
moires sur FAncienne Chevalerie,*^ 3 vols. ISmo, in which 
he paints in very Hvely colours the manners and customs 
of diat institmion. Mrs. Dobscm published an English 
translation of this in 1784. After his decease the afebd 
Mijlot drew up, from his papers, ^* L'Histoire des Trouba- 
dours,'' in 3 vols. 12mo. St. Palaye had meditated on an 
*^ Universal French Glossary," which was to be more co- 
pious than that of Du Cange, and left two works in maou-* 
script, one a history of the variations that have taken place 
in the French language, the other a Dictionary of French 

ST. PAVIN (Dennis Sanguin de), a French poet of 
the seventeenth century, was born at Paris, and studied 
with a view to the ecclesiastical profession, but his private 
attachment was wholly to the belles lettres and poetry, 
which he diligently cultivated. He spent the greatest part 
of 'his life at Livri, of which he was abbot, though no cre- 
dit to the order, for he lived in a voluptuous, indolent 
style, circulating and practising the pernicious maxims he 
had learnt from hts master, tbue poet Theophile, and to 
which. he was so strongly attached, that Boileau in his first 
satire places St Pavin's conversion among things morally 
impossible. The story of his having been converted by 

> Moreri.^Dict. Hist. — Dupio. ^ Diet. Hist. 

S T P A V I N $1! 

hearing a terrible voice at the time Theopbile died^ in 
162S, is entirely without foundation, for his conversion 
preceded his own death but a very short time. He died in 
1670, leaving several poems not inelegantly written, which 
form part of vol. IV. of Barbin's collection ; and a collec- 
tion of bis Works was published In 1759, 12mo, with Charle- 
va), Lalaiie, and Montplaisir He was related to Claudius 
Saogain, steward of the household to the king and the 
duke of Orleans, who published ** Les HeurW in French 
verse, Paris, 1660, 4ta, in which the whole Psalter is trans- 

ST. PIERRE (Charles Irenes Castel de), a French 
moral and potitical writer, was born in 1658, of a noble 
fiunily, at Saint-Pierre- in Normandy. He studied at the 
college of Caen^ and was brought up to the church, and 
obtained some preferment ; but was more distinguished for 
his political knowledge. Previous to his appearing in po- 
litical life,^ he wrote some observations on philosophical 
grammar, in consequence of which he was admitted a mem- 
ber of the academy in 1695. His political fame induced 
the cardinal Polignac to take him with him to the confer- 
ences for the peace of Utrecht ; and here he appears to 
have announced one of his favourite projects, the establish- 
ment of a kind of European diet, in order to secure a per- 
petual peace, which cardinal Fleury received with good 
humour, but saw at once its practical difficulties. Such 
indeed was the case with most of the schemes he published 
in bis works, which are now nearly forgotten. He cer- 
tainly, however, had the merit of discovering the defects 
of the government of Louis XIV. a^d pleaded the cause of 
a more free constitution with much boldness. One of his 
best works was *^ A Memorial on the establishment of a 
proportional Taille," which is said to have n>eltorated the 
state of taxation in France. He died in 1743, aged eighty- 
five. After the death of Louis XIV. he published some of 
bis spirited sentiments of that monarch in a pamphlet en- 
titled *^ La Polysynodie,^' or the plurality of councils, for 
which he was expelled the French academy, Fontenelle 
only giving a vote in his favour. An edition of his works 
was published in Holland, 1744, 18 vols. l2mo.' 

ST. REAL (Casar Vichard de), a polite French writer, 
was the son of a counsellor to the senate of Chamberri in 

1 Moreri.— Diet. Hist * Eloges by D'Alemb«rt.— Diet. Hist. 

62 S T. R E A X. 

S4v6y,' where he was bom, bat it is hot mentioned in wba€ 
year. He came very young to France, was some time A 
disciple of M. de Variilas, and afterwards distinguished 
himself at Paris by several ingenious productions. In 1675^ 
be returned- to Chamberri, and went thence to England 
with the duchess of Ma2arin ; but soon after came back to 
Paris^ where he lived a long time, without title or dignity/ 
intent upon literary pursuits. He returned a second time 
to Chamberri in 1692, and died there the same year, ad« 
vanced in years, but not in the best circumstances. He 
was a man of great parts and penetration, a lover of the 
sciences, and particularly foud of history, which he wished 
to have studied, not as a bare recital of facts and speeches, 
but as a picture of human nature philosophically contem- 
plated. He wrote a piece, with this view, ^^ De I'Usage 
de PHistoire,^' Paris, 1672, 12mo, which is full of sensible 
and judicious reflections. In L674, he published " Con- 
juration des Espaguols centre la R^publique de Venise en 
1618," 12mo, in a style which Voltaire compares to that of 
Sallust ; but what he gained in reputation by this, he is said 
to have lost by his '^ La Vie de J6sus Christ,^' pablbhed 
four years after. He wrote many other things : some to 
illustrate the Roman history, which he had made his parti- 
cular study; some upon subjects of philosophy, politics, 
and morals ; and notes upon the first two books of Tully's 
** Letters to Atticus,'^ of which he made a French transla- 
tion. A neat edition of his works was published at the 
Hague in 1722, in 5 vols. i2mo, without the letters /to At- 
ticus; which, however, were printed in the edition of Paris, 
1745, in 3 vols. 4to, and six 12iho.'' 

ST. SIMON (Louis de Rouvroi, duke OF),a French wri- 
ter of memoirs, was the son of a duke of the same title, born 
June 16,1 67.5, and was introduced at the court of Louis XIV. 
in his fifteenth year, but bad been educated in virtuous prin- 
ciples, and never departed from them, either at court or 
in the army, in which he served till 1697. In 1721 he was 
appointed ambassador extraordinary to the court of Spain^ 
for the purpose of soliciting the infanta in marriage for 
Louis XV. After being for some time confidential adviser to 
the regent, duke of Orleans, he retired' to his estate, and 
passed most of his time in his library, where he read in- 
cessantly and forgot nothing. The marshal de Belle-Isle 

^ Niceron, vol. lU 

S T. S I M O N. 6S 

used to say that he was the most interesting and agreeable 
dictionary be had ever consulted. At fourscore be enjoyed 
all his faculties as perfect as at forty : the precise time o^ 
his death is hot mentioned, but it appears to have taken 
place about 1757. He composed '^ Memoii^ of the reign 
of Louis XIV. and the Regency," which consist of a va- 
riety of anecdotes relative to the courts of Louis XIV. and 
XV. which are told in an elegant style, but his manner is 
often sarcastic, although his justice has never been called 
in question. M. Anquetil has made this nobleman's me- 
moirs the basis of his history of ^' Louis XIV. his Court and 
the Regent.^' Some of the editions of these Memoirs have 
been mutilated, but the most complete was printed at Stras- 
burg, in 1791, 13 vols. 8 vo." 

SALDEN (Wzluam), a learned writei' in the sixteenth 
century, born at Utrecht, was successively minister of se- 
veral churches in Holland, and lastly at the Hague, where 
he died in 16d4. .Hi^ most knpwn and valuable works are, 
" Otia Theologica,'' 4to, containing dissertations on diffe- 
rent subjects, from the Old and New Testament ; '< Con- 
cionator Saper,'' 12mo; and ^' De Libris varioque eorum 
usu et.abusu,V Amsterdam, 1668, 12mo.'. 

SALE (G£ORG£)y a learned Eaglisbman, who died at 
London in 1736, was a man who did much service to the 
republic of letters, but of his private history we have no 
account. He had a hand in the ^' Universal History,"' and 
executed the cosmogony and a part of the history follow- 
ing. He was also engaged in other publications ; but his 
capital work is ^^ The Koran, commonly called the Alcoran 
of Mohammed^* translated into English immediately from 
the original .Arabic ; with explanatory notes taken from the 
most approved commentators. To which is prefixed, a 
preliminary Discourse,*' 1734, 4to. The preliminary dis- 
course consists of 1S6 pages, and is divided. into eight sec- 
tions, which treat of the following particulars: Sect. 1. 
'^ Of the Arabs before Mohammed, or, as they express it, 
in the 'time of ignorance ;' their history, religion, learning,- 
and customs." Sect. 2. *^ Of the state of Christianity, par- 
ticularly of the Eastern Churches, and of Judaism, at the 
^ time of Mohammed's appearance ; and of the methods 
taken by him for establishing his rehgion, and the circum- 
stances which concurred thereto." Sect. 3. '^ Of the Ko- 

^ Anquetily ubi supra.— Diet. Hist. * Burman Traj. Eradit. — Moreri. 

64 8 A L-t£« 

ran itself^ the peculiarities of that book, tbe maoiH^ of its 
being writteo and published, and tbe general design of it.'* 
Sect. 4« ^' Of the doctrines and positive precepts of the 
Koran, which relate to futh and religious duties.'* Sect. S. 
" Of certain negative precepts in the Koran.** Sect. 6. 
*^ Of the institutions of tbe Koran in civil affairs.** Sect. 
7. '* Of the noontbs commanded by the Koran to be kept 
S9cred, and of the setting apart of Friday for the especial 
service of God.'* Sect. 8. " Of the principal sects among 
the Mohammedans; and of those who have pretended to 
prophesy among the Arabs in or since the time of Moham- 
med.*' This preliminary discourse, as should seem, might 
deserve to be published separately from the Koran. Mr. 
Sale was also one of the membsers of the society fbr the en- 
couragement of learning, begua in 1736, but as be died 
in that year, could not have eujpyed the promised advan- 
tages of it. He was oiie of the authors of the ^^ General 
Dictionary," to which w^ so often refer, which includes a 
translation . of Bziyle, 10 vols, follo^ Mr. Sale left a son, 
who was fellow of New college, Oxford, where be took bis 
degree of M. A. in 1756.. He was afterwards a fellow of 
Winchester college, in 1765, and died a short time after.* 

SALIAN^ or SALLIAN (Jam^s),. a. learned Jesuit of 
Avignon, where he was born in 1557^ entered into that 
society in 1578, and became anoted tuton He was. after- 
wards made rector of the college of Besangon^ and. died at 
Parisian. 23, 1640, in the eighty-third year of his' age. 
He wrote some pious tracts, but is principally known for 
bis <^ Annals of the Old Testament/' published in 161 Si — 24, 
6 vols, folio. As this wotk' appeared too voluminous for 
geueral use, M«deSponde,. bishop of Paniiers, requested 
leave to publish an abridgment in the manner of his abridg- 
ment of Baronius ; but Salian> co«s<;iogs how much origi-^ 
nais suffer by abridgments^ refused this truest with much 
politeness; and when induo^ at last to make an abridg-* 
meat himself, contrived to do it in such a laaanec as. to 
render the original almost indispensable to his readers.' . 

SALISBURY (John of), one of the greatest ornaments 
of the twelfth centucy^iwas born at Old Sarum, whence he 
derived the name of Sa&ISJSURI£nsis^ about 1116. After 
he had gone through a course of education in England, he 
went to the university of Paris in i 136, and attended upon 

> Gent Mag.; seelD^ex. — BosweH's Life of Johusoo. * Moreri.— Alegambe. 

S A L I S B U R Y. 65 

the lectures of Abelard land ottier masters, with such in- 
dustry and success, that he acquired an uncommon share of 
knowledge both in philosophy and letters. At an early 
period of life, his poverty obliged him to undertake the 
office of preceptor ; yet amidst engagements of this kind, 
be found leisure to acquire a competent knowledge of dia- 
lectics, physics, and morals, as well as an acquaintance 
with the Greek, and (what was at that time a rare accom- 
plisbment) with the Hebrew, languages. He may justly 
be ranked among the first scholars of his age. After many 
years had elapsed, he resolved to revisit the companions 
of his early studies on Mount St. Genevieve, in order to 
Confei* with them on the topics on which they had formerly 
disputed. His account of this visit affords a striking pic- 
ture of the philosophical character of this age. ^* I found 
them,^' says he, *^ the same men, and in the same place ; 
Bor had they advanced a single step towards resolving our 
antient questions, nor added a single proposition, how- 
ever stnati, to their stock of knowledge. Whence 1 in* 
ferred, what indeed it was easy to collect, that dialectic 
studies, however useful they may be when connected wrth 
other branches of learning, are in tbemselven barren and 
uselesa.*' Speaking in another place of the philosophers 
of his time, be eomplains, that they collected auditors 
solely for the ostentation of science, and designedly ren- 
dered their discourses obscure, that they might appear 
loaded with the mysteries of wisdom ; and that though all 
professed to follow Aristotle, they were so ignorant of hisr 
true doctrine, that in attempting to explain his meaning, 
they often advanced a Platonic notion, or some erroneous 
tenet equally distant from the true system of Aristotle and 
of Platx>. From these observations, and firom many similar 
passaged to be found in his writings, it appears, that John 
of Salisbury was aware of the trifling character. both of the 
philosoph)^ hnd the philosophers of hts age ; owing, pro- 
bably, to the^iinoommon share ofgood sense which he pos- 
sessed, a^' well as to the' unusual extent and variety of his 
learning. ^ Throughout his writings there are evident traces 
of a frttiifoV genius', of sotihd understanding, of various 
emdftidn, and, with due allowance for the age in^ which he 
Kwd^ : of correct taste, 

• At 'Bi« rblurm into 'England', after bis first visit to Paris, 
be studi4sd'lh^ clvfl law ondcft V««afius, who taught Witb^ 
gr^at^^pkube at03^ford4i¥>i449. ' fitabmaeing tb^ monsi* 

65 8ALISBU R Y; 

tic Irfe at Canterbury, he became the diief confidant of 
two successive archbishops of that see, Theobald and 
Tbonias a Becket. To the last of these he dedicnted his 
celebrated work " Polycraticon, or De nugis curialiiim, et 
vestigiis philosophorum/* a very curious and valuable mo* 
nuoient of the literature of bis times. Although he did 
not approve some p^rt of the conduct of Becket, he sub- 
mitted to Henry the Second^s sentence of banishment, and- 
remained in exile for seven years, rather than give up the 
•party of the archbishop, which was the condition on wbich^ 
he might have been permitted to return. In negotiating 
Becket's affairs, he performed no less than ten jour|[i4^». 
into Italy. In one of these journeys, he obtained familiar 
uitercourse witti pope Adrian IV. his countryman, who. 
having asked him what the world said of bitn and of the:^ 
Roman church, John returned such an answer as might? 
have been, e^ipected from the boldest of the reformers' in> 
the sixteenth centcrry, telUng his holiness, among other- 
thi^igs, that the world 6aid, ** the pope liimseM^ was a bUr*> 
then to Christendom which is scarcely to be borne." The 
whole of this curious dialogue may be seen. in the fM>rk' 
above mentioned, * 

At length he was permitted to return to England in 1171, « 
9nd was a spectator of the murder of Us friend Becket, 
from whom he endeavoured to ward off one of the bhiWs,< 
and received it on bis arm, which was seriously hurt. In 
1172 be was promoted to the French bishopric of Char* 
tres, in the province of Sens, which he held ten years, 
dying in 1182. He composed many other works besides 
the *' Polycraticon," whibh is written in a plain concise 
style, and is an excellent treatise upon the employmems^^ 
occupations, duties, virtues, and vices, of great men, tod^ 
contains a number of moral reflections, passages from au« 
thors, examples, apologues, pieces of history, and eom-< 
ii)on-pIaces. His familiar acquaintance with the classics 
aj>pears, not only from the happy facility of his ianguage^^ 
but from the many citations of the purest Roman authors^ 
with which his wor^ are perpetually inteilqpersed. . Mom- 
£lucon says, that some part of the supplement to Petronios,) 
{|iib)ished as a genuine and valuable discovery a few yetfra 
ago, but since supposed to l^e spurious, is quoted in the^ 
^^ Potg^QnatlciMi." It was pul;^iisbed at Paris in 1519, and 
at Ley den lo li693. Sire; and a French translation of it», 
entitled *< Les Vanitez de la^^r/' at Pari^» 1640^ in*4tOjH 

• » rfk » Jt . ^ ^ 

S A L I S B U H Y. 67 

with a: life of the HUtbor prefixed. Among his othtv inror^ 
ftre a volume of /^ Letters/^ published, at Paris in 1611^ 
for which bis stjle seems best adapted^ anfl^bis corre- 
spondents were some of the first personages of the ase* 
Their cooteots, as detailing important occurrences, are in- 
terestingy and their ti^rn of expression sometimes elegant. 
Another of his works was a learned defence of grarpmar, 
riietoric, and logic, against one whom he calls pornificius, 
which cqntains a most curious account of tlie state of these 
vciences at this period. ' 

SALISBURY, or SALESBURV (William), a Welsh' 
aoiiqoary, was born of an ancient family in Denbighshire, 
and studied for some time at Oxford, ,wb,ence he removed 
to Thaives-Inn, London. Here he applied to the law, but 
does not appear to have risen to any eminence, as Wood 
speaks of himi as living in bis latter days ii> the house of 
a bookselier in St. Paul's church-yard. His principal ob- 
ject appears to have been the cultivation of the Welsh 
laof^uage, askd the translation into it of the Bible, &c. It 
)voald appear that queen Elizabeth gave him a patent, for 
seven years, for printing in A^elsh th^ Bible, Common- 
Prayer, and ^* Administration of the Sacraments/' Hp 
compiled ^^A Qictipoary in. .j^pgUsh and Welsh," Lond. 
1547, 4to. ' *>.A Littl/s Xireatise pf the English pronunci- . 
atiou of the Letters." ^^^pl^n apd familiar introduction'* 
to tbe^ame, Lopd. 1350, 4tQ. <* 9attery of the Pope's 
Botterepix,. commonly csdjied t;he High- Altar," ibid. i550|^ 
8vo. *< The Laws of Howell Dha." " A Welsh Eheto- 
rick," revised, enlarged, &c. by Henry Perry, B. D. 
The period of his death is uncertain, but ho was living in 

i5«.,« ',..-.:" 


S4LL£NCK^ (Albert H^nry de), an ingenious and 
laborious writer^ was born at the Hague in 1694. His 
father was receiver-general of Walloon Flanders, and of 
aa ancient and considerable family. He was'educated with- 
great care, and sent at a pi*oper age to Leyden ; where he 
studied history., iinder Perjzonius, philosophy under Bet* 
nard, and law under Voetius and Noodt. Having finished 
his academical studies with honour, he returned to his pa- 
vers. at the Hague, and was admitted an advocate in the 

' , • • .• 

— lBerrtogtiMi>9^t^aiy History of the MMdie 
^ ath. Os. XMW edit. vol. L 



S A L L E N G R E. 

court of Holland After the peace of Utrecht in 171 3, be 
went to France ; ^nd spent some time at Paris in vifitiiig 
libraries, and in cultivating friendships with learned men^ 
In 1716, he was made counsellor to the princess of Nas- 
sau ;>«nd, the year a/ter, commissary of the finances of 
the States General. He went again to France in 1717; 
and two years after to England, where he was elected fel- 
low of the Royal Society, in the list of which he is called 
*• Auditor-Surveyor of the Bank of Holland.'* He was au- 

• thor of several publications, which shewed parts, learning, 
and industry ; and without doubt woilld, if he had lived, 
have been of great use and ornament to the republic of 
letters'; btit, catphing the smalUpox, he died in 1725, in 
his thiitieth year. 

He was for some time editor of the ^^ Literary Journal,'* 
which began at the Hague in 1713. His pait eonsists of 
four volumes, 1715 — 1717, The eontimKition waa by 
Desmolets and Gouget. In 1714, he published ** L'Elog^ 
dei'Yvresse,^' a piece of much spirit and gaiety <; in 1715, 
^* Histoire de Pierre de Montmaur,'' 2 vols. Svo, a collec- 
tion of all the pieces written against that sHigubrchavac- 
t&vK In 1716, '< Commentaires sur les Epitres d'Ovide 
par M. de Meziriac,'* with a discourse upon the lifeand 
works of Meziriac ; the same year, <^ t^o^si'es de M» de la 
Monnoye;*Mn 1716^ 1718, 171&I ^^NovusTbesaurus Anti- 
quitatuhi tlomanarum," a Supplement to Gravius'a co)- 

' lection, in *Z vols, folio; in 1718, '^Huetti de rebus ad 

* PettT de MoDtmatir was a Jesuit 

f)f the ^ev^at^enib century, nho was 

sent ID early life by bis order to Rome, 

aud there be tao^bt grammar w!thcre« 

dit during tbree years. He afterwarcfs 

' \th tt)e, Jesuits, and set tip as a drug- 

' fist at Avignohi wbicb situation proredf 

vefy profitable to bim» Than^oing ta 

. Paf is, |ie ^attend^d the bar, wbich he 

quitted to devote himself to poetry, 

displaying bis taste chiefly in- ana- 

^ grsnas, and puns. This did not, bQw- 

, ^yer, jpreyeu^ his succeeding Ooulu as 

regius professor of Oreek, from whence 

-he was sunrmimedMontmaur the Grebiaiw 

> liis eon^taqt pfaotice i^as to ridicule 

, m^ , of learning by satires ahd sar- 

^catmis; freqiieDtiy making aUmtons- 1» 

their names, taken fromi Greek and 

'l4iii«, which Vert! tailed MoJatiqauir- 

kms. Hence a warfare .«esnn««c«4 

whiehdoas not appear to kave re* 

dpuoded much to the cieifit of f itbfr 
party» Among other expedientH they 
accused Montm'aur of having killed the 
porter of the college of Boncourt, on 
which he was seht to prison^ a^nd scarce 
cleared of this imaginary crime, befora 
they accused him of tothers more iofa- 
moas* Varioi)^ attfmpta we^e also 
made to render him ridiculous. ' Me- 
nage set the fiisbion by a fictitious 
** Life of Monttnaur,** mblch he poh- 
liahed in Latin, 1636, under the toame 
of " G argil lus Mamurra.'* Others fol- 
lowed his' example,, and |f. de Sallen- 
gre publiahed tlie work ^boye-mtn.. 
tioned, which forms a curious and ea-^ 
tertainihg <^ollection. Moptioaar wftt 
certatnlji a^badjpoct, but in other re- 
spects was not so despicable «s most 
authors repreietit him. Ut 4it4 im 
X^^», 9(f«ifev«^rr«Mif. 

S A L i, E IS G-R E. 69 

enm pertinentibus Coaiinentarius,*' with a preface written 
hff biiDseif. About the time of his death he was engaged 
io writiog '< A History of the United Provinces from 1609, 
to the conclusion of the peace of Munster in 164S/' which 
was published at the Hague in 1728, with this title, <<£s-» 
sai d'une Histoire des Provinces Unies pour Tann^e 1621, 
ou la Treve finit, et le Guerre recommence avec TEs- 
pagne/* 4to. * 

SALLO (Denis de), a French writer, the first projector 
of literary journals, was descended from an ancient and . 
noble family, and born at Paris in 1626. During his edu- 
cation, he gave no proofs of precocious talent, and afforded 
little hope of much progress in letters or science. But this, 
seems to have been the effect rather of indolence than in- 
capacity, for he afterwards became an accomplished Greek; 
and Latin scholar, and maintained public theses in philoso- 
phy with the greatest applause. He then studied* the law, 
and was admitted a counsellor in the parliament of Paris in 
1652. This, however, did not seem so much to his taste 
as general imjuiries into literary history and knowledge^ 
and desultory reading. It is said that he occasionally 
perused all kinds of books, made curious researches, and 
kept a person always near him to take down his reflections,, 
and to make abstracts. In 1664, he formed the project of 
the/' Journal des ^gavans;'* and, the year following, be- 
gan to publish it under the name of Sieur de Hedouville, 
which was that of his valet de chambre ; but the severity of 
his censures gave offence to many who were able to make, 
reprisals. Menage's ^* Amoenitates Juris Civilis'' was one 
%of the first of those works which fell under Sallows cogni- 
zance, and his mode of treating it provoked Menage to 
return his abuse with equal severity in his preface to the 
works of Malherbe, printed in 1666. Charles Patin'a 
** Introduction a la connoissance des M^dailles*' was ano- 
ther work with which he made free, and incurred a severe 
retaliation. This warfare soon proved too much for his 
courage; and therefore, after having published his third 
journal, he turned the work over to the Abb£ Gallois, who 
dropped all criticism, and merely gave titles and extracts. 
The plan^ however, in one shape or other, was soon adopt- 
ed iti most parts of Europe, and continues until this day, 
whether with real advantage to literature, has never been 

A Niceron^ volt. !• and ;S.— Moifri* 

70 S A L t O. 

folly discussed. Voltiaire, after mentioning Sallo as the in- 
ventor of this kind of writing, says, with a justice appl^ 
cable in our" own days, that Sallows attempt " was after* 
wat'ds dishonoured by other journals, which were published 
at the desire of avaricious booksellers, and written by ob- 
scure men, who filled them with erroneous extracts, f6Hies, 
and lies. Things,** he adds, " are come to that pass, that 
praise.and censure are all made a public traffic, especfatly 
in periodical papers ; and letters have fallen into disgrace 
by the management and conduct of these infamous scrib* 
bliers.** On the pther hand, the advantages arising froth 
such journals, when under the management of men of can- 
dour and independence, will scarcely admit of a doubt. 
Sallo died in 1669; and, although be published a piece or 
two^of his own, yet is now remembered only for his plan 
of a literary journal, or review.' 

SAIXUSTiUS (Gaius Grispus), sfn eminent Rotnart 
historian, was born at Amiternum in 8^ B. C. The rank 
of his ancestors is iincertain, but from some circumstances 
in his writings, it is not improbable that his family was 
plebeian. Having passed bis more early years at bis native 
town, he was removed to Kome, where he bad the advan- 
tage of profiting by the lessons of Atticus Pratextatu^, 
surnamed Philologus, a grammarian and rhetoriciai^ of 
great celebrity. Under this teacher be applied to learning 
^yith diligence, and made uncommon progress. It appears 
that he had turned his thoughts in his younger days to the 
writing of history, for which he had unquestionably great 
talents ; but, as he himself intimates' in bis preface to the 
history of Catiline^s conspiracy, he was diverted fr6m this 
pursuit by the workings of ambition. His ^arly life too, 
appears to have been stained by vice, which the gross enor- 
mities of his more advanced years render highly probable. 
In this respect he has found an able advocate in his late 
learned translator and commentator; but although Dr. 
Steuart's researches have removed some part of the rii- 
proaches of ancient authors^ enough remains to shew that 
Sallust partook largely of the corruption of the age in 
tvhicb he lived, and added to it by bis own example. The 
istory of bis having been detected in an adulterous inter- 
course with the wife of Milo, who, after a severe whipping, 
iliade him pay a handsome sum of money, may rest upon 

I NiceroD, vol. IX.— Moieri. 

S A L t U S T I U S; 7i 

Httle aiitbority, at may be altogether discarded as a fiction, 
l^ot the. general conduct of Sallust shows that the noble 
sentiments in his works bad no influence on bis conduct. 

He appears to have been advanced to the office of quaes* 
tor in the year of Rome 693, and in 701 was made tri«. 
bune.of the people. It was now that he employed all the 
arts of Action to inflame the minds of the people against 
Milo, the murderer of Clodi us; and those biographers 'wbd 
admit the fact of his being disgraced by Milo, as we bav^ 
above related, impute. to him motives of revenge only; and 
he. was equally industrious in raising a clamour against 
Cicero, in order to deter bim from pleading Milo's cause. 
In 70S be was expelled the senate by the then censors, 
Appiua Claiadkis and Calphurnius Piso, on account of bis 
profligacy, hnt restored in the following year by' Julius 
Caesar, and was likewise made quaestor, an oJBce wliich 
beemployed in aceumulating riches by ievery corrupt mea^ 
lure. During Cassar^s second dictatorship he was made 
praetor, and when Caesar went into Africa^ with part of his 
army,: be took Sallust with htm, who performed some im- 
porxant services, in return for which Caesar made him go- 
vernor of Numidia. It is here that bis public character 
appears most atrocious and indefensible, fie seems to 
have considered this province as a fund destined to the im- 
provement of bis private fortune, and plundered it in the 
most inboman manner. In vain did tbe oppressed Numi* 
dians -exclaim against his rapacity, and commence a prose*^ 
.GUtion against him. His wealth was a sufficient guard 
agaia9t tbe arm of jiistioe, and by sharing with Caesar a 
.part of the i^ils, he easily baiBed all inquiry into his pfo* 
viitcial administration^ On bis return, laden with fhis 
wealiSi, be purchased a country bouse at Tivoli, and one 
of tbe noblest dwellings in Rome on the Quirinal mount; 
with beautiful gardens, which to this day are called the 
.gardens of Sallust. In this situation it is supposed that he 
wrote his account of ^^ Cat^liue^s conspiracy," and the 
f* Jugurthine war,'* and that larger history, the loss of 
,wbicb there is so much reason to deplore. He died at tbe 
'^9^ of fifiy-one, Q. C. 35. Having no children of:bis 
<Miif% bi^ ample possessions passed to the grandson of his 
jAst^; and the family flourished, with undiminished splen- 
4oiit*, to a late aera of the Roman empre. 

Whatever objections may be made to Sallust's character 
as amani he has ever been justly admired as a historian. 

7« 8 A t I, U S T I V »• 

He U equally perspicuous and instiluctive : lus style is ^aV 
ah^ nexvousy bis descriplion^, rieflectionsy speeches, and 
ch9.racter8y all sbevtr the hand of a master. Biiit bis paurtia* 
lity may be blamed with equal justice, and even soQ[ia of 
bis most virtuous sentiments and bitter invectives agaiiwt 
corruption in public, men .may be traced rather to party 
spirit, than to a genuine abhorrence of corruption, wbicb^ 
indeed, in one who bad practised it so extensively, coul4 
not be expected, unless the result of a penitence we no 
where read of. His attachment to Caasar, and bis di&re« 
spect for Cicero, are two glaring defects in bis merit as a 
faithful historian^ 

. Of Sallust there are many excellent editions* His worka 
were first printed at Venice, in 1470, and reprinted thirty, 
times, before the conclusion of that century, but tbesd 
editions are of gr^tat rarity. The best of the more modem 
are the Aldus of i521, 8vo, the Variorum of 1690, Svo, 
Wasse's excellent edition, printed. at Cambridge in 1710^ 
4to; Cortius's edition,. 1724, 4to; Havercamp's, J 742, 
2 vols. 4to; the prize edition of Edinburgh, . 1753, 12ma; 
the fiipont, 1779, bvo^ that very accurate one by Mr, 
Homer, Lond. 1789, 8vo; and one by Uarles, J799, BvQ» 
The late Dr. Rose of Chiswick, published a very eorrect 
translation of Salhist in 1751, 8vo, with Cicero's Four 
Orations against Catiline ; and more recently Sallust baa 
found a translator, and an acute and learned commentator 
and advocate, iu Henry Steuart, LL,D. F. R. S. and S. A.EL 
Hvho published ini 1806,. in, 2 vols. 4to, ** The Works of 
£allust. To which, are prefixed, two Essays on the Life» 
literary character, and writings of the historian ; with 
' notes historical, bjographicaJ, ,and critical.'^ ' 

SALMASIUS, or SAUMAiSE (Claude), one of tim 
post learned men of the seventeenth century, and wbom 
JBaillet has with great propriety classed among his *' £n£uis 
celebres par les etudes,*' was born at Semur-en-Auxois, in 
Burgundy.. His family . was ancient aud noble, and bis fa« 
Iber, an eminent lawyer, and a member of tl>e f^rliament 
of Burgnnd}', was. a man of worth and learning. Respect*' 
ing the time of his birth, all his bio&^raphers diffen Peter* 
Burman,. who has compared their differences, justly thkika 
it very strange that so many persons who were bis eontani-^ 
poraries and knew him intimately, should not b»veaseer«« 

> Life by Dr. Steuart,— and by Dr. Host .— Dibdin't ClaisiCi. 

S A L M A S I U S. IS 

ibrittted^e etCBct dales either of his birtfa or death. The 
foroier^ boweveri we presooae may be fixed either in 1 593 
or 4694; He was educated at first solely by bis fatberi 
wfao'taoght hion Latin and Greek with astonishing saccess. 
Attbe jage of ten he wa:> able to trknslate Pindar very cor-^ 
rectly, and wrote Greek and Latin verses. At the age of 
eleven, bii father wished to send him for farther education' 
tatbeJesotts'* college at EHjon, not to board there,' but to 
attend tessons twice a day, and'icDprove tlieni at hit lodg^ 
ings. Inthis scheme^ however, he was disappointed. His 
Hiotbery who w^as a procestaiit, had not only inspired Claude ^ 
with a hatred of. the Jesnits, but encouraged him to write 
satires against the order, which he did both in Greek abd 
Latin, and entertained indeed tiiroughont life the same 
aversion to them. Having refused therefore to comply 
with bis father's request in this respect, his mother proposed 
to. send him to Paris, where her secret wish was that he 
should be confirmed in her religion. This being complied 
with, he soon formed an acquaintance with Casaubon and 
some other learned men in that metropolis, who were astor 
nished to find sdeh talents and . erudition in a mere boy. 
During his residence here he conversed much with the 
clergy ^f the reformed cfaurchj and being at length deter- 
milled to mdie an open aVdwal of bis attachment to protes- 
tantism, he ai^ed leave of his father to go to Heideibergi 
partly that he: might apply to the study of the law, but 
prilictpaliy f but be might be more at his freedom in reli- 
{[ious matters. Baillet calls this a trick of his new precep- 
tors, who willed to persuade Salmasiiis^s fatbier that Paris, 
with respect to the study of the \Mi^ was not equal to Hei«« 
delberg, where was the celebrated Oenis Godefroi^ and an 
exeellent library. 

Salnmsios^s father hesitated long about thta proposition. 
As yet be did not know that his son n^ai so far gone in a 
thsmge of religion, but still did not choose that he ahould 
be eent to a place which swarmed with protestants. He 
therefore wished his son would prefer Tbuloose, where 
were at that time aome eminent law professors; but 
Claude refused, and some unpleasant correspondence took 
plaee between the father and the son, as appeatis by the 
words in ^hich^the former at lait granted bis permission—* 
^ Go tben^ I wiih to «how how much more I am of an in- 
dulgent father than you are of aU. obedient son.*^ The son 
indeed in this manifested a little of that conceit and arro« 

T4 S A UM A 5 1 US. 

gance which sppwred in' many instances in his fotilre life, 
and unmoved by the kindness be bad just received^ refused to 
%mfe\ by the way of Dijon, as his fether desired, but joined 
some merchants who were going to Francfort fiiir, and ar- 
rived at Heidelberg in Oct. 1606, or rather 1607, when 
he was only in his .-fourteenth year. Whatever may be 
thought of his temper, we need no other proof that he wa8> 
•ne of the most extraordinary youths of this age that the 
world ever knew, than the letters addressed to him at this 
time . by Jungerman and others on topics of philology. 
They afford an idea of Us eruditi<Mi, says Burman, wbiefa 
could only be heightened by the production of his answevs. 
To Heideft>^g he brought letters of recommendation 
from Gasaubon, which introduced him to Godefroi, Gruter, 
and Lingelsheim, and. his uncommon merit soon improved 
this into an intimacy. Under Godefroi he applied to the 
BiuAy of civil'law with that intenseness with which he ap- 
plied to every thing, but as he now had an opportunity of 
indulging his taste for the belles lettres, and was admitted 
to make researches among the treasures of the Palatine li«» 
brary, he spent much of bis time here, abridging' hims^f 
even of sleep. By such extraordinary diligence, he accu- 
SDuli^ted a vast fund of general knowledge, but in some 
measure injured his health, and bfooght on an illness which 
laaled above a year, and from which he recovered with diU 
ficulty. ' i 

. With an insatiable thirst for knowledge, Salma^«ts had 
an early and strong passion for fame. He commenced au- 
thor when between sixteen and seventeen years of age, by 
publishing^ aa edition of ^' Nili, archiepiscopi Tbessaloni-* 
Csensis, de primatu papie Romani, libri duo, item Barlaam 
monacbus, cum interpretatione Latina : CI. Salmasii opera 
Qt studio, cam' qusdem in utrumque notis," Hanover, 160S, 
and Heidelberg, 1608 and 16 IS, 8vo. By this publicatioa 
against the authority :of the pope, he seemed determined 
to make a more public avowal of his sentiments than be had 
yet done, and to shew his zeal for the protestants, by coiik 
secrating bis first labours as an author to their service. In 
1609 appeared his edition of << Floras,'' printed at Pari% 
Svo, and dedicated to Gruter, whose notes are given along 
with those of Sahnasius. This was reprinted in 1636, and 
in 1638, to which last be added << Lucii Ampelii libelhis 
memorialis ad Macrinum,'' which bad never before ap* 

S A L M A ff I U S. 15 

: In 1^10, he returned, home and was admtHed ao adro-* 
eate, but bad no intention to follow: that profession, and* 
preferred lileratare and criticism as the sole empioynient 
of his life, and derived the highest reputation thateradi* 
tion can confer. Such was hb reputation, that he began 
to be courted by foreign princes, and universities. The 
Venetians thought his residence apnong them would be such* 
an honour, .that they offered him a prodigious stipend ; aad^ 
with this condition, that he should not be obliged to read 
lectures above three times a year. We are tok), that our 
university of Oxford made some . attempts to get him over 
into Engiaod ; and it is certain, that the pope made similar, 
overtures, though Salmasius bad not only .deserted. his re- 
ligion, and renounced his authority, but had actiiaily writ* 
ten against the papacy itself. He withstood,. ^ however, all 
these solicitations ; but at last, in 1632, complied .with an 
inntation from Holland, and went with his wife^ whom he 
had married in 1621, to Leyden. He did not go there to 
be professor, or honorary professor; but, as Vorstius in hisi 
*^ Funeral Oration^' expresses it,, *< to honour the university*' 
by his name, his writings, and his presence.*' 

Upon the death of bis fath^, in. 1640^ he returned for 
a time into France ; and, on going to Paris, wasmuchca- 
ressed by cardinal Richelieu, who. used all possible means 
to detain . him, and even offered him his own terms ; but 
could not prevail. The obligation he had to the States of 
Holland, the love of freedom and independence, and the 
necessity of a privileged plaee, in order to publish such 
^ings as he was then meditating, were the reasons .whioh 
enabled him to withstand the cardinal. Salmasius also re« 
fused the large pension, which the cardinal offered bim^ 
to write his history, because in such a work he thought he 
must either ^ive offencoy or advance.many, things contrary 
to his own principles, and to truth. Wbiletllewas in Bor^ settle family affiEiirs, the cardinal died, and was 
succeeded by Maeariu, who, upon our authpf a retora to 
Paris^ honoured him with the same solitcitations as his vpro)* 
decessor haddoiie. Salmaaius, however, declined this of* 
fers, and after about three years absence, returned to HoU 
iand : whence, though attempts were afterwards made to 
drawfhim back to France, it does not appear; that he ever 
entertained the least thought of removing. In the summer 
of 1650^ he went to Sweden, to pay queen. Cbrislina a 
y'mt, with whom be continued, till the summ^ fodlowkig. 

76' S A L M A S I U S. 

Tbe recepiion aii^ treatment he met witb^^s it is desdribed 
by the writer of his life, is very characteristic of that ex- 
traordinary patroness of learned men. '* She performed 
for him all offices,*' says he, '< which conld have been ex- 
pected even irom an equal. She ordered him to choose 
apartments in her palace, for the sake of having him with 
her, ' ut lateri adhsBreret,' whenever she would. But Sal- 
masius was almost always ill while he stayed in Sweden, 
the clioiate being more than his constitution could bear : at 
whicb seasons tbe queen would come to tbe &ide of his bed, 
hold long discourses with him upon subjects of the highest 
concern, and, without any soul present, but with the doors 
ail shut, would mend his fire, and do other necessary of-= 
fices for Jiim.^ She soon, however, changed her mind 
with regard to Salmasius, and praised his antagonist MiU 
ion, with whom his celebrated controversy had now begun. 
After tbe murder of Charles I., Charles II., now in Hoi- 
land, employed Salmasius to write a defence of his father 
and of monarchy. Salmasius, says Johnson, was lit this 
time a man of skill in languages, knowledge of antiquity,' 
and sagacity of emendatory criticism, almost exceeding ail 
hope of human attainment; and having, by excessive 
praises, been confirmed in great confidence of himself, 
though he probably had not much considered the priniciples 
erf society or the rights of government, undertook the em- 
ployment without distrust of his own qualifications, and, as 
his expedition in writing was wonderful, produced in 1649 
his ^^ Defensio Regia pro Carolo I. ad Serenissimum Mag- 
nte Britannia^ Regem Carolum II. filium nato majorem, 
baeredem et successorem legitimom. Sumptibus Regiis, 
anno 164^9 .'* Milton, as we have noticed in his life, was 
employed, by the Powers then prevailing, to answer this 
book of Salmasius, and to obviate the prejudices which 
ibe reputation'of his great abilities and learning might raise 
against their cause; and he accordingly published in 1651^ 
a Latin work, entitled ** Defensio pro Popul6 Anglicano 
co&tra Claudii Salmasii Defensionem R^iam." Of these 
two works Hobbes declared himself unable to decide whose 
language was best, or whose arguments were worst, he 
might have added, or who was most to blame for scurrility 
and personal abuse. Dr. Johnsoli remarks, that Salmasiua 
had been so long not only the monarch, but the tyrant of 
literature, that almost all mankind were delighted to find 
him defied atttf insulted by a new name, not yet considered 

S A t M A S I U a. .77 

jtt.any one^sVivaL Tbere is no proof, faoweirer, that S 
xsasjus's geoeml reputation suifered much from a contest in 
whicb be bad not employed the powers wbieh be was ac- 
knowledged to possess. His misfortune wits to treat of 
.subjects whicb be bad not much studied, and any repulse 
to a man so accustomed to admiration, must bave been very 
galling. He therefore prepared a reply to Milton, but did 
not live to finish it, nor did it appear until, published by his 
,son in the year, of the restoration, when the subject, in 
.England at least, was no longer fit for discussion. . He 
died at the Spa, Sept* 3, .1653, in consequence of an im- 
prudent use of the waters; hut as be had reproached Mil- 
.toQ with losiug his eyes io tbeir contest, Milton delighted 
himself with the belief that he had shortened Salmasius^;^ 
life. Nothing, however, can be more absurd, if any cre- 
dit is to be given to the account which Salmasius's bipgra- 
pherp Clement, gives of bis feeble constitution^ and long 

Salmasius, Dr. Johnson has observed, was not only the 
monarch, but the tyrant of litera^ture, and it must he alr 
lowed that although he had few, if any equals, in extent 
of erudition, and therefore little cause of jealousy, be was 
impatient of contradiction, and arrogaoiit and supercilious 
to those who differed from him in opinion. But bet nvust 
have h^d qualities to balaace theae imperfections, before he 
could have attained thie very high clu^acter given by the 
ipcist learbed men of bis age, by Casaubon, by Hueuus^ by^ 
Qronovius, by Scioppius, by our Seldeu, by Grotius, 
Gruter^i Balzac, Menage, Samvius, Vor^ius, &c. &c. &e. 
Those wl^o. have ccitically examined his writiqgs attribute 
the impexCeotions occasionally to be found in tbem to the 
hasty. j»a«iie|c in which he wrote, >aod a certain hurry and 
inipetuosijty of temper when be. took up any subject whicb 
engaged. his attenAioe* Gronotius, seems to. think that he 
was.sometin^es overwhelmed with the vastness of his erut- 
dtlion, . wd knew not bow . to restrain his pen. Hence, 
Gjronovius adds, we find so many contradictions in his 
mirka, for he employed no ajoaanueiisis, ^d was averse to 
the task of revision. 

Of bis aume/oua works* we may notice as the moat va- 
luable^ 1. ^^ Amict^ ad. amicumii de suburbicariis regionib»a 
et ecclesiis suburbicariis, epistola,^' 1619, 8vo, reprinted 
more correctly at the end of his epistles in 1G56. Tbi^ 
was written in consequence of a dispute between Godefroi 

7S SAL MA &tV 9, 

and fatber Sirmoodv 2. ^' Historise Aiigustfl^' tfcr^ptofM 
sex/' Paris^ 1620, fol. 3. '< Sept. Flarentis TerttiHiain 
bber de Pallio/* ibid* 1622, Svo, and Leyden, 165G, Sv6. 
This involved him in a controversy with Denis Petau, to 
whom he published two answers. 4. ^* Piinianr exercita^ 
tiones in Caii Julii S6lini Poly hist'' &c. ibid. 1629^^ 2 vols, 
fol. and Utrecht) 1689, which last edition has another work 
edited by Saumaise, *^ De homonymis Hiles iatricse eser-^ 
citationes ineditae," &c. 5. ** De Usuris/' Leyden, 16S8^ 
8vov -6. ^^Notae in pervigilium Veneris/' ibid. 1638, 12mo. 
7. <^De modo usuranim/' ibid. 1639, Svc 8. '^Disser- 
tatio de foenore trapezitieo, in tres libros divlsa,*' ibid. 1640. 
9. ** SimpHcii commentarius in Enchiridion Epicteti,'' &e. 
ibid. 1640, 4to, and Utrecht, 1711. 10. << Achillis Tatii 
Alexandrini Eroticon de Clitopbontis et Leueippes amori* 
bus, iibri octo,** ibid. 1640, 12mo. 11. ^Mnterpretatio 
Hippocratis apborismi 69, sect. iv. de calcolo," &c. ibid. 
1640, 8vo. 12. *' De Hellenistica : commentarius contro- 
versiam de tiftgaa bellenistica deetdens, et plenissime per- 
tractans origines et dialecticos Grsstas linguas," Leydcfrf, 
1645. iSv ** Obsenratfones in jus Atticum et Romanum,'' 
ibid. 1645, 8vo^ &c. &ci with many others on various sub- 
jects of philosophy, law, and criticism. A collection ^ 
bis letters was- published soon after his death byAutoiij^ 
Clement, 4to, with a life of the author, but many others 
are to be found in variotis collections.^ 

SALMON-(Framgis), a learned doctor and librarian ^ 
the bouse and society of the Sorbonne, was born of an 
opulent family at Paris, in 1677.- He waswell acquainted 
wkh itae learned languages, psrticuhtriy Heb? ew, possessed 
great literary knowledge^ and discovered much aiiectiotk 
for young persons who were fond of study, encMumging 
them by his example and advke,'and taking pleattofein 
lending them his books. He died suddenly at his country 
bouse, at Chaitlot, near Pftris, Sept. 9, 1736, aged fifhr- 
nine^ He. published a very useful work illustimcive or a 
part of ecclesiastical history, entitled ^ Trait6 de Tetnde 
des Conciles,*' with an account of the principal- authors and 
works, ^best editions, &c. upon the subject of coonoils^ 
Paris, 1724, 4to. This has been translated into German, 

•and printed at Leipsic, in 1729. He intendedalioto have 

. '• *.'.'■♦ 

> Life by Cleiaent.— Baillet Jagemens.*— Bloaat's Censuis**— MorerU— Bur* 
mao's *'Syllo5e."<^Sasii Onomaiticon. 


given 'a supplement to <^ Father Labbe*s CoUeotioti of Conn <* 
cils^^' : and an ^* Index Sorbonicus,^' or alphabetical library^ 
in which was^ tobegiv^i, under the namcfs of the respective 
authors^ their acts, lives, chronicles, bistones, books, trea« 
tiaes, bnlls^ &c. but did not live to oomplete either.* . • 

SALMON (Nathaniel), anEoglish antiquary,, was the 
aen of the rev. Thomaa Salmon^) M. A. rectpr of Mepsali in 
Bedfordahire, by a daughter of the notorious serjeant Brad<^ 
sha:w. He was admitted of BeoeH college, Cambridigey 
June i 1, 1'690, where his tutors were dean Moss and arch* 
deacpo Lunn, and took the degree of LL. B. in 1695. Soon 
aiievrhe went intO: orders, and , was for scune time curate of 
Westmill in. Hertfordshire; but^ although he liad taken 
the oaths to king William, be had so many scruples against 
taking:«them to his successor, queen Anne^, that he became 
e^litatnted to resign the. clerical profession, and with it a 
living of. IWL per annum, offered bim in Suffolk. He thea 
applied himself to. the study. of -physic, which he practised 
first at St. Ives in Huntingdonshire, and afterwards at Bi* 
sbq^. Stortfiord^ in the county of Hertford*, His leisure 
tioie aqppears to have been employed in studying the hbtoiy 
and ajitiquitiesof his country, on which, subjects he pub* 
liidiedy 1. ^< A Survey of the Roman Antiquities in the Mid* 
land Coualies in England,'^ 1786, 8va 2. i%A Survey of 
the Rpmanv Stations in Britain, aocordtng to the Roman 
Itinerary 2" 1721, 8vo. 3. ^<The Histoiyof.Hertfordshii^^ 
descvibing .the county and its.ancient monuments, particu* 
lady tbier Roman, with tbe characters of those that have 
hMn tknet chief ppssesscMs of the lands, and an account of 
llw XQoat imemorable occ»irreAoes/' I728» folio. This was 
dfmigned as a. continuation of Gbauncey's History, and was 
d^tf3saledL>tQ tbe earl pf Hertford. 4. ^* The Lives of -the 
liii^UtthBishops from the Restoration to \he Revolution, fit 
t^i^be .opposed to tbe. Aspersions of some late Writers of 
SJeeret jUi^tory," 17$3, a work which we have occasionally 
found, very useful, although the author^s prejudices, in 
Sfsme induces,. appear rather strong. 5. ^<A Survey of 
the/Roman Stations in England," 173i, (an improved edi<>* 
tion. probably of the first two works above mentioned) 2 
Yeb«vd ve* ^ ^. ^ The Antiquities of Surrey^ collected from 
tbe: 0iost micient records, add dedicated to Sir John Eve* 
lyni bart» with some . Account . of the Present State and 

. . • • • 

* Moreri.— Pict Hi>t. 


Natural History of the County/* 1 736, 8tq. 7* ^ The His** 
(ory and Antiquities of Essex, from the Collections of Mr« 
Strangeman,*^ in folio, with soone notes and luiditions of 
hb own ; but death put a stop to thitf work, when he bad 
gone through about two thirds of the county; so that the 
hundreds of Chelmsford, Hinkford, Lexden, Tendrlng, 
and Tburstable, were left unfinished. 

Mr. Salmon died April 2, 1742, leaving three daughters. 
His elder brother, Thomas, honoured with the name of 
the historiographer, is said to have died in 1743, but most 
have b6en livlncr some years after this, when he published 
bis account of Cambridge, &c. Mr. Cole says, <^ he ivas 
brought up to no learued profession, yet had no small turn 
for writing, as his many productions shew, most of whtdi 
w^e written when be resided at Cambridge, where at last 
he kept a coffee-house, but^ not having sufficient custom, 
removed to London.^^ He told Mr. Cole tbat h^ had been 
much at sea, and had resided in both Indies for some, tiipe. 
His best known publication, and that is not much known 
now, is hia ^^ Modern History, or Present State of all |>fa« 
Ijons,^ published in many volumes, 8vo, about 1731, &c« 
and re^ published, if we mistake not, in 3 vols, folio, from 
which it was afterwards abridged in 2 vols, and long conti- 
nued to be published under various fictitious names* Ha 
wrote also *^ Considerations on the k\\\ for a general natu** 
ralization,as it may conduce to the. imiprovement ^f oar 
manufactures and traffic, and to the stnengthening or eri* 
dangering of the constitution, eKemplified in the revolu- 
tions that have happened in this kingdom, by inviting over 
foreigners to settle among us. With an (nquiiy into the 
nature of the British constitution, atid die freedom orser- 
^tude of the lower class of people, in the several' changes 
it has undergone^" Lend. 1748, 8va '< I'he Foreigner's 
Companion through the universities of Oxford and Canoi'* 
bridge, and the adjacent counties, describing the several 
colleges aiid other public buildings, with an account of their 
respective founders, benefactors, bishops, and other emi* 
neiit men educated in then),'* ibid. 1748, 8vo. This title 
ttre( give from Cole, as we have not seen the work» Pievt«* 
ousiy. to this, Mr. Salmon intended to write ^' The present 
state of the Universides, and of the five adjacctfit: ooundes 
of Cambridge, Huntingdon, Bedford, Bocks^ and Oxibid/* 
but published only the first volume, 1744, 8vo, which con- 
tains the history of Oxford, county and university. To 

is X t Al JJ; »i 

tHts afe added some shrewd remarks on universrty ddlica-* 
tion, and a college life, with the cxpences attending it* 
In the preface he speaks of a " Greneral Description of En-* 
giand, and particularly of London the metropolis," in 2 
Vbls. which he had published. His name is also, to a ** Geo- 
graphical Grammar,^' an ** Examination of Burnet's History 
of his own Tinies,** and other works. The " New Histori- 
cal account of St. George for England, and the original of 
this order,** Lond. J 704, is ascribed by Mr. Gough to 
Mr. Tfabmas Salmon, the father, who, it may noiv be meifl- • 
tioned, was distinguished as a musical theorist^ and wrota ' 
** An Essay to the Advancement of Music, by casting away 
the Perplexity of different Cliffs ; and uniting all sorts of- 
Music, Lute, Viols, Violins, Organ, Harpsichord, Voices ' 
^c. in one universal Character, by Thomas Salmon,* ArM. ' 
of Tfinity College, Oxford,*' London, 167J^. This book, 
bays Dr. Burney, "is well written, and/ though very illl- • 
berally treated by Lock, Play ford,' and some oiher profes-^ 
sors, contains nothing that is either absurd or impracticable; 
tior could we discover any solid objection to its doctrines 
bieing adopted, besides the effect it would have upon old 
music, by soon renderiiig it unintelligible. At present the 
tenor def alone is thought an insuperable difficulty in out 
country, by dilettanti performers on the harpsichord ; but * 
if Salmon's simple and easy musical alphabet were chiefly 
in use, the bass clef would likewise be soon rendered as 
obsolete and difficult as the tenof ; so that two parts of 
clefs out of three, in present use, wpuld become unintel^ 
ligible.*'**^ - 

-SALTER (Samuel), a learned English divine, was th« 
eldest son of Dr. Samuiel Salter, prebendary of Norwidh, 
and archdeacon of Norfolk, by x\nne-Penelope, the daugh- 
tap of Dr. Johrt Jeffery, archdeacon of Norwich. ' He was 
educate^d fof some time in the free-school of that city, 
whence he removed to that of the Charter-house, and was 

* There iras m WitiUM Salmon, larg^ Herbal,'' folt which Dr. Pol^nejr 
Whether related to the above family is mentions wiih some degree of resf>eet. 
uncertain, a noted empirii:, who prac- His *• Polygraph ice*' has sold better 
tiaed phj^ic with various success for a than all the rest of his ^orJu ; the 
long oaatie of years. He published a tenth edition of it is dated Lond. 17Q1, , 
oohsideraDle nupber of medical boolcs, He lived about the latter end of the 
the cAiief of wtiidiis his '* Complete aeventeenth ceatury aiid beginning of * 
Pt^ieian, otfDcoKgist'iSbopopetied^'^ the eighteeiitb. , '. 

a thick octavo of 1207 pages; " A ., ' > , 

* 'Ma8ters*8 WisU of C. C. C, C— Cole's MS Athenas Cantab, in Brit i^fus.^ 
^iotogh't Topograph V, &c,—G«Dt» Mag. vol. LXVf.* - 

Vol. XXVII. G 


ag; SALTER. 

a4niitted oC BeneUi-cpHe^e, Cambridge, June 30, 1730#» 
. under the tuition of Mr. Cherries Skottqwe. Sooo aft^r bi^ 
taking tl^e degree of B. A* in 17^3, he was c^i^sen iuto a. 
fi^lQwsbip, ai^d topk bis masffr's d^gre^ in 1737. His na« 
taraV aD4 a^cqtiired abilities rfscoo^ipend^d bim to sir Pbjlip. 
Xorke> tb^p lord-qluef-justipe of ^be Kiog^s^hc^nch, and 
afterwards ^rL of Hardwicke, for the instructipn. of his . 
e|4e|^tsoD the second ^arl, whq, with, three of his brothei7»y 
ip eqmpU^ent toabp. H^rrii^^g, was educated at that col-, 
lege. As soon as that eminent lawyer was i^ade lord^ 
chanCiel)or, he appointed. Mi;. Salter his don^e^iq chaplain, 
and gave him a prebend in,thje church, of Glojuf^est^r, wbicb 
bfs .afterwards exchanged for one in that of N(orwich. Ai^out 
the tiiK\e of bis quitting Cambridge^ he was on^ of the^writeVs 
in th§ " Atb^niat^ Letters.'* Soon after the chancellor gave . 
Mr. Si^Uer the reptpry of B,urton Coggles, in the county of 
I^ncoint in 1740^ where be went to r^tde soon after^ and, 
niarryipg Miss Seeker, a relation of the then bishop, of . 
Oxford, continued there till 17]5,0, when he wa$ noininated , 
nqiinister of Qr^ Yarmouth by the de^n and <:hapter of' 
Norwich. Hj^re. be performed tl^ duties of tb^t large, 
parish with great, diligence, till his prp^np.tiph to the 
preacbership at the Cbarter^bpuse in Japuary 1754, som^ 
time before which (in Jpiy, 175J), abp. Herring had ho- 
noured him with tbe| degree; of D. D. at Lambetb* In 1756, . 
h^' was. presented by the iprd-chaDcelio^ to th^. rectory of 
St, E|artholomew near the I^yal Exchange> wbicb was tbe 
laj;t ecclesiastical pref^r^^ent he obtained j; but id Nov. 
1761, he succeeded Dr. Bearcroft as master of the Cbgr^ , 
ter-'kou^e, who had been bispreil^ecessor in the preiacher- ' 
ship. While he was- a member, of Bene't eollege, Ire \ 
printed Greek Pindaric odes on the nuptials pf the princes , 
of Orange and Wales, and a copy of Latin verses on the 
death of queei) Caroline. Besides a sermon. preached on . 
occasion of a nvusic- meeting at Gloucester, anojjifr before 
ihe lord-mayor, Sept. 2, 1740, on the anniversary of the * 
fire of London, a third before tbe sons of the clergy, 1755, 
which was much noticed at tbe time, and underwent seve^ ' 
ral alteratidns before it was printed ; and one before the 
House of Commons, Jan. 30, 1762; he published' "A ' 
complete CQUection of Sermons and Tracts'' of his. grand- 
father Dr. Jeffery, 1751, in 2 vols. 8vo, with bis life pre-*^^ 
fixed, and a new edition of '^ Moral add. Religious Apho«f > 
fisms,'^ by Dr. WhicbcQte, with large additions of some > 

S A L TE ft. 83 

letters that passed between him and Dr. Tucktiey, ^' con- 
cerning the Use of Reason in Religion/' &c. and a bio* 
gfapfaic^l preface, 1751, 8v6. To these may be added, 
^* Some Queries relative to the Jevirs, odcasidned by a lat0 
sermon,'* with some other papers occasioned by, the 
'^Queries,'* published the same yeac In 1 773 and 1774, 
he revised through the press seven of the celebrated . 
" Letter^ of Ben Mordec^i ;*' written by .the rev. Henry 
l^aylor, of Crawley in Hants: In .1776, Dr. Salterprinted 
for private use, *^ The first 106 lines of the First Cfook of 
the Itiad * ; nearly as written in Homer^s Time and Coun- 
try;** and printed also in that year, ** Extract from, the 
Statutes of the House^ and Orders of the Governors, re- 
specting the Pensioners or poor Brethren" (of the Charter-^ 
house), a large single sheet in folio ; in 1777, he corrected 
the proof-sheets of Bentley*s *^ Dissertation on Pbalaris;** 
and ndt long before bis death, which happened May 2, 
177S, he printed also an inscription to the memory of his . 
parents, an account of all which may be seen in the 
*VAnecdote8 of Bowyer.** Dr. Salter was buried, by his 
own express direption, in the most private manner, in the 
commbn buriaUground belohgfing to the brethren of the 

In' the discussion of philological subjects. Dr. Salter 
proved himself a very accurate. Greek scholar; his reading, 
was universal, and extended through the whole circle of 
ancient literature ; he Was acquainted with the poets, bis- 
toriansy orators, philosophers, and critics, of Greece and 
Rdme ; his memory was naturally tenacious, and it bad 
aciouiredfreat artificial powers, if such an expression be 
allowable, by using no notes when he delivered his sermons. 
t\> extempore preaching he had accustomed hiniself for a 
lon^ course of years. So retentiveindeed were his faculties, 
that, .till a few years before bis deatb^ he could quote long 
pasfages from almost every author whose works he had 
periised, even with a critical exactness. Nor were his 
studies the writesrs of. antiquity; be was eijually 
coij^ersiht with English liters ture^^ and with the languages*^ 
and productions of the learned and v ingenious in variou3\ 
parts of Europe. In his earlier Ufe he had be^en acquainted 

* Theie (with Dr. Salter's lenti- '* Daw.e9'i Miscellanea Critica/* 0%9 
me»t« on the JDigamnHt) baVe hetti ford/l'tSl, 8to; p. 404~r4^, 
tiDM copied is iD imjpnrai edltiQiii of 

Q 3 



'ivith Bentleyvand cherished his memory with profound 
respect. He preserved many anecdotes of this great critic, 
which were published from his papers by our learned 
English printer, Bowyer. * - 



SALVIAN, orSALVIANUS, an elegant and beautiful 
writer,, was one of those who are usually calledfathers of the 
^ church, and began to be distinguished about 440. The 
time and place of his birth cannot be settled with any ex- 
actness. Some have supposed him to have been an Afri- . 
can, but without any reasonable foundation : while others 
have concluded, with more probability, that be was a Gaul^ 
frbm his calling Gallia his " solum patrium f though per- 
haps this may prove no more than that his family came 
frpm that country. His editor Baluzius infers from his 
first epistle, that be was born at Cologne in Germany ; and 
it is known, that he lived a long time at Triers, where he . 
inarried a wife who was an heathen, but whom he easily 
brought over to the faith. He removed from Trier? into , 
the province of Vienne, and afterwards became a priest of 
Marseilles. Some have said, that he was' a bishop ; but 
this is a mistake, which arose, as Baluzius very well con- 
jectures, from this corrupt passage in Gennadius, ** Ho- 
milias scripsit Episcopus multas ;" whereas it should be 
tead " Episcopis" instead of ** EpiscopiTs," it being known ; 
that he did actually compose many homilies or sermons 
for th6 use of some bishops. He died very old towardi ' 
the end of the fifth century, after writing and publishing a 
grefit many works; of which, however, nothing remairis but/ 
efght books " De Providentia Dei ;'^ four books •* Adver- 
8US avaritiam, prsesertim Clericorum et Sacerdotum ;" and 
nfne epistles. The best edition of these pieces is that of 
Paris 1663, in 8vo, with the notes of Baluzius; re-printed 
elegantly in 166.9, 8v6. The " Commonitoriiim"'of Vin* 
^entius Lirinensis is published with it,^ with notes also bj 

SA LVIATI (Francisco Rossi), called II Salviati, front 
the favour and patronage of the cardinal Salviati, was the 
son of Michelangiolo Rossi, and was born at Florence in 

1510. He was first placed as a pupil under Andrea d^^H 

• • • ' ■ • 

> Nichols'* Bow?er.^Matter8' Hist, of C, C. C. q. 

* C%fMt v«L L-«Wofkt by B»lu3itts.r-^Larda«r's Works^— Dupin. 

S A L V I A T I. 85 


Sanpi ^nd afterwards, with far more' advantage, with Bac- 
cio Baiidinelii. Here he had for his fellow pupil, Vasar^, 
who afterwards pronounced him the greatest painter thep 
in Rothe. His employment kept pace with his reputation, 
-and,' among other beneficial orders, he was engaged by 
'bis patron, the cardinal, to adorn his chapel with a series 
of frescoes, the subjects being taken from the life of Sw 
John Baptist. He produced a set of cartoons of the historjr 
of Alexander, as patterns for tapestries ; and, in conjunc- 
tion with Vasari, ornamented the apartments of the Can- 
celtaria with paintings in fresco. From Rome he went to 
Venice^ where he painted many pictures, both for public 
edifices and private collections, particularly the history of 
•Psyche for the Palazzo Grimaldi. He afterwards travelleii 
through Lombardy, and made some stay at Mantua, studyr 
ing with much delight the works of Julio Romano. At 
Florence, he was employed by the grand-duke to adorn the 
Palazzo Vecchio : in one of the saloons he represented the 
victory and triumph of Furius Camillus, a work greatly ad- 
mired for the truth and taste of the imitation, and the vi- 
<gour and spirit df the composition. 

A restless habit, and a disposition to rove, led Salviati 
to accept an invitation to France, from the cardinal d^ 
Lorraine in the name of Francis I., then engaged in con- 
structing and adorning his palace at Fontainebleau ; ancl 
during his «tay here, he painted a fine picture for th« 
church of the Ceiestioes at Paris, of the taking down from 
the Cross. He soon after returned to Italy, where tha 
iarbulence of his temper and his continual disputes wiia 
his brethren shortened tiis days. Such continual agitatiQii 
of mifid brou^t on a fever, of which he died in 1^63, at 
the age of fifty-three.* 

• SALVINI (Antonio Maria), a learned Italian, was born 
at Florence in 1654, where he afterwards became professor 
of Greek, which he understood critically. He has the 
leredit of having contributed much to the promotion of 
good, taste in Italy, chiefly by his translations, which com- 
prize the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer; Hesiod ; Theocri- 
tus ; Anacreon ; and many of liie minor poets and epi* 
grammatfsts: the Clouds and Plutus of Aristophanes; parts 
of Horace ^and Ovid; Persius; part of the Book of Job 
Atidthe Lamentations; Boileau's^^Art Poetique;" Addison's 

} Argeuville^ vpL L— Pilkiogtoii.— ^Reel's Cyclopedia* ., .; 

.86 S A I, V I N I. 

" CatoV and "Letters from Italy/* and other piieces.AU 
these are literally translated, which obliged him to in^ro* 
duce into the Tuscan language a .multitiide of new coa|« 
pound tern^s. He wrote, also '^ Spnnet9 and other.origiml 
Toems/* 4to,; « Tuscan pro^e,*' 1715, 2iroU.. 4to; *VA 
hundred Academical Discpurses f * ^^ A funeral Oration fqr 
Antonio Magliabecchi,'^ apd pth.^r works, fie died in I72£f. 
'The Salvinia, in bptaqy, wa^ so ,naa^pd in complimoat %p 
faim, but of his bptapical talents we have no informatipo* 
Salvini also belonged to the academy i>f De la Crusca,fand 
\iras particularly iustruqDenta,l in the cpmpletipa of that ce« 
lebrated Dictionary, tleh^d aypunger brother^ a.c^non 
of Florence, who died at an adviinaedage in .1751. H^a 
yas also a distinguished ,inan of letters, and published |i 
' work, entitled '^ Fasti consplari delle^ Acadf^mia F^pren* 
jtina,*' and the Lives of Magalptti apd Migliocucci/ 

SAMBUCUS (JohnJ, ap'^minept physician, and one qf 
the most learned writefrs in the sixteenth century, vfMs born 
in 1531, at Tirnau in Hungary. Qe v^ited t^e universities 
of Germany, Italy, and Fran.ce, ^iid applied with alau>&t 
equal success to the stu4y of ^ledicine, the beUea lettrea^ 
poetry, history, and .antiquities, flis learning ai^d r^pu- 
tatipn introduced him with great a^antage at tb^ courts .<]^ 
the emperprs Maximilian IL and ^qdolphus IJ. to w^oi^ 
he bjecame counsellor ai)d historiographer* l^ambucus died 
of an apoplexy at Vienna in Austria, June 13^ ^584, .#g^d 
fifty-three, leaving an excellent ** History of Hungary,'* 
in the German histories publishjed by Schardius.; " Livejs 
of the Roman Emperors f ' l4tjtui translations of f' liiesiQ/d, 
'Theophylact, and part of Plato, Ovid,, and Thupydide^ ;'* 
^* Commentaries on Horace's Art of Poetry ;'\ nptes op s^ 
veral Greek and Latin authors; .'Mcones D^edicprum,'' 
Antwerp, 1603, fol.; '^EmbleinaW A^^twerp, l^TC, l^to, 
and several other works in verse and prose«5 

SAMPSON (Thomas), an eminpnjt puritan diyipte, W3|^ 
according to Strype, born a( Play ford in Suffolk, ai^]^;^ 
.a fellow pf Pembroke- hall> Cambridge. Woofl s^yi( be 
Was bom, in 1517, without specifying where; bp| a^ds, 
that he was educated ac, Oxford, .which seeqas mpst probar 
1>le, as tha^ university was the. scene of much of his future 
life. He. appears to have, imbibed the principles of thf 

> VabroBi Viie 1t|iloniin,-.*Moreri.-*-Saxii Onomasdcon. 
s BuUait't Academic des Scieaces.i^BlouQi*ii C«ii»ura.-«'Moreri«— *SflX]i 0«mi- 

k ■ 


S A M P S O N. si 

irfffolrmtitlon ftt a very early period^ aiid becamb sueli an 
Adtit^ rea^oner thlit Wood informs us he was the means of 
cbbvertiiig Jobh Bradford, the famous martyr. He began 
Kfce^ii^e very earty to entertain those prejudfces agarnst 
die habits wbioh occasioned so much mischief in tlie diarcb, 
zhd which were confirmed in him, and many others, by 
aiisocia^ing with the Geneva reformers during their exile 
m the time bf queen Mary. He was ordained by arch- 
bishop .Cranmer and bishop Ridley, who, at liis request, 
dbpensed with the habits, to which now, and eVer after, 
be a^tacbed the idea of idolatry. He wks chaplain in^ tbe 
alrtify of lord Rustel in bits exjpedition against tbef Scots. 
In 1551, be was prisfer'red to the rectory of Allhaflow^', 
Breadvstre^9 Loi^on, which he resigned in 1553, ahd the 
year following to the deanery of ChicKestler. Odring the 
reign of EdwaH VI. lie was accounted one of the ablest 
and most tiaeful preachers in confirming the peopte in the 
d^btrims of tbe reformation. On the accession of queeh 
Maiy he cobbeiled biinserlf for some time ; but having been 
active in collecting money forthe Support df poor ^cholar^ 
in tb^ two universities, harrbwiy escarped being apprehended, 
and was obliged to go -abroad, where he resided chiefly at 
Strasburgh^ wfth tbe other JEngKsb eiiles, and bad s6md 
band in the Geneva translation of the Bible. 

On the accession of queen- Elizabeth he' returhedi hbme^ 
liotdnly confirmed' in his aversion to the Habits, but wrth a 
dislike^ it would iappear, to the wholeofthe'hierarchy, and 
refused tbe bishopric of Norwich because disisatislied with 
the fiatur6 of tbi^ dfBce. He continued, however, to |)reacfa«. 
particularly at Paul's cross, wher^ his wohderfiil m^inpiy 
and feloquenice ^tre very much admired ; and in September 
t5B6 he was mkde a prebendary of Durham'. In Micbief* 
toi»'4erm 1561^ be Was installed deaii of Christ- church, 
Oxford. On this occa^ioti sonfe members of that society, 
wbb' ribfcommended bini fdr the situation, said, that ^"^ it 
Wkk veiry doubtful, whether there was a better niah, a 
||^feati§r*lingbist, a ibofe complete scholar, or a ibore pro- 
Uiisttid (tlvineV and it is certai^i that for some years Be and 
Dr. Eawrence Humphrey were the only protestant preacher^ 
Kt Oxford of any celebrity. In 1 562, he resigned bis pre- 
l^^d'bf Dttrham, and became so open and zealous in his 
invectives against the. babits^^ that gf^er considerably fpr- 
fiearance, be was cite£f, with Dr. Hurophreyy before the 
bigb commission court at Lambeth, and Sampson was 

^ M SAM P S O N. 

deprived of his deanery, and for some time imprisonlKl^ 
Notwithstanding bis nonconformity, however, he was pre-r 
sented, in 1568, to th^ mastership of Wigston^ho^pital, 
at Leicester, and had likewise, according to Wood, a pre- 
bend in St. Paul's. He went to ^reside at Leicester, and 
continued ther^ until his death, April 9, 1589. He mar,-*- 
ried bishop Lattmer*s niece, by whom h« had two son^y 
John. and Nathaniel, who erected a monument to his m^^ 
mory, with a Latin inscription, in the chapel of the hos^ 
pital at Leicester, where he was buried. His works are 
lew : 1. "Letter to the professors of Christ's Gospel, in tb^ 
parish of AUhallows in Breadstreet,'' Strasburgb,1554, 8vo^ 
which is reprinted in the appendix to StrypeV^' £(;cles4- 
astical Memorials," vol. III. 2. ^^ A Warning to take heed 
of « Fowler's Ps^lterV' Lond, 1576 and 1578, 8vo. .ThU 
was a popish psalter published by John Fowler, on^ce a 
Fellow of New-qoUege, Oxford, but who went abroad, 
turned printer, and printed the popish controversial works 
for some years. . 3^ *^ 3rief Collection of th^ Church and 
Ceremonies thereof," LQnd,.l58l, 8vo, 4. " Prayer^ and 
Meditations Apostolike ; gathered and frained out of the 
Epistles of the Apostles," kc ibid. 159^, 16mo, He was 
also editor of two sermons of his friend ^ohn Bradford, on 
Tepentance and the Lord's-supper, Lond, 1574, 1581, and 
1589, 8vo. Baker ascribes to him, a translation of '^aSjsr- 
mon^ of John Chrysostpmey of P^cienc^» of the end of the 
world, and the- last judgment,'' ,1550, 8 vo; and of " Arx 
Homelye of the. Resurrection of Christ," by John Brenuus, 
.1550, 8vo. Other works, or papers in which be was con-r 
cerned, may be seen in our authorities^' 
. S ANADON (NoEi^- Stepren), a learned Jesuit of France, 
was born f^t lioueit in 1^76. He taught polite literature 
witk distinguished reputation at Caen, where he contracted 
an intimate friendship with Huet, bishop of Avranche.; A 
taste for poetry is said to have been the principal bond of 
their union. He afterwards professed rhetoric at Paris..; and 
^as for some time charged with the education of the. prince 
of Conti. He was librarian to the king when he died, Sepr 
tember 21, 173$, He published separately various Latin 
poems, whicli are reckoned anriong the purest of modern 
times ; and also published them in a collected form, f^ ,Cajr-^ 

I Ath. Ox. new edit vol. I. — Strype*i AddaI'v -^ Slryoe's ^iife Qf Parker. 
fp.l69, 184, 186, 243, [448], 468, 

S A N A D O N. S» 

mintiin Rbri quatuor,'' Paris, 1715, \2tnOy and various tbesea 
and philological dissertations ; but is best known by bis 
translation of tbe works of Horace with notes; a work 
which has been very well received. Tbe satires and 
epistles are -ably translated ; but the odes are rather 
weakened by a languid paraphrase than a version answerable 
to the original. His notes are learned, and many of them 
very useful for understanding his author ; but there are also 
marks of a falsely delicate and fastidious taste, not unconi-p 
mon among French critics. The best editions of his Ho« 
race are those of Paris, 1728, 2 vols. 4tQ, aild 1756, 8 
vols, 12mo. ' • 

SANCHES (Antonio Nunes Ribeiro), a learned phy« 

sician, was born March 7, 1766, at Penna-Macor, in Por<r 

tugaL His father, who was an opulent merchant, and in« 

tended him for tbe bar, gave him a liberal education ; 

but, bein^ displeased at finding him, at the age of eighteen^ 

obstinately bent on the profession of physic, withdrew his 

protection, and he was indebted to Dr. .Nun^s Hibeiro^ 

his motber^s brother, who was sr physician of considerable 

repute at Lisbon, for tbe means of prosecuting his medical 

studies, which he did, first at Coimbra, and afterwards at 

Salamanca, : where he took the degree of 'M. D. in 1724; 

and the year following procured the appointment of phy-«' 

sician to the town of Benevente in Portugal ; for which, 

as is the Custom of that country, be had a small pension. 

His stay at this place, however, was but short. He was 

desirous of seeing more of the world, and of improving 

himself in his profession. With this view he came and 

passed two years in London, and had even {in intention 

of fixing there ; but a bad state of health, which he attri<^ 

"buted to the climate, induced him to return to the conti^ 

nent Soon after, we find him prosecuting, his medical 

studies at Leyden, under the celebrated Boerhaave^ and 

it will be a sufficient proof of his diligence:and merit .ta 

observe, that in 1731, when the Empress, of Russia (Anne) 

requested Boerhaave to recommend -to her three physt^^ 

cians, the f^rofessor immediately fixed upon Dr. Sanch^s 

to be one of the number. Just as he was setting out for 

llussia, be was informed that his father was lately dead ; 

and that his mother, in an unsucce^isful law*auit with the 

1 Haries (who has a high opiaion of jSaoailon) De v\iis ^hj)ofQ^tuof^ ▼^f <iyV 
vrMorerJ.^iFsiDict. ni»t. 


i€«e admiraltjr, had-lbtit the gfeater.psrt 'of ^ber for^ 
tiine< He iminediiitely ^assigned orerbb bwn little'ctaitns 
find expectations in Portugal fdr her stipporu Soon aftfr 
bb arrival al8t. PeiJerfbuiig, Dr. Bidloo '(son ef'ttevfa-* 
moaS'pbjtioian of tliat name), Who wtis at that timt first 
pbyaician to the empress, gave bioi an appbintdfient in the 
hospital at Moacow^, where be refii^iined fill 1734, when htf 
«?ia employed as physician to the arnty, in which capacity 
be was preseiit «t the siege ofAsoph, wherb be was at-> 
tacked with. a dangerous fev^r, and, when be begMto re^ 
tover, Cmhh) himself in a Vent, abandoned by bis atten^ 
dants, and plundered of bis papers and effects. In 1740^ 
be was appointed one of the physicians to the donrt, and 
consulted by tbeein][)^ess, iivho bad for eight years beeit 
labouring under a disease, the cauiTe of which l^d bevef' 
been .satisfactorily ascertained. Dr. Sancb^s, in a cbnVer-^ 
sation with the pritfie minister, gave it as bis opinion/ tluct 
the complaint originated from a stone in ^le of the Ifid- 
fieys, and admitted only of paliiatiM. At the end <H^ six 
months the ebpress died, and the truib of his opinion waa 
confirmed by dissection. Soon afteir the death hf the ettk* 
press, Dn S«incb^s Wilis advanced by the I'ej^eht to the of& 
fico of first physician ; but the revolution of 1742^ wbteli 
placed Elizabeth Peurownid on the throne, deprived birt of 
all his appointments. Hardly a day passed that he did ti^t 
bear of someof bis friends perishing on*tbe s^caffold; iLnd 
it was not without much difficulty that he obtained leave 
to retire from Russia. His library, which had cost bilh 
1.200 pounds sterling, he disposed of to the adLdetny of St* 
Petersburg, of which he was ah honorary membi^r ; and} 
in return, tikey agreed to give him a pensioh of fort^ 
pounds per anoom. During his residence in Russia, hi^ - 
iiad availed himself of bis situation ^t court, to establilb A 
eorrespoudence with the Jesoits in China, wfad, ih returfi 
for books of astronomy and other pfie^ents, sent biin seed^ 
br platits, together with other articles of n^toral history. It 
was from Dr* 8aiicbi6s that the late Mr. Peter Coilitisim first 
received the seeds of the true rhubarb, but the plants\4rere 
destroyed by some accident; and it was not till several 
years afterwai^s that rhubarb was cultivated with soccesk ' 
m this cbimtry, tvom seeds sent over* by the Ifttb fM 
Mounsey. In 1747, he went to reside at Paris, where he 
remained till bis death. He enjoyed the friendship df the 
most celebrated physicians and pbilosopbeirs of that capi 

« A N € H £ «. »l 

tB^j at the^innkiHtonof aRoyidMedicfKl Societjry'lie was 
choseo a foreign associate* He was likewise a ineinber 0f 
,tbe royal »cadeiqy of Lisbon, lo the establishment €»f whioh 
bXs advice had .probably contributed, as be drew up, at 
the deiiire of the court of Portugal, aeveral memorials on 
tbp plans nex^e&sary to be adopted forr the eocout^agemeat 
of science. Some of these papers, relative to the esm- 
.blis)in)ent of an university, were printed during his life- 
time in, Portuguese, find the rest have been foand among 
'his manuscripts^ .His services in Russia remained for aia* 
teen years unnotified; hilt, when the hite empress Catbe« 
rine ascended .the thrpoe, Or. Sanch6s was net foi^oitea. 
..He bad attended h^r in a ds^i^rous illness wbeu sfa«was 
very ypung ; and ^he now rewardeid him with a 'pension ef 
a thou^nd roubles, which was punctually paid tifU bis deatb« 
He likewise received a pension from the court of 'Porlugal, 
and aooU^r from prince GaUitzin. A great part of bhts 
income be employed in acts of benevolence. Of jthe libe- 
rality with w;ith he a4ministeced to the wants of bis rela- 
lions and friends, several striking instances, which our 
limits vvili not permit us to insert, have been relatetl fay 
lyir. de Mag.dlan. He was naturally of an infirm habit of 
body, and, during the sbst thirty years of his life, ire* 
gueo^tly voided small stones with his urine. The disposi- 
lion CO this disease increased as he advanced in years, i^nd 
for a considerable time before his death, he was confined 
to jtiis aparUnepts. The last visit he made was, in 17Sd, to 
ith^, grand duke of Russia^ whp was then at Paris. In Sep* 
tember 1733, he perceived that his end was appvoaebtng, 
an4 be 4ie4 on the 14th of October following* His library, 
.which was A:pnsiderable, he bequeathed to his brother. Dr. 
Marcello Sanch^s, who was likewise a pupil of Boerbaave, 
apd.wlfo resided at Naples. His manuscripts (among which, 
,biesid^ a cQqstderabl^ number of papers on medical sub- 
jects^ are letters written by him to Boerbaa%'e, Van 8wie- 
ten, Gaubius, Haller, Werlbof, Pringle, Foihergill^ and 
other learned naen). are in the possession of Dr. Andry, 
His printed wprks, on the origin of the venereii dises^s^ 
and other subjects, are well known to medical readers; 
bjit his knowledge, it seeip^f was not confined to his own 
,pcp£assion ; be possessed a fund of general learning, and 
is said to haye been profoundly versed io politica.' 

Sop^l^weiit to the edit, of Uiis Diet. 178>, Uqv^ the LQadon M^^icftl Jouraal. 


« A N CHE Z. 

an eminent classical scholar of the sixteenth centurv, was 
born at Las Brocas^ in the' province of Cstremaduras in 
iSpain, in 1523. His principal residence appears to have 
been at Salamanca, where he was professor of rhetoric, and 
taught Greet and Latin with the highest reputation, de- 
rived from the originality of his criticisms and remarks oh 

-the classics. Justus Lipisius; Scioppius, and others, seem 
at a loss for language to express their admiration of bis ta- 

•lents and learning. Lipsius bestows the epithets ** divine** 
and " admirable ;'*^ and Scioppius says he ought to be con^^* 
eidered as ^'communis literatorum oninium pater et doc-^ 
tor.*' Sanchez died in 1600, in the seventy-seventh year 
of his age. He publisfied a great many works on subjects 
of classical criticism, and was the editor of Persius, Pon)- 
poi^ius Mela, Politian's ** Sylvae," Alciat's emblems, Vir- 
gil's Bucolics, and Horace's Art of Poetry, He published 
also two Greek grammars, and some other pieces on grant- 
mar and rhetoric ; but the work which has perpetuated his 
reputation is bis " Minerva, de causis linguae Latinse," Sa- 
lamanca, 1587, 8vo, which was often reprinted. In more 
i^odern times, an edition was published at Amsterdam, in 

. 1754, or 1761, 8vo, with a supplement by Scioppius, and 
notes by Perizonius. This was reprinted with farther inr^- 
provements by Scheidius, at Utrecht, in 1795, 8vo ; and 

.again by Bauer, at Leipsic, in 1804, 2 vols. 8vo.* 

SANCHEZ (Gaspaji), a learned Jesuit, was born dt 

-Cifuentes, in New Castile, about [553. According to tbe 
practice of the society, with such young men as have distin* 
guished themselves in their studies, he was appointed tb 
teach the learned languages and the belles lettres in the 
Jesuits* colleges at Oropesa, Madrid, and other places, and 
was at last chosen professor of divinity at Alcala. Here he 
spent thirteen years in commenting on the Scriptures, tba 
result of which h& published in various volumes in folio, at 
different times. It is perhaps no inconsiderable proof df 
their merit that Poole has made frequent references to theih 
in his " Synopsis Criticorum.'* He died in 1628." 

SANCHEZ (Peter Anthony), a learned Spanish ec- 
clesiastic, was born at Vigo in Gallicia in 1740. Aft€lr 
the preparatory studies of divinity, &c. he entered into the 
church, and obtained a tanonry in the cathedral of St. 

I AnL l^ihl Hisp.^Siuii Onomast. ' Antonio Btbl. Hisp.-^Dict. Hist! 




3^eSy and ^aa likewise appointed professor of divinity in 
that city. His fame procured him admission into many 
learned societies, and he became one of. the most cele- 
brated preachers of the last century, nor was he less ad-> 
mired for his benevolence. He obtained the honourable 
title of the father of the unfortunate, among whom he spent 
the whole profits of his c^nonry, and at bis death in 1 806, 
left no more than was barely sufficient to defray. the ex- 
pences of his funeral. The leisure be could sfpare from.hi^ 
professional duties was employed in the study of the eccle- 
siastical history of his country, which produced several 
wprks that are highly esteemed in Spain. Some of them 
were written in Latin, and some probably in Spanish, but 
our authority does not specify which. Among them.are^ 

1. '^ Summa theologiae sacrae/' Madrid^ 1789, 4 vols. 4to. 

2, « Annales sacri," ibid. 1784, 2 vols. 8vo. 3, " History 
of the church of Africa/' ibid. 1784, Svo, a work aboundr 
ing in learned research. 4. " A treatise on Toleration in 
matters of I{ejigion,** ibid. 1785, 3 vols. 4to, rather a sin* 
gular subject for a Spanish divine. 5. *^ An essay on the 
eloquence of the pulpit in Spain,*' ibid. 1778, 8vo. 7*his 
is. a history of sacred oratory in that country in various ages^ 
with the names of those who yvere th^ best models of iL 
The restoration of a true taste in thi^ species of eloquence 
be attributes to his countrymen becoming acquainted with 
the works of those eminent French preachers Bossuet, Mas- 
sillon^ fioordaloue, &c. 6. *^ A collection of )iis Sermons,'* 
ibid. 3 vols. 4to. These were much admired in Spain, and 
w^re the same year translated into Italian, and printed at 
Venice in 4 vols. 4to. 7. '* A paper read in the Patriotia 
Society .of Madrid in 1782, on the means of encouraging 
industry in Gal licia,*' ibid. 1782, Hvo. This being his na- 
tive country. Dr. Sanchez had Iqng laboured to introduce 
kabits of industry, and had influence enough to procure a 
repeal of some oppressive laws which retarded an object of 
iQ o^ucfa importance^ 

.SANCHEZ, SANCTIUS, or SANCIO (Roderigo), a 
Spanish prelate, admired for his writings in the fifteenth 
c<;ntury, was born atJSanta Maria de Nieva, in the diocese 
of Segovia, in 1.404.. After being instructed in classical 
learning, and having studied. law for ten years at 
Silamancf, be was honoured with the degree oT doctos in 

*' • • ' •» Diet. Wst: Supptem^nt. • • ' 

94 V S>ANCttE2. 

that factiUy; but afterwards embraced the ecct^sia^leral * 
profession, recmed priest's orders^ and was mAde sncces-^ ' 
stveiy archdeacon of Trevino in tbediocese of Btirgos; dean 
of Leon and d^an of Seville. Tbe fir^t preferment b4 held ' 
twetHy yelkrsi the second seveni' and the third two years. ' 
Abont 1440^ John II. king of Castille, appointed him en-^ 
Toy to the emperor Frederick III. and he was also after- ' 
war<is employed in aimilar commissions or embassies to - 
other <rrowned beads^ When Caliittus* III. became pope; * 
Henry lY. king of Castitle^ sent him td congratoliate bis ' 
hirfiness^ which occasioned bim to take tip bis residence at' 
Rt>Q)e. In all- his embassies, be ixiade harangues to the ' 
difleirdfit princes ta. whom be was senty wbicb areiitiH pre^ 
served in MS. in tbe Vaticati library; On tbe accession of ' 
pope Patil IL be made Sanchez governor 6f tbe- castle of ^ 
St Angelo, and keeper of the jewels and treasures of tbe ^ 
Roman cfanrchi and afterwards^ promoted him* to the 
bisboprics of Zamora, Calaborra^ and Pdlencia^ Tbeselast 
appointments, however, were little more than aineipures, a^ " 
he n^ever quilted Rome, and employed what time be 'could*' 
spare from bis official duties in that cortiposing h 
great many works, of which a list of iv^enty-niiie. may be^ 
seen in oar-aotboritios. He died at Rome Oct. 4j'147D'^ ' 
and was interred in the church of St; JAmes of Sptiin. AU . 
though so voluminous a writer^ by far the greater part of ' 
his works remain in MS. in the VaticaTi and other libraries ; 
wetknow of three only which were published/ 1. bis bistory ' 
of Spain, ** Historise Hispauiie partes quatuor." This Mar- * 
chand seems to think was published separately; but it waa ' 
added to tbe *' Hispania Illu8trata'*of Bel and Scbott, pub- 
lished at'Francfort in 1579, and again in J 603. 2. " Spe- 
culum vita? butnanae, in quo de omnibus omnium vitsD or- 
dinom ae conditionumcommodis ac incommodis tr^ctatur,^^ 
Rome, l^SHj folioj which, with three subsequent editions, 
is accumtely described in tbe'**'Bibliotheca Spenceriana.** * 
This work contains so many severe reflections on the clergy ' 
of the autfabr^s timej that some protestant writers have been 
disposed to consider bim as a brother in" disguise* It is ^ 
certainly singular that he could- hazard ^^o much ' poitit^d ^ ' 
censure in such an ag^. 3. ^* Epistola- de^ expugnatione ^ 
Nigropontis," folio, without date, but probably beford'the * 
attihor'a lieatb. A- copy of this likewi^ occurs in ttaer"^ 
'^ Bibl. Spenceriana." Those who are desirous of farther 
information respecting Sanchez or his wotks may be amply 

S A N C R £ Z. 98' 

grstifted in liiarehand, who ha* a ppolix article on the sob« 

SANCHEZ (Thomas Anthomv), a learned Spaniard, 
and librarian ta the Iiing^ was born in 17^0, and dtstin-* 
guished himself by bi$ researcbea into the literary history 
of his country, aqd^ bysome editions of its ablest authors, 
which be illustrated with very valuable notes. Our autho- 
rity, however, conveys ve^y little informauon respecting ^ 
bis personal history or his works, and does not even men- 
tion the. concern be had in the new and much improved ' 
edition, of^ Antonio^s <^Bibl. HispaiMu'' He died at Ma- 
drid ia 1 793^. Has most celebrated work 'is bis ^* Collection ' 
of Castii Han- poetry anterior to the fifteenth century, to 
wfaicb are prefixed menioifs of the first nisrquis^ off SaiitiU 
lane, and. a letter addressed to the.constable of Portugal, 
oO'tfaeorigjn of Spanish poetry/' Madrid, 1779«-^1 782, 
5-voIsi 8vo. This history is now. preferred to that of father 
San»ie^oto,i wlucb formerly eojoyed < such reputatio.^i. 
Sanchez also wrote ^^ An Apology for Cervantes/* te ans- 
wer to a letter published in the Madrid Courier; and *' A ' 
Letter to Don Joseph Berni, oq his defence of Peter the 
C^4i«I," ibid. 17 7 8, 8to.« 

SANCHO' (Ignatius), an ^ctraordinary ' Negro, was ^ 
bora, in fl^9f on board a ship in tbe skve^trade, a few 
days after it bad quitted the coasts of Gkiinea for the Spa«» 
nish West Indies i and at Car^hagena, received baptism 
from tbe<haiid of the bishop, and tlie name of Ignatius. He 
lost, his parents in his infancy, a diseaseof the new climate 
havingiputaffveariy period to his mother's esistence; while 
his father -defeated tbe miseries of slavery by aa act of * 
suicide* At little rmore than two years old, his master 
broiight him to England^ and gave him to three maiden - 
sisters, resident at Greenwich ; who thought^ agceeabJetd 
prejudices not uncommon at that time, that ignorance was 
the^nly security for his obedienee, and that to enlarge his 
mind wodld go near to^mancipate bis person;. By them 
he was sumuned Sancho, from a fancied resemblance to 
th^'lS4|iHre of Don Quixote. While in tbb aituatiou, the 
duke of Montagu, who lived^dn Blackbeatb, accidentally * 
saW9^9>o4 adfuired in hiip a native frankness of manner, as 
yet .untoftykeft in servitude, and unrefined by education ; 
broughtbimfrei^ently bom,e to the duchess; indulged bis 

• , V. • > 

» Karchaod's Diet. Hist.~;^fit<wio Bibl. Hf^- V^^jSj, new^cjjit. 

»6 S A N C H 0. 

turn (or readiitg'Witb presents of booksi and strongly rcl> 
commended to his mistresses the duty of cultivating a gc* 
nhis of such' apparent fertility. His mistresses, however^ 
i^ere inflexible^ and even threatened on angry occasions 
to return Sancho to his African slavery. The love of free- 
dom bad increased with years^ and began to beat hi^h in > 
his bosom« Indignation^ ami the dread of constant re- ' 
proach arising from the detection of an amour, finally de- 
termmed him to abandon the family, and as his noble pa-> 
tron was recently dead, he flew to the. duchess for protec- ' 
tion, who dismissed him with reproof.- She at length, bow,-*' 
ever, consented to admit him into her household, where he. 
remained as butler till her death, when he found hioiserf^ 
by her grace^s bequest and his own ceconomy, possessed of 
seventy pounds in money, and an annuity of thirty. Free- 
dom, riches, and leisure^ naturally led a disposition of « 
African texture into indulgences; and that %vhtch dissi- . 
pated the mind of Ignatius completely drained the purse. 
C^rds had formerly seduced him ; but an unsuccessful corv> 
test at cribbage with a Jew, who won his clothes, had der' 
termined him to abjure the propensity which appears to be 
innate among his countrymen. Ignatius loved the theatre^ 
and had been even induced to consider it as a resource in 
the hour of adversity^ and his complexion sugg^^ted an ^ 
offer to the manager of attempting Othello and Oroonoko^ > 
but a defective and incorrigible articula^on rendered this > 
abortive. He turned his mind once more to service^ and 
was retained a few months by the chaplain at Montagu-^ 
house. That roof had been ever auspicious to him ; and 
the last d\ike soon placed him about bis person, where ha-^ 
biiual regularity of life led him to think of a matrimonial 
connexion, and he formed one accordingly with a v!ery de-« 
sQrviog young woman of West India origin. Towards the 
cipse of 1773, repeated attacks of the gout and a coostitu^ 
tional corpulence rendered him incapable of farther. attend-' 
ance in the dpke^s family. At this crisis, the wonificence • 
which had protected him through various yicissitudes did 
not Tail to e?cert itself; with the.result of bis own frOgality^ 
it enabled him and his wife to settle themselves in a shop 
of grocery, where mutual and rigid jirndustry dc>;enUy. 
maintained a numerous family of childrefi, and yvh^ithii life, 
of domestic virtue engaged private patronage, ?nd merited 
public imitation. He died Dec. 15, 1780,' of a series of 
complicated disorders. 

S A N C B O. ^t 

Mr J^^U remarks diat, of a negro, a batter^ and a 
grocer, there are but slender anecdotes to animate' the page 
of the biographeri yet it has been held necessary to give 
vome sketch of the very singular man, whose letters, with 
all their imperfections on their head, have given such ge- 
neral satisfaction to the public^. * The display which those 
writings exhibit of epistolary talent, rapid -and just con« 
'ception, of mild patriotism, and of universal philanthropy, 
attracted' the protection of the great, and the friendship of 
the learned. A commerce with the Muses was supported 
amid the trivial and momentary interruptions of a shop ; 
the poets were studied, and even imitated with some suc- 
cess ; two pieces were constructed for the stage ; the theory 
bf music was discussed, published, and dedicated to the 
Princess royal'; and painting was so much within the circle 
of Ignatius Sanch'o's judgment and criticism, that several 
artists paid great deference to his opihion. 
' Such was the man whose species philosophers and ana- 
t6mist8 have endeavoiired to degrade as a deterioration of 
the human ; and such was the man whom Fuller, with a 
benevolence and quaintness of phrase peculiarly his own^ 
accounted ^' God's image, though cut in ebqny.'* To the 
harsh definition of the naturalist, oppressions political and 
legislative were once added, but the abolition of the slave 
trade has now swept away every engine of that tyranny. 
Sancho'left a widow, who is, we believe, since dead ; and 
a son, who carried on the business of a bookseller for some 
years, and died very lately.^ 

SANCHONIATHON, is the name of a reputed Phoe- 
nician author, as old as the Trojan war, about 1274 B. C. 

* Th« fint «ditioft wat patipnized ori^iDally written with m Tiew to pabli- 
hj a BubtcripUoo not known since the cation. She declared, therefore, *' that 
days of the Spectator. T^e work was no such id^a was ever expressed by 
pabiished Ibr tbe benefit of the author*! Mr. Sancho ; and that not a iiii^e let^ 
family, bf Miss Crewe, an amiable ter was. printed from any duplioat* 
young lady, to whom many of the let- preserved by himself, but all were col- 
ters are addressed, and who is since lected from the various friends to whom 
married to John Phillipa, esq. surgeon they were addressed.*' Her reasons 
of the household to the Prince of Wales, for publishing them were •* the desire 
Prom the profits of the first edition, and of shewing that an untutored African 
A sum paid by the booksellers for li* may possess abilities equal to an Eu« 
lierty to. print a. second edition, Mrs, ropean.; and the still superior- motive 
Sancho, we are well assured, received of wishing to serve his worthy family . 
more thaA 500/. The editor did- not And she was happy,'* she declared; 
featitrsrtd gire'them to the pobUo till ** in pubUd^ acknowledgiag she had 
she bad obviated an objection which not found the world inattentive to the 
kad been tnggested, that they were voice of obscure merit.*' 

'.* ' 1 Letters; \1Hi 2 vob. Sto, with a life by Joseph Jekyll, esq. 


98 S A N C P O N I A T H O N. 

and of great reputation for diligence and faithfulness. 'He 
is said to have collected out of the most authentic records 
be could procure, the ^' Antiquities o( Phcenicia^'^ with the 
help of some memoirs which came from Hierombaaly [Hief 
jrobaaly or Gideon,] a priest of the God Jeuo or Jao. He 
wrote several things also relating to the Jews. Thes^ 
*J Antiquities of the Phcenicians/' Philo-Bjblius, in the 
same Phoenicia, in the days of Adrian, translated inta 
Greek ; and Athenseus soon afterward reckoned him among 
the Phoenician writers. A large and noble fragment of 
this work, Eusebius has given us, verbatim, in his firs); 
book of '^ Evangelical Preparation,^' cap. ix. x. and has 
produced the strong attestation of Porphjry, the most 
learned heathen of that age, to its authenticity. Upon 
these authorities, many learned men have concluded that 
the genuine writings of Sanchoniathon were translated by 
Pbilo-Byblius, and that Sanchoniathon derived a great 
part of his information from the books of Moses, nay, some 
have supposed that Thoth^ called by the Greeks, Hermes^ 
and by the Romans^ Mercury, was only another name. for 
Moses ; but the inconsistencies, chiefly Chronological, which 
the learned have detected in these accounts, and especially 
the silence of the ancients concerning this historian, who, 
if he bad deserved the character given him by Porphyry, 
could not have been entirely Over«looked, create a just 
ground of suspicion, either against Porphyry or Pbilor 
Byblius. It seems most probable, that Philo-Byblius fa« 
bricated the work from the ancient cosmogonies, pretend* 
ing to have translated it from the Phcenicianj in order to 
provide the Gentiles with an account of the origin of th^ 
world, which might be set in opposition to that of Moses^ 
Eusebius and Theodoret, indeed, who, like the rest of the 
fathers, were too credulous in matters of this kind^ and 
after them some eminent modern writers, have ima-» 
gined, that they have discovered a resemblance between 
Sanchoniathon^s account of the formation of the world and 
that of Moses. But an accurate examination of the doc<* 
trine of Sanchoniathon, as it appears in the fragment pre« 
served by Eusebius, will convince the unprejudiced reader, 
that the Phoenician philosophy, if indeed it be Phoenician, 
is directly opposite to the Mosaic. Sanchoniathon teaches^ 
that, from the necessary energy of an eternal principle, 
active but without intelligence, upon an eternal passive 
chaotic masSy or Mot^ arose the visible world -, a doctrine, 


9 A i^.C H O N;I A T H O N. 9> 

^f which there are . sopad' ajipearatices in 'the aiKsieilt ^os* 
mogonieS) and which was not without its patrons among 
the Greeks. . It is therefore not unreasonable to conjec-» 
tare, that tbd work wds forged iil opposition to the Jewish 
Cosmogony^ and that tbiswas the circumstance which' ren-* 
dered it so acceptable to Porphyry. Such is the opiaioii 
ofBrucker on this history; and Bod well and Dupin, th6 
former. in an express treatisci have also endeavoured to 
invalidate its authenticity.^ 

SANCROFT (Dr. Willum)> an eminent English pre- 
late, was borii at Fresingfield^ in Suffolk, Jan. 30, 1616, 
tad educated in.grammar^learningat St. Edmund's Bury^ 
where he was equally remarkable for diligent application 
to bis studies, and a piou» disposition ^. In July 1634, he 
was sent to EmanUel college in Cambridge,^ where he be- 
came very accomplished in all branches of literature, took 
his degree of B. A. in 1637, and that of M. A. in 1641, and 
was in 1642 chosen fellow of his college. His favourite 
studies were theology, criticism, history, and poetry ft but 
in all hi& acquirements he was bumble and unostentatious. 
In I64d he took the degree of B. D. It is supposed he neyec 
sabscribed the covenant^ and that this was connived at, he^^ 
cause be continued unmolested in his fellowship till 1649 i> 
at which time, refusing the engagement^ be was ejected. 
Upon this he went abroad, and became acquainted with the 
most considerable of the loyal English exiles; and^ it i» 

* Among bishop l^aoner^s MSSi in bnt chiefly retigions, exactly and e1«t 

the Bodlieian library id the following: gantly transcribed with his own hand, 

letter from him to his father, dated while a fellow of Emanuel. Some ot 

Sept. 10, 1^1. ** T have lately of- these are from the first edition of MiU 

fered up to God the first fruits of that tbn^s lesser poems, which Mr. Warton 

csllingr which t intend, baring com- ebserres is perhaps the only instance 

moD-placed twice in the chapel ; and on record of their having received for 

if through your prayers and God's almost seventy years, any slight mark 

blessing upon my endeavours, 1 may of attention or notice. Sancroft, adds 

become an inittrament in any measure Mr. Warton, even to his matureryean, 

fitted to bear his name before his peo- retained his strong early predilection 

pie, it shall be my joy, and the crown to poUte literature, which he still con- 

of my rejoicing in the Lord. I am tinued to cultivate ; and from these ' 

persuaded that for tl^i» end I was sent and other remains of his studies in that, 

into the world, and therefore, if God pursuit, now preserved in the Bodleian 

lends me life and abilities,'! shall be library, it appears that he was a dili** 

villing to spend myself and to be spent gent reader of the poetry of his timea^' 

upon the work." both in English and Latin.—- Warton't 

f Among his papers at Oxford is a edftion of Milton s Poems, 1785, pre» . 

ttry coasiflerable collection of poetry, face, p. v. , . • / 

> Vosstus de Hist. Grsec.— Moreri. — Brucker.-*Dod well's ^* Disoonrse eoflh* ' 
eeraing the Phoniciaa History of Sant'honiathon/*, add<:d to the second edition > 
of bis «'Two Letters of Advice,*' 1681. —Gebelin'i «* AUegori^i OnenUlfa^"' 
Fftria, 1779, 4to»-^omberlaiid't *< Sanchoniatl|0B.» . ^ 



said, be was at Rome when Charles II. was restored. Ht 
immediately returned to England, and was made chaplain 
to Cosin, bishop of Durham, who collated him to the rec<* 
tory of Houghton-ie-Spring, and to the ninth prebeiid 
of Durham in March 1661. In the same year he assisted 
in reviewing the 'Liturgy, particularly in rectifying the 
Kalendar and Rubric. In 1662 he was created, by mafi« 
damus, D. D. at Cambridge, and elected master of Ema« 
nuel college, which he governed with great prudence. Iii 
1^64 he was promoted to the deanery of York, which aU 
thdugh he held but a few months, he expended on the 
buildings, about 200/. more than he had received. Upon 
the ddath of Dr. John Barwick he was removed to the 
deanery of St* Paul-s ; soon after which, he resigned the 
mastership of Emanuel college, and the rectory of Hough- 
ton. On' his coming to St. PauPs he set himself most di* 
ligently to repair that cathedral, which had suffered greatly 
from the savage zeal of the republican fanatics in the civil 
wars, till the dreadful fire in 1666 suggested the more noble 
undertaking of rebuilding it. Towards this he gave 1400if. 
besides what he procured by his interest and solicitations 
Among his private friends, and in parliament, where he 
obtained the act for laying a duty on coals for the rebuild- 
ing of the cathedral. He also rebuilt the ^eanery, and 
improved the revenues of it. In Oct. 1668, he was ad- 
Kiitted archdeacon of Canterbury, on the king's presenta* 
tion, which be resigned in 1670. He was also prolocutor 
of the lower house of convocation ; and was in t,hat station 
when Charles II. in 1677, advanced him, contrary to his 
knowledge or inclination, to the arcKiepiscopal see of Can- 
terbury, In 1678 he p^ibtisbed some useful directions con- 
cerning letters testimonial to candidates for holy orders. 
He was himself very conscientious in the admission ta or- 
ders or the disposal of livings, always preferring men of 
approved abilities, great learning, and exemplary life. He 
attended king Charles upon his death-bed, and made a very 
weighty exhortation to him, in which he is said to hav^ 
used a good deal of freedom. In 1686 he was named the 
first in JaimesII.^s commission for ecclesiastical affairs; but 
he refused to act in it. About the same time he suspended 
Wood, bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, for residing out 
of and neglecting his diocese. As one of the governors of 
the Charter-house, he refused to admit as pensioner in 
'tkat hospital Andrew Popham, a papist, althougli he came . 

S A N C R O. F T; 101 

^itfaa nomination Ironi th^ court. In Jagie 1 6&8| be joineil^ 
with sisc of his brethren the bishops in the famous petition 
lo king James, in which they gave their reasons why they 
could not cause his declaration for liberty of conscience to 
be read in churches. For this petition, which the court 
called a libel, they were committed to the Tower ; and, 
bejng tried for a misdemeanor on the 29th, were acquitted, 
to the great joy of the nation. This year the archbishop 
projected, the vain expedient of a comprehension with the 
protestant dissenters. We have the following account of 
this in the speech of Dr. W, Wake, bishop of Lincoln, in 
the house of lords, March 17, 1710, at the opening of the 
tkcond article of the impeachment against Dr. Sacheverell: 
'* The person,^' says he, *' who first concerted this design 
was the late most reverend Dr. Sancroft, then archbishop 
of Canterbtu*y. The time was towards the end of that un*^ 
happy reign /of king James II. Then, when we were in 
the height of our labours, defending the Church of Eng- 
land against the assaults of popery, and thought of nothing 
else, that wise prelate foreseeing some such revolution as 
soon after was happily brought about, began to consider 
how utterly unprepared they had been at the restoration of 
king Charles II. to settle many things to the advantage of 
the Church, and what happy opportunity had been lost for 
want of such a previous care, as he was therefore desirous 
should now be taken, for the better and itiore perfect esta« 
blishment of it. It was visible to all the ilation, that the 
more moderate dissenters were generally, so well satisfied 
with that stand which our divines h&d made against popery, 
and the many unanswerable treatises they had published iu 
eonfutation of it, as to express an unuisual readinessto 
come in to us. And it was therefore thought worth the 
while, when they were deliberating about those other mat-/ 
ters, to consider at the saqie tioke what might be done to 
gain, them without doing any prejudice to' ourselves. Tho 
scheme. was laid oqt, ^nd the several pans of it were com- 
giittfid, .not only with the approbation, but by the direc- 
tion of that great prelate, to such of our divines, as were 
thought the most proper to be intrusted with it. His grace 
tcK^ one part to himself ; another was committed to a then 
pious and reverend dean (Dr. Patrick), afterwards a bishop 
of oiy church. The reviewing of the daily service of our 
Liturgy, and the Communion Book, was referred to a select 
number of excellent persons, two of which (archbishop^ 


S A N C K O E T. 

Sbarp; and Dr. Moore) are at this time upon oar beneb f 
and I am sure will bear witness to the truth of my relatiQUi. 
The design was in short this: to improve, and, if possible^ 
to inforce our discipline ; to review and enlarge our Li^ 
turgy, by correcting of some things, by adding of others ; 
s^nd if it shodid be thought adviseable by authority, when 
this matter should come to be legally considered, first in 
convocation, then in parliament, by leaving some few cere-r 
monies, confessed to be indifferent in their natures as in.<<^ 
different in their usage, so as not to be nece8sarily>ob8erve4 
by those who made a scruple of them, till they should be 
able to overcome either their weaknesses or prejudices 
and be willing to comply with them/* In October, ac« 
companiied with eight of his, brethren the bishops, Sancroft 
waited ^pon the king, who. Lad desired' the assistance of 
their counsels ; and advised him, among other things, to 
annul the ecclesiastical commission, to desist from the ex<fr 
ercise of a dispensing power, and to call a free and regular 
parlian^ent. A few days after, though earnestly pressed 
by his majesty, he refused to sign a (kclaration of abhor «» 
rence of the prince of Grangers invasion. In December, 
on king James's withdrawing himself, he is said to hava 
signed, and concurred with the lords spiritual and temporal, 
in a declaration to the prince of Orange, for a free par* 
liamenty security of our laws, liberties, properties, and of 
tjie church of England in particular, with a due indulgence 
to protestant dissenters. Bui in a declaration signed by 
him Nov. 3, 1688, he says that "he never gave the prince 
any invitation by word, writing, or otherwise;" it mus| 
therefore have been in consequence of the abdication that 
be joined with the lords in the above declaration. Yet 
when the prince came to St. James's, the archbishop n^her 
went to wait on him, though he had once agreed to it, nof 
did he even send any message^. He absented himself 
likewise from the convention, for which he is severely cen« 
sured by Burnet, who calls him ^^ a poor-spirited and fear* 
f ul man, that acted a very mean part in all this great trans* 

* Bishop NicolsoD, in one of his 
letters lately published, seems to hint 
that Sancroft ^as more active in pro- 
moting the revolution than has been 
supposed. After ceosuring him for not 
paying his' respects to the new king, 
Iilicolson says, ** I should rather choose 
to follow him in the more frank and 
•pen passages of his life> than in this 

unaccountably dark and mysterious 
instance ; especially, since I had ta- 
citly consented to his seizing the Tower 
tif Londom, and his address to the prioM 
of Orange to accept the government.*^ 
— NicoUon*s Epistolary Corr^pond* 
ence, by Mr. NichoUyS vols. 8yo» 1809* 
vol, I. p. U. 


attioir. 'H«*nesolved," says he, ^'neidier to ECtfbr/nor 
against, the king's interest; which, considering his high- 
post, was thought very unbecoming. For, if be tbocight, 
sffi by his behavionr afterwards it seems he did, that the^ 
nation was running into treason, rebellion, and perjury, it 
was a strange thing to see one who. was at the head of the* 
ohttrch to sit silent all the while that this was in debate, 
and not once so much as declare his opinion, by speaking, 
noting, or protesting, not to mention the other ecclesiastic*- 
cal methods that certainly became his character.^' 

After William and Mary were settled on the throne, he 
and seven other bishops refused to own the established go«< 
vemmept, from a conscientious regard to the allegiance 
they Had sworn to king James. Refusing likewise to take 
the oaths appointed by act of paiiiament, he and they 
were suspended Aug. 1, 1689, and deprived the 1st of 
l^eb. following. On the nomination of Dr. Tillotson to^ 
this see, April 23, 1691, our archbishop received an order 
from the then queen Mary, May 20, to leave Lambeth* 
bouse within ten days. But he, resolving not to stir till 
ejected by law, was cited to appear before the barons of 
the exchequer on the first day of Trinity-term, June 12,, 
1691, to answer a writ of intrusion ; when he appeared by 
his attorney; but, avoiding to put in any plea, as the case 
stood, judgment passed a^inst him, in the form of law, 
Jane 23, and the same evening he took boat in Lambeth- 
bridge, and went to a private house in Palsgrave-head* 
court, near the Temple. Thence, on Aug. 5, 1691, he 
letired to Fresingfield (the place of his birth, and the estate 
[50/. a year] and residence of his ancestors above tbre^ 
hundred years), where he lived in a very private manner^ 
^ill, being seized with an intermitting fever, Aug. 26, 1693, 
be died on Friday morning, Nov. 24, and was buried very 
privately, as he himself bad ordered, in Fresingfield cburch-*> 
yard. ' Soon after, a tomb was erected over his grave, with 
an inscription composed by himself; on the right side of 
which there is an account of his age and dying-day in La* 
tin; on the left, the following E-nglish : <*' William San- 
croft, born in this parish, afterwards by the providence of 
God archbishop of Canterbury, at last deprived of all, 
which he could not keep with a good conscience, returned 
hither to end his life, and professeth here at the foot of his 
tomb, that, as naked he came forth, so naked he must re- 
ti^Hi : the Lord gave> and the Lord bath f^al^en away (as the 



sensible secretions and discharges^ he was enabled to de^' 
termine with wonderful exactness the weight or quantity 
of insensible perspiration, as well as what kind of food or* 
drink increased and diminished it. On these experiments^ 
he erected a curious system, which was long admired by 
the faculty. It was divulged first at Venice-in 1614, under* 
the title of ^^ Ars de Statica Medicina/* comprehended in 
seven sections of aphorisms ; .and was often reprinted at dif^- 
ferent places, with corrections and additions by th^ author. 
It was translated into French, and published at Paris 1722 ; 
and we had next an English version of it, with large ex- 
planations, by Dr. Quincy; to the third edition of which' 
in 1723, and perhaps to the former, is added, ^* Dr. James^- 
Keil's Medicina Statica Britannica, with comparative re- 
' marks and explanations ; as also physico-medical essays on 
agues, fevers, on elastic fibre, the gout, the leprosy, king^s-> 
evil, venereal diseases, by Dr. Qumcy.'* 

Sanctorius published other works ; as, ** Method! vitan« 
dorum errorum omnium, qui in Arte Medica contingunt, 
libri quindecim,*' 1602 ; ** Commentaria in primam sectio* 
Item Aphorismorum Hippocratis,'* 1609 ; ^^ Commentaria 
in Artem Medicinalem Galeni," 1612 ; ^^ Commentaria in- 
primam partem primi libri Canonis Avicenne,'' 1625; 
*f De Lithotomia, seu Calculi vesicae sectione, Consulta- 
tio,*' 1638. All these, which raised his character very 
greatly among his own {Profession, were in 1660 printed 
there together in 4 vols. 4to. 

Sanctorius unquestionably conferred a benefit on medical 
science, by directing the observation 6f medical men to 
the functions of the skin ; but unfortunately, the doctrines 
were extended much too far ; and, coinciding with the me^ 
^Aaniitrii/ principles, which were coming into vogue after 
the discovery of the circulation, as well as with the cA^mt* 
eal notions,*which were not yet exploded, they contributed 
to complete the establishment of the humoral pathology^ 
under the shackles of which the practice of medicine con- 
tinued almost to our own times. Sanctorius was also the 
author of severd inventions. Besides bis statical chair, he 
invented an instrument for measuring the force of the 
pulse ; and several new instruments of surgery. He was 
the first physician who attempted to measure the heat of 
the skin by a thermometer, in different diseases, and at 
different periods of the .same disease; and it is to his credit 

S A N C T O R I U S, 107 

diat he was an airowed enenj to empiridft and empirical 
postrums^ as well as to all occult remedies. ^ 

SANDBY (Paul), an ingenious artist, descended from 
ar branch of the family of Saunby, of Bab worth in Notting*- 
hamsbire, was born at Nottingham in 17S2. In 1746 he 
jcame to London, and having an early predilection; for the 
mrts, .procured admission to the drawing room in thie Towef^ 
where be first studied. In 17.4$, William dukeof Cum^ 
berland, wishing to have a survey of the Highlands of Scot- 
land, which Was the scene of his memorable' campaign in 
1745-6, Mr. Sandby was appointed draugbuman, undet 
jthe inspection of general David Watson, with whom h6 
travelled through the North and Western parts of that 
most romantic country, and made many sketches. During 
bis ^ay at Edinburgh he made a number of small etchings 
from these designs ; which on his return to London wer6 
published in a folio volume. But drawing of plans abound- 
ing ia straight lines being neither congenial to his taste nor 
worthy of his talents, be in 1752 quitted the service of the 
survey, afid resided with bis brother, Mr. Thomas Saadby, 
at Windsor, and during bis continuance there took more 
iban seventy views of Windsor and Eton. The accuracy; 
taste, and spirit with which they were in an eminent degree 
marked, so forcibly struck sir Joseph Banks, that he pur- 
chased them all, and at a very liberal price. Mr< Sandby 
liad soon, afterwards the honour ef being one of this gen- 
tleman's party in a tour through North and South Wales^ 
and made a great number of sketches from remarkable 
scenes, castles, seats, &c. Under the patronage of the late 
sir Watkin Williams Wynne, he afterwards took many more 
views from scenes in the same country, which with those 
before mentioned he transferred to copper^plales, and madil 
several sets of prints in imitation of drawings^ in bister or 
Indian ink. The first hint of the process by which thii 
effect is given to an engraving, Mr. Sandby is said to have 
received from the hon. Charles Greville, a gentleman • of 
acknowledged taste and judgment in every branch of polite 
art. Profiting by this hint, Mr. Sandby so far improved 
upon it as to bring the captivating art of Aquatinta to a 
degree of perfection never before known in this country. 

About 1753 Mr. Sandby, and several members of aii 
acaidemy who met at what had previously been RoubiUiac*]i 

1 Elojy Diet. Hut de Medicint.— Btes'a Cyclopsdii 

• ( 

lOS 8. A N D BT. > 

ivorksfaoqp,: in St Ma^in^s^lftiie, i^khiog- lo: ejet^pd. tbeir 
plan^ and establish a society on a brqader basis^ held sever 
jral tastings for the , purpose of makhig new . regulations, 
^c. .Concerning these . r^ulations it may naturally be 
suppojsed there were variety, of opinionsy but Hogarth, who 
waspoe.of ^he members, aqd who dasenredly held a^ery 
high rank in the arts, disapproved of the jwhole scheme, and 
wished the society to j^main as it then was. He tbpugbt 
that enlarging the number of $tudents would induce a^rowd 
of young men to quit more profitable . pursuits, neglei^t 
what might be. more, suitable tO; their talents^ and.intrc^.upe 
to the practice , of the. arts more professors than the arts 
would support.' This na^turally involved. him in many dis** 
putes, with. his brother artists, and as these disputes were 
not always conducted with, philosophic calmness, the sa» 
tirist sometimes said things that, his opponents deemed, ra-* 
ther too severe for the occasipn. On. the publication.. of 
bis ^^Analysis of Beauty V tbey recriminated^ ^ with interest, 
Among the prints which were then published to ridicule 
his, system, Ijne. of beauty, ,&c. are six or. eight,. that 
from, the manner in which they are conceived, and the no- 
con^mon . spirit ,^ith which they are etched,, carry., more 
than probable marks of the burin of Mr* .Sandby, jvvbo was 
then a very young man, but afterwards declared, that if, be 
had been more intimatjeiy acquainted with Mr. Hogvtb!s 
merit, he would on no account have drawti a hue which 
plight tend to his dispr^ise^ . j 

. On the institution of the Royal Academy^ Mr. Sandby 
was elated ja royal academician. By the recommendation 
of the duke of Grafton, the, marquis of Granby in 176S 
apppint^d bim chief drawing-master of the Royal Academy 
atWoolwicbf which office be held with. gres^t. honour. |q 
himself and , advantage, to. the institutiojn ; and saw. many 
able and distinguished dra^jghtsmen among the. ofQcefs of 
artillery^ and corps of Engineers, formed under bis instruc? 
^ions,. . , • ; , ,.^ • . . .i. . I 

Mr. .Sapdby died at his house at Paddiugton Nov. 7» 
1 809, in .the seventy rseventh year of his age. . He. contrir. 
buted.niucb to the. reputation of the Eqgliah school ,ol 
landi|icape p^iiHing, and. in many of his exquisite ydj&hne:^ 
ations, uniting .fidelity with, taste, the. bpautif ill. scenery 
for which thi^ .island is so. eminently distinguished, is. <li§£ 
played as in a mirror. For force, clearness, and transpa- 
rency, it may very truly be said that his paintings in water 

S A N D B Yi 100 

^ouf^ httre not yet been equalled ; the views of castle^^ 
-ruins, bridges, &c. which are frequently introduced, will 
^remain monuments tathe honour of the arts, the artists, 
and the country, when the originals from which they are 
designed are mouldered into dust^ * - 

: SANDEMAN (Robert), from whom a reHgious sect is 
generally named, was born at Perth in Scotland in i 723. 
Being intended for one of .the learned professions, he 
atndied for two years at the university of Edinburgh, but 
at the expiration of that time manned, and his fortune 
being sdiall, entered into the linen trade at Perth, lyhehce 
he removed to Dundee, and afterwards to Edinburgh. * The 
lady he inarried was the daughter of the rev. John Olaiss 
(See Glass), who founded the sect, at -that time called 
from him Glassitts ; and Mr. Sandeman, who was' now an 
elder in one of Glass's churches, or congregations, and 
bad imbibed all his opinions, published a series of letters 
addressed to Mr. Hervey, occasioned by that author's 
^ Tberon and Aspasio," in which he endeavours to shew, 
that his notion of faith is' contradictory to the scripture ac** 
count of it, aiid could only serve to lead men, professedly 
holding the doctrines commonly called Calvinisticj to 
establish their own righteousness upon their frames, in«- 
ward feelings, and various acts of faith. In these letters 
Mr. Sandeman attempts to prove, that faith is neither more 
nor less than a simple assent to the divine testimony con* 
cerning Jesus Christ, recorded in the New Testament ; and 
he maintains^ that the word faith, or belief, is constaritly 
used by the apostles to signify) what is denoted by it in 
common discourse, \xt, a persuasion of the truth of any 
proposition, and that there is>no differenc^e between be* 
Keving any common testimony, and believing the apostolic 
testimony, except that which results itom, the nature of 
the testimony itself. This led the way to a controversyy 
among Calvinists in Scotland,^ concerning the nature of 
justifying faith ; and those who adopted Mr. Sandemah's 
notion of it, and who took the denomination of Sandemani'* 
anSf formed themselves into church order, in strict fellow- 
ship wtthithie church of Scotland,* but holding no kind of 
communion with other churches. The chief opinions and 
practices in which this sect differs from others, are, their 
fleekly administration of the Lord's Supper ; their lovev 

^ £ai«]). Mag. for 1796.— Gent. Mag. tcI. UCXII^* 

110 j^ANDKMAk 


feasts, of wbicb every metnber is not oirly tillowed but re^^ 
quired to partake, and wfaioh eonsist of their dining togetf 
tber «t each other^s booses in the interval between the 
SQoming and afternoon service : their kiss of cbarity nsedoR 
this occasion, at the admission of a new member^ and at 
other times^ when they deem it to be tietessary or prdper ; 
theiR weekly collection before the LcMrd's Snpper for tbtl 
support of the poor, a;nd defraying other expenoes; mu« 
tual exhortation ; abstinence from blood and thmgs strange 
led; wasfaiiig each other's feet, the preeept concerning 
which, as well as other precepts, they understand literally ^ 
community of goods so far as that every one is to consider 
all that lie- has in his possession and power as liable to tbe 
calls of tbe poor and church, and the unlawfulness of lay* 
ing up treasures on earth, by setting tbem apart for any 
distant, future, and uncertain use. They allow of public 
andv private diversions so far as they are not connected with 
circumstances really sinful ; but apprehending a lot to be 
sacred> disapprove of playing at Cards, dice, &c« They 
maintain a plurality of elders, pastors, or bishops, in each 
church, and the necessity of the presence of two elders in 
every act of discipline, and at the administration of the 
Lord's Supper. In the choice of these elders, want of 
learning, and engagements in trade, &£. are no sufficient 
objection ; but second marriages disqualify for the office ; 
and they are ordained by prayer and fasting, imposition of 
hands, and giving the right hand of fellowship. In their 
discipline they are strict and severe, and think themselves 
obliged to separate from the communion and* worship of 
all such .religious societies as appear to them not to profess 
the simple troth for their only ground of hope,, and who 
do not walk in obedience to it. We shall otily add, that 
in every church transaction, they esteem unanimity to be 
absolutely necessary. 

In nss -Mr. San deman commenced a correspondence 
with Mr. Samuel Pike of London, an independent minis-^ 
ter; and in 1760 cameiiimself to London, and preached 
in various places,, attracting the crowds that usually follow* 
novelties. While here be received an invitation to go tot^ 
America, with which he complied in 1764, and continued 
there propagating bis doctrines and discipline in various 
places, particularly in New-England, until the politici^l 
disputes arose between Great Britain and the colonies, 
when he became very obnoxious by taking the part of th^ 

' S.A.N D E\M A N. Ul 

fbrmer; He did not livei howlsreri to witness the unluippy 
cooaequences of that coutent,' but died at Danbury^ April 
2| 177 i 9 aged fifty-* three. His sect^ altbougb^ not Diiinet* 
rou8» s$ill exists, batundeiTarious modidcations, in Scot- 
land; and there are a few branches of it in i^^ngland, and 
one in PauPs Ailey» Barbican, London, Mr. Sandeman^ 
besides bis ^^ Letters on Theron and Aspasio,'' published 
his correspondence with' Mr. Pike; ^' Thoughts on Chris* 
tianity ;*' <* The sign of the prophet Jonah ;'' " The honour 
of marriage, opposed to all Impurities;" and ^< On So1q« 
snon's Song.'* * 

6ANDEKS (Nicholas), a Roman catholic writer of con- 
siderable fame, and one of the principal championa of 
popery in the sixteenth century, was born about 1527, at 
Charlewood in Surrey, and educated at Winchester school, 
whence he removed to New college, Oxford. Here he 
studied chiefly canon law, and was made fellow of hiseoi- 
lege in 1548, and. in 1550, or 1551, took the degree of 
bachelor of laws. When queen Mary came to the throne, 
be had the offer of being Latin secretary to her majesty^ 
which he declined for the sake of a studious, academical 
life, and remained at Oxford during the whole of her reign. 
In 15 57. he was one of the professons of canon law, .and 
I'ead what were called the " shaggling lectures," i* e. lee** 
tures not endowed, until the accession of queen Elizabeth, 
when his principles induced hifti to quit England. He ar- 
rived at Rome about the latter end of 1560, and studying 
divinity, became doctor in that faculty, and was ordained 
priest by Dr. Thomas Goldwell, bishop of St. Asaph, who 
at that time resided in the English hospital at Rome. Soon 
after, cardinal Hosius, president of the council of Trent, 
hearing of his abilities, took him into his family^ andmade 
Use of him, as his theologal, in the council. When the 
couficil broke up. Dr. Sanders accompanied the cardinal 
to Poland, Prussia, and Lithuania, where he was instru* 
mental in settling the discipline of the. Romish church; but 
his zeal disposing him to think most of his native country, 
he returned to Flanders, and was kindly entertained by siif 
Francis Englefield, formf>rly privy.-counsellor to queen 
Mury, and then in great favour with the court of Spain; 

* Wil»on'« His*, of Dissenting Chnrhes— Encyclop. Brit9nutca«— 'The teoeti 
•f the »ect were first pablnhed by thf^m* Ives in a tracs :• \h f •' An account tf 
UejCtvaman practices obsi'rVtd bf Um CoUrch in St. M^rtiA's-le-Ckaii^/' HStSy 
^here ihev Ihcii atiembled. 


Ua . SAND E R a 

through whose hands a great part of those chitAtabieoof^ 
JectioDs passed, which his catholic majesty-ordered for the 
-subsistence of the EogUsh popish exiles. Sanders was<ap-* 
.pointed bis assistant, and .being settled at Louvaine, toge^. 
;ther,with bis motfaeJr and sister^ be ii^ there twelve yeais^ 
juid perfofmed many charitable offices to bis indigent coun^ 
:tryjnen. Much'of this ;tiine lie eiripleyed in- writing in 
•defence of popery against Jewdl^ Nowell, and other emi* 
iient pro testant divines. 

* . Some year^after^ having nscetved an iitvitatioii froortbe 
pope, betook ajourney to Rome, whence he was sent as 
nuncio 'to the popish ^bisfaops^ abd clergy in Ireland, and 
landed there in 1579. At this ttmeOerald-Fit^geraid^^earl 
j^ DesaiondyNwas in arms, as be: pretended, in defence of 
j:be irberties and religion of his coumr}^ ;. bat in 13U bis 
fyarty wsas routed and himself killed. The part Sanders 
took in this rebellion is variousiy represeiTted. Camden 
says that be; was sent over purpo^ly to encourage* Des* 
jmond, and that several companies of Spanisb soldiers went 
over wttll liim, and that when their army wassrouted^ be 
fled to the woods, and died of hunger. All that the ca- 
tholics deny* in this account, is, that Sanders was- sent 
purposely i but this they deny very feebly. With, regard 
to the manner of Sanders's death, Dodd seems inclined to 
prefer Wood^s account, who says that be died of a dysen«> 
tery, and Dodd likewise adopts tbe report of Rushton and 
Pits, who say that he died at the latter end of 1580, or the 
beginning of 1581, because this was long before Desmond*s 
defeat, and consequently dissolves in *some measure the 
supposed connection between him and Sanders. ' Dodd^ 
bowever, who is generally impartial, allows that several 
catholics, his contemporaries, were pf^ opinion that be was 
engaged in the Spanish interest against queen Elizabeth ; 
knd his writings prove that he maintained a deposing power 
both in tbe church and people, where religion was in dan- 
ger. He was, according to all accounts, a man of abilities, 
and was -considered as the most acute adversary for tbe 
re^establbhment of popery in England,^ which his party 
CQuid boast of. He bad, however, to contend with men of 
equal ability, who exposed his want of veracity as well as 
of argument, and few of his works have survived the times 
in which they were written. Among them are, 1. "The. 
3ufip^r,of our Lord,' &c." a. defence. of tbe real presence, 
being what he calls ^' A confutation of Jewers Apoldgy, a^' 

Sanders. ns 

i>st)of Alexander Nowel's challenge,'* Louvain, in 1566, 
1567, 4to. f2. « Treatise of the Images of Christ and bis 
Saints ; being a confutation of Mr. JewePs reply upon that 
subject," ibid. 1 567, 8vo. 3. « Tlje Rock of the Church," 
concerning the pritnacy of St. Peter, ibid: 1566, 1567, St 
' Omer's, 1 624, 8vo. 4. " A brief treatise on Usury,** ibid. 
i566. 5. "De Visibili nionarchia Ecclesiw,*' ibid. 1571, 
folio, Antwerp, 1581, Wiceburg, 1592. 6. " De origitie 
etpYogressu Schismatis Anglicani," Colon. 1585, Svoj fe- 
ptinted at other places in 1586, 1588, and 1590, andtrans^ 
laced into. French in 1673, with some tracts on the tentts 
bf his church, which seem not of the controversial kind. 
Mo^ of the former were answered by English divines of 
^^:..A^i^ :j -i^j.jy jjjg large volume " ^ ' *' "* 

)y Bering, Clerk, anc 
may be seen in Stryp< 
That on the English schism is refuted, as to bis more im- 
portant assertions, in the appendix to Burnet's History of 
the BMbrmatibn, vol. IL* 

SANDERS (RpBERTJ, an English writer^ wH^se ^istory 
maj^ liot be unuseful, was a native of Scotlandf, and born in, 
or neafy Breadalbane, about 1727. He was by business a 
comb-maker; but not hewing successful in trader and- hav- 
ing some taletits, some education, and a good memory, he 
commencisd a hackney writer^ and in that capacity pro- 
duced some works which have been relished by the lower 
"blass of readers. When he came to London is uncertain ; 
but, having travelled over most of the northern parts of 
these kingdoms, he compiled, from his own survey and the 
information of books, an itinerary, entitled '' The Com- 
plete English Traveller,** folio. It was published in num- 
bers, with th^ fictitious naihe of Spencer, professedly on 
the plan oif Fuller*s Worthies^ with biographical notices of 
the most eminent men of each county. As the dealers in 
this kind of publications thought it too good a thing to be 
lost, it has been republished, depriving Mr. Speticer of his 
rights, and giving them to three fictitious gentlemen, Mr. 
JSurlingion for England, Mr. Murray for Scotland, and 
Mr. Llewellyn for Wales. He also compiled, about, 1764, 
a work in 5 or 6 voU. 8vo, with cuts, entitled ^' The New- 
gate Calendar, or Memoirs of those unfortunate cttlpritt 

1 AUi. Ok. vol. L^lMd^ €h. Hitt.— Strype's Parker, p. 377 and 911—* 
feumefs tteforinttion.^^'-CoUier'i ficcleiiaiticai l2tfiory« 



who fall a sacrifice to the injured laws of their cQuntry, and 
thereby make their exit at Tyburn." He was some time 
engaged with lord Lyttelton, in assisting his lordship to 
compile his ** History of Henry H. ;" and Dr. Johnson, in 
his life of that -poetical nobleman, introduces this circum- 
stance in no very honourable manner. "When time," says 
he, "brought the history to a third edition, Reid (the for- 
mer ct)rret;tor) was either dead or discharged ; and the su- 
per'mtendence of typography and punctuation was com- 
mitted tTt a man originally a comb-maker, but then known 
by the style 6i Doctor Sanders, Something uncommon was 
probably expected, and something uncommon was at last 
done ; for to the doctor'* s edition is appended, what the 
world had hardly seen b'efore, a list of errors of nineteen 
pages.*' His most considerable work was his " Gaffer 
Greybeard," an illiberal piece, in 4 vols. l2mo, in which 
the characters of the most eminent dissenting divines, his 
contemporaries, are very freely handled. *He had, perhaps 
suffered either by the contempt or the refproof of some of 
that persuasion, and therefore endeavoured to revenge 
himself on the whole, ridiculing, in particular, Dr. Gill 
under the name of Dr. Half-pint, and Dr. Gibbons under 
that of Dr. Hyitin-maktr, He was also the author of the 
notes to a Bible published weekly under the name of the 
rev. Henry Southwell : for this he received about twenty- 
five or twenty -six shillings per Week, while Dr. Southwell, 
the pseudo-commentator, received one htindred guineas 
for the use of his name, he having no other recommenda- 
tion to the public, b) which he might merit a posthumous 
memory, than his livings*. Dr. Sanders also compiled 
'* Letter- writers," " Histories of England," and other works 
of the paste and scissors kind ; but his " Roman History," 
written in a series of letters from a nobleman to his son, in 
2 vols. 12mo, has some merit. Towards the latter end of 
his days he projected a general chronology of all nations, 
and had already printed some sheets of the work, under 
the patronage of lord Hawke, when a disorder upon his 
longs put a period to his existence, March 19, 1783. He 
' was much indebted to the munificence of Mr. Granville 

* Dr. Henry Southwell, who died in rectory of Asterby in Lincolnshire, bnt 

3779, was of a good family in Cam- no one that knew him ever suspected 

bri(fgc6hire, was eduQjited at Magda- hifflof writing a book. 
7en college, Cambridge, and had the 



Sh&rpk More piartictilars of this man^s history and of the 
secrets of Bibk-niaking may be seen in our authority.' 


SANDERSON (Dr. Robert), an eminent English 
bishop, was descended from an ancient family, and was 
the yoiuigeftt son of Robert Sanderson, of Gilthwaite-hall, 
Yorkshire, by Elizabeth, one of the daughters of Richard 
Carr, of Batterthwaite-hali, in the parish of Ecclesfield. 
He was born at Rotherham, in Yorkshire, Sept. 19, 1587, 
and educated in the grammar-school there, where he made 
so uncommon a progress in the languages, that, at thirteen, 
he was sent to Lincoln college in Oxford. Soon after 
taking iAi degree of B. A. his tutor told Dr. Kiibie, the 
rector, that his ** pupil Sanderson had a metaphysical 
brain, and a matchless memory, and that he thought he 
had improved or made the last so by an art of his own in- 
vention." While at college, he generally spent eleven 
hours a day in study, chiefly of^ philosophy and the clas- 
sics. In 1606 he was chosen fellow, and in July 1608, 
completed his degree of M. A. In November of the same 
year, he was elected logic reader, and re-elected in Nov. 
1609. His lectures on this subject were published in 161 5^ 
and ran through several editions. In 1613, 1614, and 
1616, he served the office of sub-rector, and in the latter 
of those years, that of proctor. In 1611, he was ordained 
deacon and priest by Dr. King, bishop of London, and took 
the degree of bachelor of divinity in 1617. In 1618, he 
was presented by his cousin sir Nicolas Sanderson, lord 
viscount Castleton, to the rectory of Wybberton, near 
Boston, in Lincolnshire, but resigned it the year following 
on account of the unhealtbiness of its situation } and about 
the same time was collated to the rectory of Boothby-Pan- 
nell, or Paynel, in the same county, which he enjoyed 
above forty years. Having now quitted his fellowship, h^ 
married Anne, the daughter of Henry Nelson, B. D. rec- 
tor of Haugham in the county of Lincoln ; and soon after 
was made a prebendary of Southwell, as he was also of 
Lincoln in 1629. He continued to attend to his parochial 
duties in a very exemplary manner, and particularly la- 
boured much to reconcile differences, and prevent law-suits 
both in his parish, and in the neighbourhood. He also 
often visited sick and disconsolate families, giving advice 

1 Gent. M»g. vol. LIIL p. 400, 482. 

I 2 


and often pecuniary assistance^ or obtaSning tbe latter by 
applications to persons of opulence. He was often called 
upon to preach at assizes and visitations ; but bis practice 
of reading his sermons^ as it Was then not very comnion» 
raised some prejudice against him. Walton observes, that 
notwithstanding he had an extraordinary memory, he had 
such an innate bashfulness and sense of fear, as to render 
it of little use in the delivery of his sermons. It was re* 
marked, when his sermons were printed in 1632, that ^^ the 
best sermons that were ever read, were never preached.** 
At the beginning of the reign of Charles I. he was chosen 
otie of the clerks in convocation for the diocese of Lincoln ; 
and Laud, then bishop. of London, having recommended 
him to that king as a man excellently skilled in casuistical 
learnings he was appointed chaplain to his majesty in 1631* 
When he became known to the king, his majesty put many 
cases of conscience tb^him^ and received from him solutions 
which gave him so great satisfaction) that at the end of bis 
month's attendance, which was in November, the king told 
him, that " he should long for next November ; for he re- 
solved to have more inward acquaintance with him, when 
the month and he returned." The king indeed was never 
absent from his sermons, and used to say, that *' be carried 
his ears to hear pther preachers, but bis conscience to hear 
Mr. Sanderson^'' In 1633 he obtained, through the earl 
of Rutland's interest, the rectory of Muston, in Leicester- 
shire, which he held eight years. In Aug. 1636, when the 
court was entertained at Oxford^ he was, among others,^ 
created D. D. In 1642, he was proposed by both Houses 
of parliament to king Charles, who was then at Oxford, tD 
be one of their trustees for the settling of church affairs^ 
and approved by the king: but that treaty came to no- 
thing. The same yean his majesty appointed him regius 
professor of divinity at Oxford, with the canonry of Christ 
church annexed : but the national calamities hindered him 
from entering on it till 1646, and then he did not hold it 
undisturbed much more than a year. In 1643, he was no«* 
minated by the parliament one of the assembly of divines, 
but never sat among them : neither did he take the cavenani 
or engage^venty so that his living was sequestered ; but, so 
great was his reputation for piety and learning, that he was 
not deprived of it. He had the chief hand in drawing up 
^* The Reasons of the university of Oxford against the so- 
lemn League and Covenant^ the Negative Oath> and lh# 


Ordinances concerning Discipline and Worship :** and, 
when the parliament had sent proposals to the king for a 
peace in church and state, his majesty desired, that Dr. 
Sanderson, with the doctors Hammond, Sheldon, and Mor- 
ley^ should attend him, and advise him how far he might 
with A good conscience eomply with those proposals. This 
request was rejected by the presbyterian party ; but, it be* 
log complied with afterwards by the independents, when 
his majesty was at Hampton-court, and in-the isle of Wight, 
in .1647 and 1648, those divines attended him there. Dr. 
Sanderson often preached before him, and had many public 
and private conferences with him, to his majesty's great 
satisfaction. The king also desired him, at Hampton-court, 
since the parliament had proposed the abolishing of episi- 
copal government as inconsistent with monarchy, that he 
would consider of it, and declare his judgment; and what 
be wrote upon that subject was afterwards printed in 1661, 
§vo, under this title, '^ Episcopacy, as established by law 
in England, not prejudicial to Regal power." At Sander^ 
son's taking leave of his majesty in this his last attendance 
on him, the king requested him to apply himself to the 
writing of *^ Cases of Conscience ;" to which his answer 
was, that ^' he was now grown old, and unfit to write cases 
of conscience." But the king told him plainly, *^ it was 
the simplest thing he ever heard from him ; for, no young 
man was fit to be a judge, or write cases of conscience."-^ 
Upon this occasion, Walton relates the following anecdote : 
that in one of these conferences the king told Sanderson, 
or one of them that then waited with him, that '^ the re- 
membrance of two errors did much afflict him, which were, 
bis assent to the earl of Strafford's death, and the abolish-- 
ing of episcopacy in Scotland ; and that, if God ever re- 
stored him to the peaceable possession of his crown, he 
would demonstrate his repentance by a public confession 
and a voluntary penance, by walking barefoot from the 
Tower of London, or Whitehall, to St. Paul's church, and 
would desire the people to intercede with God for his par- 
don." In 1643, Dr. Sanderson was ejected from his pro- 
fessorship and canonry in Oxford by the parliamentary vi- 
sitors, and retired to his living of Boochby-Pannel. Soon 
.after> he. was taken prisoner, and carried to Lincoln, to be 
exchanged for one Clarkes a puritan divine, and minister 
of Alington, who had been made prisoner by the king'^ 
D^rty. He was, however^ soon released upon articles, one 



of which was, that the sequestradon of bis living shoiild be 
recalled ; by which means he enjoyed a moderate subsist*' 
ence for himself, wife, and children, till the restoration. 
But, though the articles imported also, that he should Vive 
undisturbed, yet he was far from being either qdiet or safe^ 
being once wounded, and several times plundered ; and 
the outrage of the soldiers was ^ucb, that they not only 
came into his church, and disturbed him when reading 
prayers, but even forced the common prayer book froiii 
bim, and tore it to pieces. During this retirement, be re- 
ceived a visit from Dr. Hammond, who wanted to discourse 
with him upon some points disputed between the Calvinists 
and Arminians ; and he was often applied to for resolution 
in cases of conscience, several letters upon which subjects 
were afterwards printed*. In 1658, the hon. Robert Boyle 
sent him a present of 50/. ; his circumstances, as of most of 
the royalists at that time, being very low. Boyle had read 
bis lectures " De juramenti obligatione,'* published the 
preceding year, with great satisfaction ; and asked Barlow, 
afterwards bishop of Lincoln, if he thought Sanderson 
could be induced to write cases of conscience, provided he 
had an honornry pension all6wed, to supply him with books 
and an, amanuensis ? But Sanderson told Barlow, ^< that, if 
any future tract of his could bring any benefit to mankiitd, 
be would readily set about it without a peinsion.*' Upon 
this, Boyle sent the above present by the hands of Barlow ; 
and Sanderson presently revised, finished, and published, 
bis book ^^ De obligatione conscientis," which, as well as 

' * While Dr, Hammond was at San- 
dersiOD's house, he laboured to per- 
suade him to trust to bis excellent 
memory, and not to read his sermons. 
Dr. Sanderson promised to try the ex- 
periment, and having on the Sunday 
following, exchanged pulpits with a 
neighbouriog clergyman, be gave Dr. 
Hammond his sermon, which was a 
very short one, intending to preach it 
as it was written, but before he bad 
gone through a third part, he became 
disordered, incoherent, and almost 
incapable of finishing. Ou ^heir re- 

iocn Dr. Sanderson s^id with much 
earnestness, '* Good doctor, give nie 
jhy sermon, and know, tiiat neither 
you, nor any man liTing, shall ever 
persuade me to preach again without 
book.*^ Ha'mmond replied, '* 6ood 
doctor, be not angry ; for if I ev«r 
persuade you to preach again without 
book, I will give you leave to tiutu all 
those that 1 am master off.*' Dr. 
Sanderson on some occasions expresfsed 
his sense of the great timidity and 
bashfnieess of his temper, and thought 
it bad been injurious to him. 


f Aubrey says, <* When I was a fresh- 
man and heard him read his first lec- 
ture, he was out in the Lord's prayer.'^ 
Letters written by Eminent Persons, 
|8i3, 3 Tols. Svo. £vcn when *< Pr. 
Sanderson was preparing his lectures^ 

he hesitated so nnch, and repeated 00 
often, that at the time of reading, h« 
was often forced to produce, not what 
was best, but what happened tpt be 
at hand." RM&bler, No. 19. 



that '* De jurajpa^nti obligatione/' were the substaace of 
part of his divinity lectures. 

lu Aug. 1660, upon the restoration^ he was restored to 
bis profei>sorship and canonry ; and soon after, at the re- 
commendation of Sheldon, raised to the bishopric of Lin* 
coin, and consecrated Oct, 28. He enjoyed his new dig- 
nity but about two years and a quarter : during which time 
he did all the good in his power, by repairing tbexpalace at 
Bugden, augmenting poor vicarages, &c. notwithstanding 
he was old, and had a family ; and when hjs friends sug- 
gested a little more attention to them, he replied, tha^ he 
Wft them to God, yet hoped he should be able at l\\$ d^atb 
tp give them a competency. He died Jan. 29, 1662-3, in 
bis seventy-sixth year ; and was buried in the chancel at 
Bugden, in the plainest and least expensive manner, ac- 
cording to his own directions. Dr. Sanderson was in his 
person moderately tall, of a healthy constitution, of a 
mild, cheerful, and even temper, and very abstemious. In 
his behaviour, he was affable, civil, and obliging, but not 
ceremonious. He was a man of great piety, modest}^ learn- 
ing and abilities, but not of such universal reading^s might 
be supposed. Being asked by a friend, what boo^he stu- 
died most, when he laid the fouiidatiou of his great learn- 
ing, he answered, that *^ he declined to read many books, 
but what be did read were well chosen, and read often ; 
and added, that they were chiefly three, Aristotle's ^ Rhe- 
toric,' Aquinas's * Secunda Secundae," and TuUy, but espe- 
cially his f Offices,' which he had not fead over less than 
twenty times, and could even in his old age recite without ^ 

book." . He ^old him also, the learned civilian Dr. Zouch ^^ 

had written ^^Elementa JurisprudentisB," which he thought 
he could also say w^thqut book, and that no vyise man could 
read it too often^gpfeides his great knowledge in the fa- 
thers, schoiikliK^iKi casuistical and controversial divi- 
nity, JJi^Rs eK^Ctlj^ vefsed in ancient and modem history, 
was a good 9<tvtiquary, and indefipLtig^ble searcher into re- 
.cprds, and well acquainted with heraldry and gen/ealogies; , ■., 

of which last subject be left 20 vols, in MS. now in the 
library of '^ir Joseph Banks. The vorthiest<''and most 
learned of l]is contefpporaries speak of him in the most re- 
spectful terms : " That stai/J and well-weighed noan Dr. 
Sanderson," . says tfamm.Qnd, ^^ .conceives all things deli- 
berately, dwells upon them discretely, discerns things that 
differ exactly, passeth bis judgment rationally, and ex- 
presses it aptly, clearly, and honestly." 


The morial character of this great and good man^ Mc, 
Granger observes, has lately been, rashly aod feebly at- 
tacked by the author of the '* Confes^ionaJ," and as ably 
defended by the author of "A Dialogue between * Isaac 
Walton and Homologistes," 1768. Cyery enemy to church 
government has been, for the same reason^ an enemy to 
bishop Sanderson and every other prelate ; but the upright- 
ness and integrity of his heart, as a casuist, was never be- 
fore called in question by any man who was not an entir^i 
stranger to his character. He saw and deplored, and did 
bis utmost, honestly and rationally, to remedy the com^ 
plicated ills of anarchy in church and state ; when *' every 
man projected and reformed, and did what was right in his, 
own eyes. No image can better express such a condition, 
thau that of a dead animal in a state of putrefaction, when, 
instead of one noble creature, as it was, when life held it 
together, there are ten thousand little nauseous reptiles 
growing out of it, eyery one crawling in a path of its own.'** 

We shall now give some account of his writings, which, 
for good sense, clear reasoning, and manly style, have 
always been much esteemed. In 1615, he published, i. 
*' Logicae Artis Compendium,'' ^s we have already men- 
tioned. In 1671 appeared, as a posthumous work, hi$ 
'^ PhysicsB scienties compendium," printed at Oxford. 2. 
'^ Sermons,'* preached and printed at different times, 
amounting to the number of thirty-six, 1681, folio; with 
the author's life by Walton prefixed. 3. ^< Nine Cases of 
Conscience resolved;" published at different times, but 
first collected in 1678, 8vo. The last of these nine cases 
is " Of the use of the Liturgy," the very same tract which 
was published by Walton in his Life of Sanderson, 167S, 
under the title of ^'Bishop Sanderson's judgment concern- 
ing submission to Usurpers." In this tract is given a full 
account of the manner in which Dr. Sanderson conducted 
himself, in performing the service of the church, in the 
times of the usurpation. 4. ^' De Juramenti Obligatione," 
1647, 8vo; reprinted several times since, with, 5. ** De 
Obligatione Conscientiae." This last was f^rst printed, as 
we have said,' at the request of Mr. Boyle, and dedicated 
to him; the former, viz. <' De Juramenti Obligatione,'^' 
was translated into English by Charles L, during his con- 
finement in the Isle of Wight, and printed at London \i\ 

^ Madia's Sermons, ScmiOD on the evils of Anarchy, p. 8^ 

». . .1 ■ • 


l!SBS, 8to; and of both there is an English translation 
entitled << ^Prelections on the Nature and Obligation of pro- 
missory oaths and of conscience/' London^ 1722^ 3 vols. 
Sro. 6. *< Censure of Mr. Antony Ascham bis book of the 
Confusions and Revolution? of Government,'* 1649, 8vo, 
This Ascbam was the rump parliament's agent at Madrid^ 
and was murdered there by some English royalists. 7. 
^ Episcopacy, as established by Law in England, not pre- 
judicial to the Regal Power," 1661, mentioned before. 8. 
"Pax Ecclesifie ; about Predestination, or the Five Points;** 
printed at the end of his Life by Walton, 8vo. Our bishop 
iseems at first to have been a strict Cal/mist in those points: 
for in 1632, when twelve of his sermons were printed tOr 
gether, the reader may observe in the margin scrme accu<« 
sationd of Arminius for false doctrine; but in consequence 
of his conferences with Dr. Hammond, he relaxed ffom the 
rigid sense, as appears by some letters that passed between 
them, and which are printed in Hammond^s works. d« 
** Discourse concerning the Church in these particulars : 
first, concerning the visibility of the true Church; second- 
ly, concerning the Church of Rome,*' &c. 1688 ; published 
by Dr. William Ashetoo, from a MS copy, which he had 
from Mr. Pullen, the bishop*8 domestic chaplain. 10. A 
large preface to a book of Usher's, written at the special 
fcommand of Charles L and entitled, '^The Power commu- 
nicated by God to the Prince, and the Obedience required 
of the Subject,*^ &c. 1661, 4to, and 1683, 8vo. 11. A 
prefatory Discourse, in defence of Usher and his writings^ 
prefixed to a collection of learned treatises, Entitled, '* Clavi 
Trabales ; or, nails fastened by some great masters of at- 
Ijemblies, confirming the king's supremacy, the subjects* 
duty, and church government by bishops," 1661, 4to. 12. 
f* Prophecies concerning the return of Popery,'* inserted 
111 a book entitled *' F^ir Warning, the second pietrt," Lon- 
don, 1663. This volume contains also several extracts 
from the writings of Whitgift and Hooker, and was publish- 
ed with a view to oppose the sectaries, who were said to be 
opening a door at which popery would certainly enter. 13. 
** The preface to the Book of Common Prayer,*' beginning 
with these words, ** It hath been the wisdom of the church.** 
14. ^^ BrtK>/hu;, sen Explanatio Juramenti," &c. inserted in 
the *^ Excerpta e corpore statutorum Univ. Oxon.'* p. 194. 
It was written to explain the oath of obligation to observe 
^tke penal statute^. 15, f^ Articles of Visitation and In* 



qairy concerning matters ecclesiastical/^ &a Lond. 1662^ 
4to. Dr. Sanderson and Dr. Haniaiond were jointly con- 
cerned in a work entitled ^^ A pacific discourse of God^s 
frace and decrees/' and published by the latter in 1660. 
n the preface to the Polyglott, Dr. Bryan Walton has 
classed Dr. Sanderson among those of his much honoured 
friends who assisted him in that noble work. Peck, io the 
second volume of his ^^ Desiderata Curiosa/' has published 
the *' History and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church of 
the Blessed Virgin St. Mary at Lincoln : containing au ex*- 
act copy of all the ancient monumental inscriptions there, 
in number 163, as they stood in 1641, most of which were 
soon after torn up, or otherways defaced. Collected by 
Robert Sanderson, S.T. P. afterwards lord bishop of that 
church, and compared with and corrected by sir Willtam 
Dugdale's MS survey."* 

SANDERSON (Robert), an antiquary of considerable 
]iote> was a younger son of Christopher Sanderson, ^jus-» 
tice of the peace for the county palatine of Durham, who 
had suffered for his attachment to the Stuart family during 
the civil war. He was born July 27, 1660, at Eggleston- 
ball, in that county, and entered a student of St. Jpbn^$ 
college, Cambridge, under the tuition of Dr. Baker, April 
7, 1683. He remained in the university several years, aq4 
' was contemporary with the celebrated Matthew Prior. Re- 
moving to London, lie afterwards turned his attention to 
the law, and was appointed clerk of the rolls, in the Rolls 
chapel. He contributed largely to the compilation of Ry* 
mer^s Foedera, ^nd was exclusively concerned in arranging 
thQ three concluding volume^, from IB to 20, whiph he 
successively dedicated to kings George I.^nd II. (See 

In 1704 he published a translation of ^^ Original Letj^ers 
frgm William III. whilst Prince of Orange, to Charles II., 
!|Lord Arlington, and otb^ers, with an Accoiupt of the Prince's 
Reception at Middleburgh, and his Spepcb on tfoat ppca* 
sionV dedicating the book to lord WoqctsjtQpk. Ha 9I10 
wrote " A History of Henry V." in the vf^y of anuaU, it| 
nip^ volumes, of which tbp first four have been Ipst, and 
the others still remain in ipanijfscript amongst his p^p(erv 
Ip 1714 be became ac^ndidat^ for the plaqe of hi«toriQ-» 

' Life by Wa^Uon, with tracts, 1678, Svo.— Walton's Lives by Zouch.— nio». 
. Brit. — Atb. Ox. vol. n.-~Bishop Barlow's Remains, p. 333 and 634.— Words- 
wprtl^'s l^GpL BiQ|;r^p^y.-^Gen{. Mag. vol. LXXl. . 


grapber to queen Anne, and received a very handsome offer 
of assistance from Matthew Prior, at that time ambassador 
to the court of France. His success, however, was pre-* 
vented by the change of ministry which succeeded on the 
queen's death. On the 2dth of November, 1726, he was 
appointed usher of the high court of chancery, by sir Jo^ 
seph Jekyll, the master of the rolls. He succeeded, in 
1727, by the death of an elder brother, to a considerable 
landed property in Cumberland, the north riding of Yorlc- 
shire, and Durham. After this^ though he continued 
chiefly to reside in London, he occasionally visited his 
country seat at Armatbwaite castle, a mansion pleasantly 
situated on the bank^ of the Eden, about ten miles from 
Carlisle. He was married four times ; for the last time to 
Elizabeth Hickes of London, when he had completed bis 
70th year. He died Dec. 25, 1741, at his house in Chan^ 
eery-lane, in the 79th year of his age, and was buried in 
Red- Lion- Fields. He was a devout man, well read in di« 
vinity, attached to the forms of the church of England, and 
very regular in his attention to public and private worship. 
He was slightly acquainted with the Hebrew language, and 
conversant in the Greek, Latin,* Spanish, Italian, and 
French. He made a choice collection of books in various 
languages, and left behind him several volumes of MSS, 
relating chiefly to history, and the court of chancery, and 
including a transcript of Thurloe^s State Papers. He kept 
a diary, in which be noted down, with minute attention* 
the* slightest occurrences of his life. As be left no issue, 
his estates descen.ded, on the death of his last wife, in 
175-3, to the family of Margaret, his eldest sister, oiarried 
to Henry Milboiu*ne, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne ; whose 
great grandson, William Henry Milbourne, was high she- 
riff of Cumberland in 1794.^ 


SANDERUS (Anthony), an eminent topographer and 
antiquary, was born at Antwerp, in Sept. 15S6. He was 
first taught Latin at Oudenarde, and pursued his cl issical 
studies at the Jesuits' college in Ghent. He then studied 
philosophy at Doua^, and in 1609 obtained the degree of 
master of arts. A^ter pome stay in his native country, he 
entered on a course of theology at Louvain, which be 
eompleted at Douay, and in 1619, or 1621, took th^ 

' Ni\hols*8 Buwyer.-^Rees's Cyclop^dui, 

124 S A N D E R U S. 

degree of docror in that faculty. Being ordained priest, 
officiated for several years in various churches in the diocesar 
of Ghent, was remarkably zealous in the conversion of A^- 
reticSf i. e. protestants, and particularly contended much 
with the anabaptists, who were numerous in that quarter. 
Having, however, rendered himself obnoxious to^ the Hol^ 
landers, by some services in which he was employed by the 
king of Spain, their resentment made him glad to enter into 
the service of cardinal Alphonso de la Cueva, who was then 
in the Netherlands, and made him his almoner and secre-^ 
tary. Some time after, by the cardinal's interest, he was 
made canon of Ipres (not of Tournay, as father Labbe as* 
»erts) and finally theologal of Terouanne. He died in 1664, 
in the seventy-eighth year of his age, at AfHingham, an 
abbey of Brabant in thei diocese of Mechlin, and was inter- 
red there, with a pious inscription over his grave, written 
by himself. 

The long list of bis works shews that his life was not 
spent in indolenpe. Some of these of the religious kind 
we shall omit. The principal, which respected literature, 
or the biography and ' history of the Netherlands, were, 1 . 
*' Dissertatio parsenetica pro instituto bibliothecee publicae 
Gandavensis,'* Ghent, 1619, 4to. 2. ** Poematum libri 
tres," ibid. 1621, 8vo. 3. ** Panfegyricus in kudem B. 
TbomaB de Villanova," ibid. 1623, 4to. 4. *' Encomium 
S. Isidori," Antwerp, 1623, 8vo. 5. *^ De Scriptoribu^ 
Flandriae, libri tres,'' ibid. 1624, 4to. 6. *^ De Ganda* 
▼eMsibus eruditionis fama claris,*' -ibid. 1624, 4to. 7. '^De 
Brugensibus eruditionis fama ciaris,'' ibid. 1624, 4to. 8. 
" Hagiologium FlandriaB," &c. ibid. 1625, 4to, and with 
additions, at Lisle, 1639. 9. ^^ Elogia Cardinalium sanc« 
titate, doctrina, et armis illustrium,'' Louvain, 1625, 4to« 
10. ** Gandavium, sive rerum Gandavensium libri sex,*^ 
Brussels, 1627, 4to. 11. '^De Claris sanctitate et erudi« 
tione Antoniis," Louvain, 1627, 4to. 12. ^* Bibliotheca 
Belgica mauuscripta,'* 2 parts or volumes, Lisle, 1641 and 

1643, 4to. 13. " Flandria lllustrata," Cologne, 1641 and 

1644, 2 vols. fol. a most superb book, well known to the 
collectors of foreign history and topography. There is an 
edition published at the Hague in 1730, 3 vols. fol. but tb6 
original is preferred on account of th^ superior beauty of 
the engravings. 14, '^ Chorographia sacra Brabantia, sive 
celebrium aliquot in ea provincia ecclesi^ruip et ccenobio- 
rum descriptio,*' Brussels and Antwerp, 1659, 2 vols. fo(^ 


1669. This is a still more splendid work than the former, 
v^nd of much more rare occurrence in a complete state, very 
few copies of the second volume being in existence. The 
reason assigned is, that the entire impression of the second 
volume was suppressed as soon as completed, and remained 
in the warehouse of a bookseller at Brussels until 1695, in 
which year that city was bombarded by the French, and all 
the copies, except a few in the possession of the author's 
friends, perished by fire. This likewise was reprinted at 
the Hague in 3 vols. foL 1726 — 27, but with different plates, 
and of course this edition is not so highly esteemed. San- 
ders wrote other topographical works, which appear to re- 
main in MS.^ 

SANDFORD (Francis), a herald and heraldic writer, 
descended from a very ancient and respectable family, still 
seated at Sandford, in the county of Salop, was the third 
ton of Francis Sandford, of that place, esq. by Elizabeth, 
daughter of Calcot Chambre, of WiJliamscot in Oxford- 
«bire, and of Carnow in Wicklow in Ireland. He was bora 
in 1630, in the castle of Carnow in the province of Wick- 
low, part of the half barony of Shelelak, purchased of 
James I., by his maternal grandfather, Chalcot Chambre. 
He partook in an eminent degree the miseries of the period 
which marked his.youth. At eleven years of age he sought 
ftn asylum in Sandford, being driven by the rebellion from 
Ireland. No sooner had his pitying relatives determined to 
educate htm to some profession, than they were proscribed 
for adhering to the cause of their sovereign ; he received, 
'therefore, only that learning which a grammar school could 
give. As some recom pence for the hardships be and his 
faoiily had experienced, he was admitted, at the restora- 
tion, as pursuivant in the college of arms^ but conscien- 
tiously attached to James II., he obtained leave to resign 
his tabard to Mr. King, rougedragon, who paid him 220/. 
for his office. He retired to Bloomsbury, or its vicinity^ 
where he died, January 16, 1693, and was buried in St. 
Bride^s upper church yard. The last daya of this valuable 
man corresponded too unhappily with the first, for he died 
*< advanced in years, neglected, and poor.'* He married 
Jtfargaret, daughter of William Jokes, of Bottington, in 
the county of Montgomery, relict of William Kerry, by 
whom he bad issue. His literary works are, 1. '^ A genea* 

* Fo|>peiiBibkBel{^.— Moreri«-^LoBgt&aa'i Catalog ae for 18 lO, 

12« S A N D P O R D. 

logical History of the Kings of Portugal," &c. London, 
\664fy fol. partly a translation, published in complimetit lo 
Catherine of Braganza, consort to Chai*les IL It is become 
scarce. 2. . " The Orch?r and Ceremonies used at the Fu- 
neral of his Grace, George Duke of Albemarle,'* Savo}*, 
16?0.. This is a thin folio, the whole represented in en* 
graving. 3. ** A genealogical History of the Kings of 
England, and M'onarchs of Great Britain, from th^-Nordian 
Conquest, Anno 1066, to the year 1677, in seven Part* 
or Books, containing a Drscourse of their several Lives, Mar- 
liagesj ancl Issues, Times of Birib, Death, Places of Bu- 
rialj and monumental Inscriptions, with their Effigies, Sfeals, 
Tombsj Cenotaphs, Devices, Arms," &c. Savoy, 167^, 
fol. dedicated to Charles IL, by whose command the wtjrk 
was undertaken. It is his best and most estimable perform- 
ance. The plan is excellent, the fineness of the no'meronis 
engravings greatly enrich and adorn it : many are by Hoi'** 
lar, others by the best artists of thnt period, inferior to 
him, but not contemptible, even when seen at this age of 
improvement in graphic art. The original notes are not 
the least valuable part of the work, conveying great in- 
formation, relative to the heraldic history of our monarch^, 
princes, 'and nobility. Mr. Stebbinjx» Somerset herald, 
reprinted it in 1707, continuing it until that year, giving 
some additional information to the original works; but the 
plates being worn out, or ill touched, this edition is far iih- 
ferior to the first. " The Coronation of K. James 11. and 
Q Mary,'* &c.*iilustrated with sculptures. Savoy, 1687, a 
most superb work. When James declared he would have 
the a-ccount of his coronation printed, Mr. Sandford and 
Mr. King, then rouge-dragon, obtained the earl n^arshaPs 
consent to execute it ; the lattqr says, the greatest part 
passed through his hands, as well as the whole management 
and economy of it, though he declined having his name 
appear in the title-page, contenting himself with one third 
part of the property, leaving the honour, and twoTemain- 
ing shares of it, to Mr. Sandford ; well foreseeing, he says^ 
that they would be maligned for it by others of their office ; 
and he was not mistaken, for Sandford, with all the honour, 
had all the malice, for having opposed the earl marshaP^ 
appointing Mr. Burghill to be receiver of fees of honoiif 
for the heralds, and endeavouring to vest it in the king; so 
that the affair was taken and argued at the council table. 
The earl marshal, at the insinuation of some of th6 be- 

8 A N D F O R D. 127 

raids, suspended him, tinder pretence that he had not 
finished the history of the coronation ; but he submitting, 
the suspension was soon taken off. The book at last was 
not successful, for the publication being delayed until 
1687, and the revolution following, which threw a damp 
on such an undertaking, Messrs. Sand ford and King gained 
no more than their expen'ces, amounting to 600/.* 

SANDINI (Anthony), an Italian ecclesiastical historian, 
was bom June 31, 1692, and became, by the interest of 
his bishop, cardinal Rezzonico, who was afterwards pope 
Clement XI 11. librarian and professor of ecclesiasticcil his- 
tory ^t Padua, where he died, Feb. 23, 1751, in the fifty- 
ninth year of his age. He is known principally by his 
** Vitae Pontificum Romanorum," Ferrara, 1748, reprinted 
under the title of " Basis Historiae Ecclesiasticae.'* He also 
wrote " Historian Familias Sacr® ;*' ** Historia S. S. Apos- 
tolorum ;*' ** Disputationes XX ex Historia Ecclesiastica 
ad Vitas Pontificum Romanorum," and " Dissertations,'* 
in defence of tiie " Historian Familiae Sacrae," which fathei* 
Serry had attacked.* 

SANDIUS (Christopher), or. Van Den Sand, a So- 
cinian writer, was born at Konigsburg in the year 1644. 
After becoming an ecclesiastic, he went to Amsterdam, 
where lie died in 1680, aged only thirty-six. He published 
various works, among which are, 1. " Nucleus Historiaf; 
Eeciesiastics," 1669, in 2 vols. 8vo, reprinted at Cologne, 
in 1676 : and in London in 1681. 2. " Tractatus de Ori- 
'gine Animae, 1671." 3. *< Notae et Observationes in G.J, 
Vossium de Historicis Latinis," 1677, a work of consider- 
able learning. 4. " Centuria Epigrammatum ;" 5. " In- 
terpretationes paradoxae IV. Evangeliorum ;" 6. " Confes- 
aio Fidei de Deo Patre, Filio, et Spiritu Sancto, secuhdum 
Scripturam;" '* Scriptura SacraD TTrinitatis RevelatrixJ' 
But the only work now much known, which was published 
after his death, is his *^ Bibliotheca Anti-Trinitariorum,^* 
Freistadt, 1684, 12mo, containing an account of the lives 
and writings of Socioian authors, and some tracts giving 
many particulars of the history of the Polish Socinians.' 

SAN DR ART (Joachim), a German painter, was born 
at Francfortin 1606. He was sent by his father to a gram- 
mar school; his inclination to engraving and designing 

* Atb. Ox. vol. II. — Harris** edition of Ware. — Noble's CoHeje of Arms. — 
Gent Mag. voK LXIU. 

« Diet Hist. > Moreri.— Diet. Hi.t. 

125 8 A N D R A R T. 

being irresistiblci he was sufFered to indulge it, and tir^nt 
on foot to Prague, where he put himself under Giles Sade- 
ler, the famous engraver, who persuaded him to apply bi^ 
genius to painting. He accordingly went to Utrecht, and 
was some time under Gerard Honthrost, who took him inlor 
England with him; where be stayed till 1627, the year in 
which the duke of Buckingham, who was the patron of 
painting and painters, was assassinated by Fehon at Ports- 
mouth. He went afterwards to Venice, where he copied 
the finest pictures of Titian and taul Veronese; and from 
Venice to Rome, where he became one of the most consi- 
derable painters of his time. The king of Spain sending 
to Rome for twelve pictures of the most skilful hands then 
in that city, twelve painters were set to work^ one of wfaomi 
was Sandrart. After a long stay in Rome, he went to N»« 
pies, thence to Sicily and Malta, and at length returned 
through Lombardy to Francfort^ where he married. A 
great famine happening about that time, he removed to 
Amsterdam; but returned to Francfort lapon the cessit« 
tion of that grievance. Not long after, he took possession 
of the manor of Stokau, in the duchy of Neuburg, which 
was fallen to him ; and, finding it much in decay, sold all 
his pictures, designs, and other curiosities, in order ^a 
y^ise money for repairs. He had but just completed these, 
when, the war breaking out between tbe Germans and the 
French, it was burned by the latter to the ground. He 
then rebuilt ic in a better style; but, fearing a second in-* 
vasion, sold it, and settled at Augsburgh, where he exe- 
cuted many fine pictures. His wife dying, he left.Augs- 
burgh,. and went to Nuremberg, where he established ait 
academy of painting. Here he published his '^ Academia. 
artis pictorias,*' 1683, fol. being »an abridgrtient of Vasari 
a4)d Ridolfi for what concerns the Italian painters, and of 
Charles Van Mander for the Flemings, of the seventeenth 
century. He died at Nuremberg, in 1688. His work above 
mentioned, which some have called superficial, is but a 
part of a larger work, which he published before under the 
title of *' Academia Todesca della architettura, scultura, e 
pittura, oderTeutsche academic der edlen banbild-mahle- 
Ten-kunste," Nuremberg, 1675 — 79, 2 vols. fol. He pub* 
lished also, *' Iconologia Deorum, qui ab antiquis coleban- 
lur (Germanice), ibid. 1680, fol. " Admiranda Sculpturaei 
Teteris, sive delineatio vera perfectissima statuarum," ibid- 
1680, fol. ^* Romse aniiquss et novae theatrum,^' i6S^, foK 

^ A N D R A R t. i2Sl 

^'^ l^bHUKNTttin Fotttinalia/' ibid. 1685, fol. A German 
^ditioD of all bis works was published by Volkmann, at 
Nuremberg, in 1669 — 75, 8 vols, fol.' 

SANDYS (Edwin), a very eminent English prelate, thct. 
third son of Wil(iam Sandys, esq. and Margaret his wife^ 
descended from the ancient barons of Kendal, was bora 
near Hawksbead, in Furness Fells, Lancashire, in 1519* 
The same neigbbourbood^ and almost the same year, gave 
birth to two other luminaries of the reformation, Edmund 
Grindal and Bernard Gilpin* Mr. Sandys*s late biographer 
conjectures, that be was educated at the school of Furness 
Abbey, whence be was removed to St. John^s-coliege,, 
Cambridge^ in 1532 or 1533, where be had for his con- 
temporaries Redmayn and Lever, both great lights of tha 
reformation, beside othets of inferior name, who continued 
in the hour of trial so true to their principles, that, accord- 
ing to Mri Baker, the learned historian pf that bousef 
^* probably more fellows were, in queen Mary's reign, 
ejected from St. John's than from any other society in either 
tiniversityt" Several years now elapsed of Saudys's life^ 
during which in matters of religion men knew not how to 
act or what to believe ; but, though the nation was at this 
time under severe restraints with respect to external con-» 
duct, inquiry was still at work in secret : the corruption^ 
of the old religion became better understood, , the Scrip- 
tures wete universally studied, and every impediment being 
removed with the capricious tyranny of Henry VIII., pro- 
testantism, with little variation from its present establish- 
ment in England, became the religion of the state. > 

During this interval Sandys^ who, from the independence 
bf bis fortune, or some other cause, had never been scbo* 
iar or fellow of bis college, though he had served the 
bffice of proctor for the university, was in 1547 elected 
master of Catherine-ball. He was probably at this tima 
vicar of Haversham, in Bucks, his first considerable pre-* 
ferment, to which, in 1548, was.added a prebend of. Peter- 
borough, and in 1552, the second stall at Carlisle. \}^ith- 
out the last of these preferments he was enabled to marry^ ^ 
end chose a lady of his own name, the daughtei'of a branch 
unnoticed by the genealogists, a beautiful and pious wo-* 
man. The next year, which was that of his vice-cban« 
cellorship, rendered bim unhappily conspicuous by his 

< PilkingtoD.-ii^Strtttt* 


13d S- A N Y S. 

yielding to the command or request of Dudley, duke d 
Nortliumberland, and preaching a sermon in support of 
lady Jane Gray's pretensions to the crown, after the death 
of Edward VI. The designs of Dudley's party having been 
almost immediately defeated, Sandys was marked out for 
vengeance ; and the popish party in the university, as the 
first step towards regaining an ascendant, resolved to de- 
pose the vice-chancellor, which was performed in a man- 
ner very characteristic of the tumultuous spirit of the 
times. From this time, in July 1553, he ceased to reside 
in college, or to take any part in the administration of its 

He then left the universitv, amidst the insults of his 
enemies, and the tears of bis friends, -^ho reasonably an- 
ticipated a worse fate than that which befel him. On his 
arrival in London, he was ordered to be confined in the 
Tower, - where the yeomen of the guard took from him 
every thing which he had been permitted to bring froni 
Cambridge; but his faithful servant, Quintiq Swainton, 
brought after him a Bible, some shirts and other necessa- 
ries. The Bible being no prize for plunderers, was sent 
in, but every thing else was stolen by the warders. Here, 
after remaining three weeks, solitary and ill accommo- 
dated in a vile lodging, he was removed to a better apart- 
ment, call/ed the Nun's Bower (a name now forgotten in 
ihat gloomy mansion), where he bad the comfort of Mr. 
John Bradford's company. In this apartment ' they re- 
mained twenty-^nine weeks, during which time the mildness 
yet earnestnessof tfaeirpersuasions wroughton their keeper, 
a bigoted catholic, till he became a sincere protestant, 
'' a son begotten in bonds^" so that when mass was cele- 
brated in the chapel of the Tower, instead of compelling 
his prisoners to attend, the converted gaoler frequently 
. brought up a service-book of Edward VI. with bread and 
wine, and Sandys administered the sacrament in both kinds 
to himself and the other two. 

Here they continued until their apartments being wanted 
for the persons concerned in Wyat's conspiracy, they were 
removed to the Marshalsea. On their way there they found 
the people's minds greatly changed. Popery, unmasked 
and triumphant, had already shewn its nature again,- and 
general disgust had followed the short burst of joy which 
had attended the queen's accession. . Sandys walked along 
the streets attended by bis keeper : and as he was generally 

B A K D V S. 131 

ktoo«!il, the people prayed that God would eomfort him^ 
and strengthen him io the mitb* Struck with these ap- 
pearances of popularityi the keeper of the Marshalsea saidj 
<< These vain peo|^ would set you forward to the fire : 
but you are as Tain as they^ if you^ being a young mao^ 
will prefer your own conceit before the judgoient of so many 
worthy prellUes^ and so many grave and leamed^nen as are 
ia this realm. If you persist, you shall find me as strict a 
keeper, aa one that utterly misliketh your religion." Dr« 
Sandys nobly replied^ " My years, indeed, are few, and 
tny learning is small ; but it is enough to know Christ 
crucified ; and who seeth not the blasphemies of popery 
bath learned nothing. I have read in Scripture of godly 
and courteous keepers, God make you like one of them ; 
if not,. I trust he will give me strength and patience to b^ajr 
your bard dealing' with me." The keeper then asked^ 
" Are you resolved to stand to your religion ?" *< Yes,'* 
^aid Dr. Sandys, " by God's grace." « 1 love you the 
-better, therefore," said the keeper, « I did but tempt youj 
every favour which I can show, you shall be sure of : nay^ 
if you die at a stake, I shall be happy to die with you.'* 
:And from that day such was the confidence which this good 
•man reposed in Sandys, that many times he permitted him 
,to walk alone io the fields j nor would he ever suffer him 
to be fettered> like the other' prisoners. He lodged him 
also in the best chamber of the house, and often permitted 
his wife to visit him. Great resort was here made to Dr. 
Sandys for his edifying discourses, and much money was 
oflFered him, but he would accept of none. Here too the 
communion was celebrated three ^r four times by himself 
and his companions, of whom Saunders, afterwards the mar- 
tyr, was one, to many communicants. 

After nine weeks confinement in the Marshalsea, he was 
set at liberty, by the intercession of sir Thomas Holcroft 
knigbt-marsbal. This, however, was not accomplished 
without much difficulty, and so intent was Gardiner, bishop 
of Winchester, on bringing Sandys to the stake, that it 
required ^ome management on the part of sir Thomas 
before he could succeed ; and no sooner Was Sandys libe- 
rated than Gardiner, being told that he had set at liberty 
one of the greatest heretics in the kingdom, procured or- be issued to all the constables of London to search 
for, and apprehend hipa. In Sandys's. final escape, as re- 
iatedby his late biographer, the hand of Providence wi*s 

132 SANDYS. 

Strikingly visible. While he was in the Tower, tranting si 
pair of new hose, a tailor was sent for, who, not bein^ 
permitted to measure him, had made them too long, anA 
while he was now concealed at the house of one Hurleston, 
a skinner in Cornhill, he sent them, as Hnrleston's own^ 
to a tailor to be shortened. This happened to be honest 
Benjamin the maker, a good protestant| who immediately 
recognized his own bandy work, and required to be shown 
to the house where Dr. Sandys was, that he might speak 
with him for bis good. At midnight he was admitted, and 
informed Dr. Sandys, that all the constables of the city^ 
of whom he himself was one, were employed to apprehend 
him, that it was well known that bis servant had provided 
two geldings, and that he meant to ride out at Aldgate to- 
morrow. " But," said he, •* follow my advice, and, by- 
God's grace, you shall escape. Let your man walk all the 
day to-morrow in the street where your horses are stabled^ 
booted and prepared for a journey. The servant of the 
man of the house shall -take the horses to Betbna]«> 
green. The man himself shall follow, and be booted as if 
h6 meant to ride. About eight in the morning I will be 
with you, and here we will break our fast. It is both term 
and parliament time, and the street by that hour will be 
full of people; we will then go forth*— look wildly, and, 
if you meet your own brother in the street, do not shun, 
but outface him, and assure him that you know him not.*' 
Dr. Sandys accordingly complied, and came out at the ap- 
pointed hour, clothed in all respects as a layman and a 
gentleman. Benjamin carried him through bye^lan^es to 
Moorgate, where the horses were ready, and Hurleston as 
his man. That night he rode to his father-in-law's house, 
but had not been there two hours, when intelligence 
was brought, that two of the guard had been dispatched 
^o apprehend him, and would be there that night. He was 
then immediately conducted to the house of a farmer near 
the sea-side, where he remained two days and two nights 
in a solitary chamber. Afterwards he removed to the house 
of one James Mower, a ship-master, near Milton-shore, 
where was a fleet of merchant-men awaiting a wind for 
Flanders. While he was there. Mower gathered a con- 
gregation of forty or fifty seamen, to whom he gave an ex^* 
hortation, with which they were so much delighted^ that 
they promised to defend him at the expence of their lives. 
On Sunday May 6, be embs^rked in the asune vessel with 


Or. Coxe, afterwards bishop of Ely, and the ship was yet 
in sight, when two of the guard arrived on the shore to ap- 
prehend Dr. Sandys. 

t His danger was not even yet entirely over, for on his 
arrival at Antwerp, he received intelligence that king 
Philip of Spain had sent to apprehend him, on which h« 
escaped to the territory of Clev^, from thence to Augs- 
jburgh, where he remained fourteen days, and then re- 
moved to Strasburgh. Here he took up his abode for the 
present, and here unquestionably spent the mo^t gloomy 
portion of his life. His own health was at this time deeply 
injured; he fell sick of a flux (the usual concomitant of 
hardships and afflictions), which continued without abate** 
nieat for nine months ; his only child died of the plague; 
and iiis beloved wife, who had found means to follow^ him 
about a year after bis flight from England, expired of a 
consumption, in his afms. In addition to his sorrows, the 
disputes concerning church discipline broke out among th^ 
English exiles, on which several of his friends left the 
place. After his wife's deattf, he went to Zurich,, where 
be was entertained by Peter Martyr, but, his biographer 
thinks, the time did not permit him to receive any deep 
tincture either as to doctrine or discipline from Geneva or 
its neighbours.; Within five weeks the news of queen 
Mary's death arrived ; and after being joyfully feasted by 
BuUinger, and the other ministers of the Swiss churches, 
he returned to Strasburgh, where hie preached ; after 
which Grindal and he set out for their native country to- 
gether, and arrived in London on the day of queen Eliza- 
beth's coronation. 

Dr. Sandys was now somewhat less than forty years old, 
in the vigour of his mental faculties and with recruited 
bodily strength. The first public scene on which he ap- 
peared was the great disputation between the leading di- 
vines of the protestant and popish side, in which, if his 
talent for debate bore any proportion to his faculty of 
preaching, he must have borne a very conspicuous part. 
On the 21st of December, 1559, he was consecrated by 
archbishop Parker to the see of Worcester. Browne Willis 
bas roost unjustly accused our prelate of having enriched 
bis faipily out of the lands of this see ; on the contrary, he 
traosmitted it to his successor, exactly as be found it, that 
^ saddled with the conditions of an exchange which the 
CfowQ had by statute a right to make. He accepted it oa 

134 8 A N I> Y », 

these conditions, and what he was never seized of, il wa« 
impossible for him to alienate. After all, this was scarcely 
a matter sufficient to excite Browne Willis's superstition^ 
reverence^ for the rental of the manors taken away was. no 
more than ]9S/. 12^. S^d. per ann. and that of the spiritu*^ 
alities given in exchange 1 94/. 

^ At Worcester began the inquietudes and vexations which 
pursued bishop Sandys through his latter days. The papists 
in his diocese hated him, and he was at no pains to cpnciliate 
them. At Hartlebury, in particular, it was his misfortone 
to have for his neighbour sir John Browne, a bigoted pa* 
pist, who took every opportunity to insult the bishop, and 
to deride his wife (for he had by this time married Cecily^ 
sister of sir Thomas Wilford), by calling her ** My Lady,*» 
a style which in the novelty of their situation, some of the 
bishop- s wives really pretended to ; so that in conclusioti « 
great affray took place between the bishop's servants and 
those of the knight, in which several were wounded on 
both sides. At Worcester Dr. Sandys remained till 1570^ 
when on the translation of bis friend Grindal to York, he 
succeeded him in the see of London, a station for which 
he .was eminently qualified by his talents as a preacher, and 
as a governor. During this period, he had interest to pro^ 
cure for his kinsman Gilpin, a nomination to the bishoprio 
of Carlisle, but Gilpin refused it. At London, Dr. Sandys 
sat six years, when be was translated to York, on the re- 
moval of Grindal to Canterbury. 

Years were now coming upon him, and a' numerous fa- 
mily demanded a provision ; but as it was a new and un« 
popular thing to see the prelates of the church abandon-* 
ing their cathedrals and palaces, and retiring to obscure 
manor-houses on their estates, in order to accumulate for-f 
tunes for their children, an abundant portion of abloquy 
fell upon Sandys, who seldom lived at York, and not very 
magnificently at Southwell. Yet he visited his diocese 
regularly, and preached occasionally in his cathedral with 
great energy and effect. In 1577, during a metropolitical 
visitation, he came in his progress to Durham, the bishoprio 
of which was then vacant, but was refused admittance by 
Whittingham, the puritan dean. The archbishop, however, 
with his wonted firmness proceeded to excommqnication. 
The issue of this contest will come to be noticed in our 
account of Whittingham. In the month of May 1582^ 
being ooc^ mor^ i^ a pro^recis through bis diocese, a di$^T 

8 A N D Y & US 

bolical atteospt wa> mada to blast bis cbaracter. He bap? 
peoed to lie at an infi in Doncaster j wberei through the 
contrivance of sir Robert Stapleton, and other enemiets, 
the inn-keeper's wife was put to bed to bioi at midnight 
when be was asleep. On this^ according to agreement, 
the inn-keeper rushed into the room, waked the archbishop 
with his noise, and offered a drawn dagger to his breast, 
pretending to' avenge the injury*. Immediately sir.Robert 
Stapleton came in, as if called from his chamber by the 
inn-keeper; and putting on the appearance of a friend, as 
indeed he had formerly been, and as the archbishop theii 
thought him, advised his grace to make the matter up^ 
laying before him many perils and dangers to his name 
and the credit of reUgion that might ensue, if, being one 
gainst so many, he should offer to stir in such a cause ; 
^d persuading him, that, qotwithstanding his innocency^ 
which the archbishop earnestly protested, and StapletoQ 
then acknowledged, it were better to stop the mouths of 
needy persons than to bring his name into doubtful quesr 
tion. With this advice, Sandys unwarily complied; but, 
afterwards discovering sir Robert's malice and treacherous 
dissimulation, he ventured, in confidence of bis own inno- 
eency, to be the means himself of bringing the whole 
cause to examination before the council in the star-cham- 
ber. The result of this was, that he was declared entirely 
innocent of the wicked slanders and imputations .Taise4 
against him ; and that sir Robert Stapleton and his accom- 
plices were first imprisoned, and then fined in a most ser 
vere manner. This affair is related at large by sir John 
jHarrington, a contemporary writer; suid by Le Neve, who 
gives a fuller account of it, from an exemplification of the 
decree, made in the star-chamber, 8 May, 25 Eliz. pre- 
served in the Harleian library. 

The last act of the archbishop^s life seems to hs^ve been 
the resistance he made against the earl of Leicester, who 
wanted to wrest from the see a valuable estate. It is to be 
regretted that after having made this noble stand, our pre- 
late should have granted a long lease of the manor of 
Scroby to his own family. 

Of the decline of archbishop Sandys^s age, and of the 
particular disorder which brought him to his grave, no 
circumstances are recorded. He died at Southwell, July. 
10,:- 1588, in the sixty-ninth year of his age, and was bu« 
ried in the collegiate church o( that places He was the 

136 SANDYS. 

first English bishop who, by his prudence or parsimony^ 
laid the foundation of a fortune in his family, which has 
justified their subsequent advancement to a peerage. With 
his father's savings, the manor of Ombersley, in Worcester-r 
shire, was purchased by sir Samuel Sandys, the eldest son, 
whose descendants, since ennobled by the family name, still 
remain in possession of that fair and ample domain. There 
also the archbishop's portrait, together with that of Cicely 
his second wife, is still preserved. She survived to 1610, 
and has a monument at Woodham Ferrers, iq Essex, where 
she died. 

Dr. Whitaker, whose late life of archbishop Sandys we 
have in general followed, as the result of much research 
find reflection, observes that after all the deductions which 
truth and impartiality require, it will still remfiin incon- 
testable, that Sandys was a man of a clear and vigorous 
understanding, of a taste, in comparison, above that of the 
former age or the next, and, what is more, of bis own : 
that he was a sincere Christian, a patient sufferer, an in- 
defatigable preacher, an intrepid and active ecclesiastical 
magistrate. What w^s his deportment in private life, we 
are ho where told, On the other hand, it cannot be de- 
nied, that the man who after his advancement to the epis- 
copal order, in three successive stations, either kindled 
the flames of discord^ or never extinguished them, who 
quarrelled alike with prptestants and papists, with his suc- 
cessor in one see, (Aylmer) and with his dean in another, 
who in his first two dioceses treated the clergy with a 
harshness which called for the interposition of the metro- 
politan, and who drew upon himself from two gentlemen 
of the country, the extremity of violence and outrage, must 
have been lamentably defective in Christian meekness and 
forbearance ^. In every instance, indeed, he had met witlr 
^reat provocation, i^nd in the last the treatment he received 
was atrocious ; but such wounds are never gratuitously- in- 
flicted, and rarely till after a series of irritations on both 
liides. In. doctrinal points his biographer attempts, by 
various extracts from his sermons, to prove archbishop 
jSandys less inclined to Calvinism than some of his contem- 

* We know not if Mr. Lodge has be. easy aleganoe of^ a courtier with af 

ftowcd the same attention ou the con- muchfplety, meekness, and benevolence, 

duot of archbishop Sandys, but his in* as ever ornamented the clerical cha- 

ference is somewhat different. <* This racter.** Lodge's Ktustrai^OQ^n voV 1^ 

pr^faite> conduct happily united Uie p. 2S2, 

SANDYS. 187 


poraries. On the oth6r hand Dr. Wbitaker asserts the 
dear, systematic, and purely evangelical thread of doc* 
trine which runs through the whole of bis sermons, namely, 
salvation through Christ alone, justification by faith in him, 
sanctification through his holy Spirit, and lastly, the fruits 
of faith, produced through the agency of th&same Spirit, 
and exemplified in every branch of duty to God, our neigh*- 
bour and ourselves. These " Sermons'* were first printed 
i&lmost immediately after the archbishop's decease, and 
again in 1613, in a quarto volume, containing twenty-two, 
but have lately become so scarce that Dr. Wbitaker un« 
dertook a hew edition, with a life prefixed, which was pub-* 
lished in 1812, 8vo. The archbishop was also concerned 
in the translation of the Bible begun in 1565, and the por^ 
tion which fell to his lot was the books of Kings and Chro- 
nicles. Several of his letters and other papers are in<- 
serted in Strype's Annals and Lives of Parker and Whit- 
gift, ^nd in Burnet's History of the Reformation, Fox*s 
Acts, &c.^ 

SANDYS (Sir Edwin), second son of the preceding, 
was born in Worcestershire about 1561, and admitted of 
Corpus-Christi-coUege, Oxford, at sixteen, under the ce- 
lebrated Hooker. After taking his degree of B. A. he was 
made probationer-fellow in 1579, and was collated in 1581 
to a prebend in the church of York. He then completed 
bis degree of M. A. and travelled into foreign countries, 
and at his return was esteemed for learning, virtue, and 
prudence. He af>pears afterwards to have studied the law. 
While he was at Paris, he drew up a tract, under the title 
of ^' £urop8B Speculum," which he finished in \5S9; an 
imperfect copy of which was published without the au- 
thor's name or consent, in 1605, and was soon followed by 
another impression. But the author, after he had used 
all means to suppress these erroneous copies, and to 
punish the printers of them, at length caused a true copy 
to be published, a little before his death, in 1629, 4to^ 
under this title : ^' Europae Speculum ; 'or a view or survey 
of the state of religion in the western parts of the world. 
Wherein the Romane religion, and the pregnant policies 
of the church of Rome to support the same, are notably 

1 Life by Dr. Wbitaker.— Biog. Brit.r-Strype's Craomer, p. 314. 40^^ 
Strype's Parker, p. 66, 78, 103, 208, 296, 333, 357, 438.— Strype'g Grindal, 
p. S. 19^, 228, 245.— Strype's Whitgiffc. p. 283.— Harringtoo'g Brief View.— 
Le Kerf's ^rcbbishops, ?•!• ll.«*-f ox's Acts antl Moum4eiits, 


displayed ; with some other memorable, discoveries and 
memorations. Never before till now published according 
to the author's original copie. Multum diuque desidera«* 
turn." Hagae Comiiis, 1629. To this edition was a pre- 
face, which has been omitted in the latter editions ; thoogh 
some passages of it were printed in that of 1637^ 4to* It 
was also reprinted in 1673, and translated both into Italiaa 
and French. 

In May 1602, he resigned bis prebend, and in May 
1603, received the honour of knighthood Arom James I.; 
who afterwards employed him in several affairs of great 
trust and importance. Fuller tells us, that he was dex- 
trous in the management of such things, constant in par* 
liament as the speaker himself, and esteemed by all as an 
excellent patriot, ^* faithful to his country,'' says Wood, 
^* without any falseness to his prince/' It appears^ bow-» 
ever^ that for some opposition to the court in the parliar 
ment of 1621, he was committed with Seldento thec\istody 
of the sheriff of London in June that year, and. detained 
above a month ; which was highly resented by the House 
of Commons, as a. breach of their privileges; but, sir 
George Calvert, secreury of state, declaring, that neither 
Sandys nor Selden had been imprisoned for any pariiar 
mentary matter, a stop was put to the dispute. Sir Edwin 
was treasurer to the undertakers of the western plantatio.ns. 
He died in October 1629, and was interred at Nortbborne in 
Kent ; where he bad a seat and estate, granted him by 
James I. for some services done at that king's accession to 
the throne. A monument, now in a mutilated state, was 
erected to his memory, but without any inscription. He 
bequeathed 1500/. to the university of Oxford, for the en* 
dowment of a metaphysical lecture. He left five sons, all 
of whom, except one, adhered to the parliament during 
the civil wars. Henry, the eldest, died without issue.. 
£dwin, the second, was the well known parliamentary 
colonel, of whose outrages.much may be read in the pub- 
lications of the times, and who, receiving a mortal wound 
at the battle of Worcester, in 1642, retired to Northborn^ 
to die, leaving the estate to bis son sir Richard, who was 
killed by the accidental explosion of bis fowling-piece iiji 
1663. His son, sir Richard, was created a baronet in 16^4, 
and dying in 1726, without male issue, was the last of the 
family who lived at Nortbborne, where the mansion re- 
mained many years deserted^ and at 4ength was palled 

9 A N D Y S( in 

. There was one sir Edwin Sandys, who publisbed, a$ 
Wood informs us, ^* Sacred Hymns, pousisting of fifty se^r 
iect Psalms of David,'' set to be sun^ in five parts by Ro^ 
bert Taylor, and printed at London, 1615, in 4to; but 
whether this version was done by our author, or by another^ 
of both his names, of Latimers io Bupkingbamsbire, is un- 
certain^ ' 

SANDYS (GEOaaE), brother of the preceding, was the 
seventh and youngest son of the archbishop of York, and 
was born at the archiepiscopal palace of Bishoptborp ia 
1577. In 1588 he was sent to Oxford, and matriculated 
of St. Mary Hall. Wood is of opinion, that he afterwards 
removed to Corpus-i-Christi-college. How long he resided 
in the university, or whether he iook a degree, does not 
appear. In August 1610, remarkable for the murder of 
king Henry IV. of France, Mr. Sandys set out on bis tra* 
vels, and, in the course of two years, made an extensive 
tour, having visited seyeral parts of Europe, and many 
pities and countries of the East, as Constantinople, Greece, 
Egyp^9 ^^^ the Holy Land ; after which, taking a view of 
the remote parts of Italy, he went to Rome and Venice, 
and, on his return, after properly digesting the observations 
be bad made, published, in 1615, his welUkuown folio, the 
title of the 7th edition of which, in }673, is, ** Sandys* 
Travels, contaaoing an history of the original and present 
atateoftbe Turkish empire; their laws, government, policy, 
military force, courts of justice, and commerce. The Ma^ 
hometan religion and ceremoniest A description of Con- 
stantinople, (he grand signior^s seraglio, and bis manner of 
living : also of Greece, with the religion and customs of the 
Grecians. Of Egypt; the antiquity, hieroglyphics, rites, 
customs, discipline, and religion, of the Egyptians. A 
voyage on the river Nilus* Of Armenia, Grand Cairo, 
Rhodes, the Pyramides, Colossus : the former flourishing 
and present state of Alei^andria- A description of the 
Holy Land, of the Jews, and several sects of Christians 
living there; of Jerusaleip, Sepulchre of Christ, Temple 
of Solomon, and what else, either of iintiquity or worth ob- 
servation. Lastly, Italy described, and the islands ad^ 
joining; as Cyprus, Crete, Malta, Sicilia, the Eolian islands; 
of Rome, Venice^ Naples, Syracusa, Mesena, iEtna, Scylla,; 
iind' Chary bdis; and other places of note» Illustrated with 

> Atb. Oz. vol |,-^Qep. piet.— Fnller's Wonliies.— C«p;i. Lit, 

140 SAND'YS: 

fifty maps and figures." Most of the plates', especially 
those relating to Jerusalem and the Holy Land, are copied 
from the " Devotissimo Viaggio di Zuallardo, Roma," 
15S7, 4to. Of these travels there have been eight or ten 
editions published, and it still bears its reputation, his ac« 
counts having been verified by subsequent travellers. Mr. 
Markiand has a copy of this work, edit. 1637, with a M& 
copy of verses by the author, which may be seen in the 
^* Censura Literaria,^* but was first published at the end of 
bis <* Psalms," 1640, 8vo. 

Sandys distinguished himself also as a poet; and bis 
productions in that way were greatly admired in the times 
they were written. In 1632 he published *^ Ovid's Meta-' 
morphoses Englished, mythologized, and represented in 
figures," Oxford, in folio. Francis CJeyn was the inven- 
tor of the figures, and Solomon Savary tLe engraver. He 
bad before published part of this translation ; and^ in the 
preface to this second edition, he tells us, that he has at- 
tempted to collect out of sundry authors the philosophical 
sense of the fables of Ovid. To this work, which is dedi- 
cated to Charles I. is subjoined ^* An Essay to the transla- 
tion of the i£neis." It was reprinted in 1640. In 1636, 
he published, in 8vo, *' A Paraphrase on the Psalms of 
David, and upon the Hymns dispersed throughout the Old 
and New Testament,"' 1636, 8vo, reprinted in 163S, folio; 
with a title somewhat varied, - This was a book which, 
. Wood tells us, Charles I. delighted to read, when a pri-^ 
soner in Carisbrooke castle. There was an edition of 1 640, 
with the Psalms set to music, by Lawes. In this last year 
be published, in 12mo, a sacred drama, written originally 
by Grotius, under the title of '< Christus Patient," and 
which Mr. Sandys, in his translation, has called " Christus 
Passion^," on which, and ^^AdamusExuV* and Masenius, 
is founded Lauder^s impudent charge of plagiarism against 
Milton. This translation was reprinted, with cuts, in 1688, 
8vo. The subject of it wics treated before in Greek by 
Apollinariifs bishop of Hierapolis,. and after him by Gre- 
gory Nazianzen ; but, according to Sandys, Grotius ex^ 
celled all others. Langbaine tells us, with regard to San-« 
dys' translation, that ^* he will be allowed an excellent 
artist in it by learned judges ; and he has followed Horace's 
advice of avoiding a servile translation, •> — ^ nee verbum 
verbo curabis reddere fidus interpres' — so he comes so 
near the sense of his author, that nothing is lost ; no spirits 


evaporate \a the decanting of it into Ehglish ; and, if there 
be any sediment^ it is left behind.'' He published 'also a 
metrical paraphrase of '^ The Song of Solomon/' London, 
164iy 4to, dedicated to the King, and reprinted in 1648 
wi^h jiis ".Psalms." There are but few incidents known 
concerning our author. AH who.mentbn him agree in be- 
stowing on him the character, not only of a man of genius, 
but of singular worth and piety. For the most part of his 
latter days he lived with sir Francis Wenman, of Caswell^ 
pear Witney in Oxfordshire, to whom his sister was mar» 
xied ; probably chusing that situation in some measure on 
account of its proximity to Burford, the retirement of his 
intimate acquaintance and valuable friend Lucius lord vis« 
count Falkland, who addressed some elegant poems to him^ 
preserved in Nichols's '' Select Collection," with several 
by Mr. Sandysy who died at the hoi>se of bis nephew, sir 
Fraiicis Wyat,at Boxley in Kent, in 1643; and was in« 
terred in the chancel of that parish-chureh, without any 
inscription; but in the parish register is this entry: 
" Georgius Sandys poetarum Anglorum sUi ssbcuU facilv 
princeps, ^epultus fuit Martii 7, Stiio Anglise, anq. Donr« 
1 64S." His memory has also been handed down by various 
writers, with. the respect thought due to his great worth 
and abilities. Mr. Dryden pronounced him the best ver- 
sifier of the age, but objects to bis ** Ovid," as too close 
aoid literal ; and Mr, Pope declared, in his notes to the 
Iliad, that English poetry owed much of its present beauty 
to his translations. Dr. Warton thinks that Sandys did 
more tp polish and. tune the English versification than Den- 
.ham. or.WaUery who are usually applauded on this subject; 
jet his poems are not now much read. The late bio- 
grapher of his- father observes^ that ^^ the expressive energy 
of his prose will entitle him. to a place among English clasr- 
i^cs, when his verses, some of \%bich are beautiful, shall be 
forgotten. Of the exc^lleni?e of bis style, the dedication 
jof hi« travels to prince Henry, will afford a short and very 
conspicuous example."! 

SANNAZARIUS (James), vernacularly Giacomo San* 
KAZABQ) a celebrated Italian and Latin poet, was born at 
KapJes, J.uly 28, ^458. His fan^ily is said to have been 
■«;rigiually of Spanish extraction, but settled at an early 

* Aih. Ox. vol. IT.— Cibber's Lives. — Fuller's Worthies. — Censura Lit. voU, 
••IV. and V. — ElUi's Sp^cimeiw, vol. II K p. 24.— Bowles's editiou of Pope.-r^ 
JKIcboU'f Foeins.-r Wbiuker'fl l^ife of Abp. Safutys, p. y) vij. 

H2 S A N JJ A ^.A 11 1 U S. 

period at S^nto l>ft(zafd, iiilotirishiiigtbwfl sittiat^d betweefl 
tbe Tcf^sino and the Po, where it was IdDg conspicuous for 
nobility and opulence^ Reduced at length by the calami*^ 
ties of war, the more iminediate progetiitors of otir poet 
removed to Naples. His father dying while this son wad 
very youngs his mother, unable from her poverty, to keep 
up her former rank^ retired with her family to Nocerm di 
Paganii in Umbria^ where Sannazarius pressed a consider- 
able portion of his youths He had previously to his re- 
moval from Naples acquired the elements of the Greek and 
Latin languages, under the tuition of Junianus Maius, who 
conceiving a high opinion of his talents, prevailed on his 
mother to return again to Naples, where he might continue 
b'is education. Here he was admitted a member of the 
Academia Pontana, and took the name of Actius Syncerus. 
'He had formed an early attachment of the most tendet 
kind to Carmosina Bonifacia, a young Neapolitan lady, 
but not being a favoured lover, uttered his disappointment 
in many of those querulous sonnets and canzoui which are 
«till extant. In compositions of this kind Sannazarius is 
considered as having surpassed every other poet from the 
days of Petrarch. To dissipate his Uneasiness, he tried the 
effect of travelling ; but on his return, bis grief was 
heightened by the report of the death of his mistress. She 
is understood to be the lamented Phyllis of his Italian and 
Latin poems. 

The increasing celebrity of Sannazarius^ as a scholar 
and poet^ having attracted the notice of Ferdinand king of 
Naples, that monarch's younger son, Frederick, who was 
greatly attached to poetry, invited him to coUrt, and be- 
came his patron ; he also grew into favour with Alphonsus^ 
duke of Calabria, the next heir to tbe crown, and under 
him embraced a military life, and served in the Etruscan 
war. During his campaigns, Sannazarius continued to 
cultivate his poetical talent, and when in consequence of 
the series of misfortunes and deaths in the royal family, his 
patron Frederick came to the crown, he conceived the hope 
.of very high honours, but obtained only a moderate annual 
pension, and a subyrban villa, called Mergillina, to which^ 
.although at first he was chagrined, he became reconciled^ 
and this villa was afterwards the delight of his muse. In 
about four years, Frederick was dethroned by the combioed 
powers of France and Spain, ,and now experienced the dis- 
interested fidelity of our poet, who sold bis possessions to 

S A N N A 2 A R I d S. 143 

assist tbe f^illen monarch, attended him to France, and 
continued firmly attached to him as long as he lived. 

In 1503, he again returned to Naples, was^ replaced in 
his favourite villa, once more frequented the court, and 
obtained the favour of tbe reigning queen. Here he found 
another mistress in Cassandra Marchesia, one of the ladies 
of honour, whom he describes as very beautiful and very 
learned, but as he was now too far advanced in years for a 
passioq such as he formerly felt, Cassandra is to be con- 
sidered merely as his poetical mistress, and the chaste ob- 
ject of bis Platonic attachment. The attachment, it is 
said, was muiuaf, and a confidential intercourse continued 
to subsist between them till the poet's decease, nor does it 
appear that Cassandra ever formed any matrimonial con- 
nection. Sannazarius, however, has been numbered by 
some amopg the votaries of pleasure, and they tell lis he 
affected the levity and gallantry of youth when in his old 
age. In his friendships he is said to have been uniformly 
ardent and sincere. In gratitude to the memory of Pon- 
tanusy who had given a powerful impulse to his youthful 
studies, he became the editor of his works. He is also ' 
connneuded for his probity, his love of justice, and abhor- 
rence of litigation. 

Tbe indisposition which terminated his life was brought 
on by grief and chagrin, on account of the demolition of 
part o( his delightful villa of Mergillina, in decorating 
which be had taken peculiar delight. Philibert de Nassau, 
prince of Orange, and general of the emperor's forces, was 
the author of this outrage on 'taste and the muses. He ex- 
pired soon afterwards at Naples, and, it is said, in the house 
of Cassandra, in 1530, in the seventy-second year of his 
age. The tomb of Sannazarius, in a church near his villa, 
which he built, is still- to be seen, and has the same mix- 
ture of heathen and Christian ornaments which are so fre- 
quently to be found in his poems. 

His principal Latin poem, ** De Partu Virginis," took up 
his attention, in composition, revisals, and corrections, 
about twenty years; obtained him the highest compliment^ 
from the learned of his age, and two honorary briefs from 
two popes ; and certainly contains many brilliant and highly 
finished passages, but it brought his religion into some 
su^iqioD. In a po^m on the miraculous conception, that 
great mystery of the Christian church, we find the agency 
of th<^ Dryads and Nereids employed ; the books of the 

146 S A N S O V I N O. 

. 8ANSOVINO. (Francis),, an Italian poet and bHtoriaa^ 
was. borq in 1521 ai Rome, and was the son of Jiioies'Saa-' 
sovino, an eminent sculptor and celebrated architect, whose' 
eulc^y Vasari has left us. He studied the belles Jettres at 
Venice, and took bis degrees in law at Padua ; but that 
scien.ce not sj;iiting bis taste, be devoted himself wholly ta 
poetry, history, and polite literature, and died in 15&6, at 
Venice, aged sixty-five, leaving more than fifty w^ksj all 
written in Italian. They, ^on^ist of " Poems i" iiot;es- on 
Bocqaccio's/^ Decameron, on Ariosto, Dante, &c." transla- 
tions of ancient historian and .some histories written by 
himself, .as his '^ Ven^zia de^critta," of wbicb the best edi- 
tion is that of 166;^, 4to ; ^* Istoria Universale jd&W origioer 
guerre, ed imperio de Turchi,^' 1654, 2 vols. 4to, reckoned 
a capital work. His *' Satires'' are in a collection with 
.those of Ariosto, and others, Venice, 1560, 8vq; his 
^' Ci&pitoIi'V.wich those of Aretino, and different .writecs, 
|540, and 1583, 8vo ; to which we may add his ^' Cento 
novelle Scelte," Venice, 1566, 4to.* 

SANTEUL, or SANTEUIL {John Baptist), in Utin 
$AMTOLius, a celebrated modern Latin. poet, was born^afi 
Paris May 13, 1630, of a good family.. He studied. the 
belles lettres at the college of St. Barbe, and in that of. 
Louis le Grand, under the learned Pere Coiisart, and. en- 
tering soon after among the regular canons of St. Victor, 
devoted himself wholly to poetry, commencing lus career 
by celebrating some great men of that time. . He also was 
employed to write many of those inscriptions which, may 
be seen on the public fountains and mpnuments of Paris, 
and this he did in a style at once clear, easy, and digot- 
fied. When some new hymns were wanted for the Paris 
breviary, he was requested by bis brother Claude, Pelisfson» 
and Bossuet, to compose them^ which he accomplished 
with the greatest success and applause, in an elevated, 
perspicuous, and majestic style, suited to the dignity of. 
the subject. The reputation which he gained by these in* 
duced the order of request some for their bre* 
viary. With this he complied, and in. return they granted 
bin) letters of filiation, and a pension. Santeul was much 
esteemed by the literati of his time, and by many persons 
of rank, among whom were the two princes of Cond6, fia- 
tber and son, whose bounty he frequently experienced ; 

1 NiceroD^ toI. ^XIL*^Tirabo8chi. 

8 AN t tV L. Ul 

•ltd Louis XIV. who settled a pension upon Mm. He 
gr^tly ofFedded the Jeiuits, however, bj his epitaph* in 
pmise of their enemy Arnauld. Whilfe Santeul's Liltin 
poems w^re always much admired by his countVymenj he 
seems to have enjoyed fully as much reputation/ during his 
life-time, for his wit, and oddities of character. La Bru- 

■ yere, under the name of Theodes, has described him as, in 
one moment, good-humoured, trattable, easy, and cottt^ 

. plaisant, in another, harsh, violent, choleric, and capri- 
eious ; as at once simple, ingetfudus, credulous, sportive, 
^nd volatile ; in short, a child, with grey hairs, and as 
speaking like a fool, and thinking like a sage. He utters, 
adds La Bruyere, truths in a ridiculous manner, and sen- 
sible things in a siliy way ; and we are surprised to find so 
much intdiect shining through the clouds of buffoonery, 
contortions, and grimaces. He had great credit for his 
witticisms, many of which may be seen in the " Santolianal^* 
When the duke of Bourbon went to hold the states of Bur- 
gundy at Dijon, Santeul attended him, and died therie, 
August 5, 1697, aged sixty-seven, as he was on the "point 
of returning to Paris. His death was attributed to an in* 
considerate trick played upon him by some one whom his 
oddity of charaieter had encouraged to take liberties, and 
who put some Spanish snuff into his wine-glass, which 
brought on a complaint of the bowels that proved fatal in 
fourteen hours. Besides his Latin hymns, l!2mo, he left 
a considerable number of Latin " Poems," 1739, 3 vols. 

* 12mo. * 

SANTEUL (Claude), brother of the preceding, born 
Feb. 3, 16i28, also wrote some beautiful hymns in the Paris 
breviary, under the name of " Santolius Maglorianus," a 
name given on acicount of his having resided a long time in 
the seminary of St. Magloire at Paris, as a secular eccle- 
siastic. Though the brother of Santeul, and a poet like 
him, he was of a totally different temper and disposition; 
mild, calm, and moderate, he had none of that heat arid 
impetuosity, by which his brother, was incessantly agitated, 
fie was esteemed not only for his poetical talents, but his 
deep learning and exemplary piety. He died September 
^9, 1684, at Paris^ aged fifty-seven. Besides his hymns 
on the particular festivals, which are very numerous and 
preserved by the family in MS. 2 vols. 4to ; some of his 

1 Perrault Lei Hommet Uluitres.— ^Santqliana.— Moreri.— Diet. Htit^ 

L 2 

, I 


5 A N T E U L. 

poetry bat been printed with his brother's works. Theim 
was another Claude Santeul, related to the preceding, • 
merchant and sheriff of Paris, who died about 1799, leav- 
ing some <^ Hymns/' printed at Paris in 1123^ 8vo.^ 

. SAPPHO, an eminent Greek poetess, was a native of 
Mitylene in the island of Lesbos. Who was her father i9 
uncertain, there being no less than eight persons^who havo 
contended for that honour ; but it is universally acknow- 
ledged that Cleis was her mother. She flourished, accord-^ 
ing to Suidas, in the 42d olympiad } according to Euse-* 
bins, in the 44th olympiad, about 600 years B. C. Her 
loVe-afFairs form the chief materials of her biography. 
Barnes has endeavoured to prove, from the testimonies of 
Chamieleon and Hermesianax, that Anacreon was one of 
her lovers ; but from the chronology of both, this has been 
generally considered as a poetical fiction. She married 
ofie Cercolas, a man of great wealth and power in the isv 
land of Andros, by whom she had a daughter named Cleis. 
He leaving her a widow very young, she renounced all 
thoughts of marriage, but not of love ^ ; nor was she very 
scrupulous in her intrigues. Her chief favourite appears to 
have been the accomplished Pbaon, a young man of Les* 
bos ; who is said to have been a kind of ferry-man, and 
thence fabled to have carried Venus over the stream in his 
boat, and to have received from her, as a reward, the fa- 
vour of becoming the most beautiful man in the worlds 
Sappho fell desperately in love with him, and went into 
Sicily in pursuit of him, he having withdrawn hitnself thi-^* 
tber on purpose to avoid her. It was in that island, ar^d 
on this occasion, that she composed her hymn to Venus* 
This, however, was ineffectual. Phaon was still obdurate, 
and Sappho was so transported with the violence of her 
passion, that she had recourse to a promontory in Acar- 
nania called Leucate, on the top of which was a temple 
dedicated to Apollo. In this temple it was usual for de* 

^ " Sappho formed an academy of 
females who excelled in music ; and it 
was doubtless this academy which drew 
on her the hatred of the women of Mi- 
tylene, who accused her of being too 
fond of her own sex; but will not her 
\ox^ for Pbaon, and the fatal termina- 
tioH of her existence^ sufficiently ex- 

culpate her ? And might she not have 
written the celebrated verses " Blest 
as the immortal goda is he,'* &c.' for 
another ? Many of our poetical ladies, 
whom we could name, have written 
excellent impassioned songs of com* 
plaint in a male character.'' Or. Biht- 
ney in Hist, of Music 

1 ltor»rL*>«Dict. Hist. 

SAPPHO. ,149 

^pairing Idvers to make their vows in secret, and after- 
firards to fling themselves from the top of tbeprecipice into 
th&sea, it being an established opinion^ that all those who 
were taken up alive, would immediately be cured of their 
former passion. Sappho perished in the experiment The 
original of this unaccountable humour is not known* Her 
genius, however, made her be lamented. The Romans 
erected a noble statue of porphyry to her memory; and the 
Mityienians, to express their sense of her worth, paid her 
sovereign honours after her death, and coined money with 
her head for the impress. She was likewise honoured with 
the title of the tenth Muse. 

Yossius is of opinion that none of the Greek poets 
excelled Sappho in sweetness of verse ; and that she made 
Archilochus the model of her style, but at the same time 
took great care to soften and temper the severity of his 
expression. Hoffman, in his Lexicon, says, *^ Some au- 
thors are of opinion, that the elegy which Ovid made und#r 
the name of Sappho, and which is infloitely superior to his 
other elegies, was all, or at least the most beautiful part of 
it, stolen from the poems of the elegant Sappho." She 
was the inventress of that kind of verse which (from her 
name) is called^ the Sapphic. She wrote nine books of 
odes, besides elegies, epigrams, iambics, monodies, and 
other pieces ; of which we have nothing remaining entire 
but an hymn to Venus, an ode preserved by Louginus 
(which, however, the learned acknowledge to be imper- 
fect), two epigrams, and some other little fragments, which 
have been generally published in the editions of Anacreon. 
Addison has given an elegant character of this poetess in 
the Spectator (No. 223 and 229), with a translation of two 
of her fragments, and is supposed to have assisted Philips 
in his translation.^ 
' SARASIN (John Francis), a French miscellaneous au- 
thor, was born' at Hermanville, in the neighbourhood of* 
Caen, about 1604. It is said, in the/^ Segraisiana," but 
we know not on what foundation, that he was the natural 
son of Mr. Fauconnier of Caen, a treasurer of France, by 
a woman of low rank, whom he afterwards married. Sara- 
sin began his studies at Caen, and afterwards went to 
Paris, where he became eminent for wit and polite litera- 
ture, though he was very defective in every thing that 

4 Gen. Dkt— YosfiiM de Poet GraBC— Fawkes'i TniuiatioD. 


S A R A S I N. 

•could be called learning. He tben inade tlie tour of Ger^ 
•many; and, upon his return to France, was appointed a 
kind of secretary to the prince of Conti. Ite was a man 
of a lively imagination and ready wit; and much caressed 
by those who thought themselves judges of that article. 
He was, however, so frequently invited on this account 
that he began to envy matter-of-fact men, from whom no- 
thing of the kind is expected. He was also unfortunate in 
'bis marriage, his wife being a woman of a violent ungo- 
vernable temper. It is said that he persuaded the prince 
of Conti to marry the niece of cardinal Mazarin, and for 
this good office received a great sum ; but this being dis^ 
• covered, the prince dismissed him from his > service, with 
every mark of ignominy, as one who had. sold himself t€ 
the cardinal. This treatment is supposed to have occa- 
sioned his death, which happened in 1654. Pelisson, passw 
ing through the town where Sarasin died, went to the 
grave of his old acquaiiitancie, shed soMie tears, had a mass 
said over him, and founded an anniversary, though he him« 
' self was at that time a protestant. 

He published in his life-time, " Discours de la Trage- 
die;" " L*Histoire du Siege de Dunkerque," in 1649; 
and " La Pompe funebre de Voiture," ik the " MisceU 
lanea'* of Menage, to whom it is addressed, in 1652« At 
his death, he ordered all his writings to be giv'en into the 
bands of Menage, to be disposed of as that gentleman 
should think proper ; and Menage published a 4to volume 
of them at Paris in 1656, with a portrait of the author en- 
graven by Nanteuil, and a discourse of Pelisson upon his 
merits. They consist of poetry and prose ; and have much 
wit and considerable ease, elegance, and invention. Be- 
sides this collection in 4to, two more volumes in l2mo 
were published at Paris in 1675, under the title of " Nou^ 
velles Oeuvres de Mr. Sarasin ;'* which appear to consist of 
the pieces rejected by Menage, mostly unfinished frag- 
ments, but" Boileau encouraged the editor, M. deMonnoye, 
to publish them, as not unworthy of Sarasin.* 

SARAVIA (Hadrian a), of Spanish extraction, but to 
be classed among English divines, was a native.of Artois, 
where he was born in 1531. Of his early years we have 
no account. In 1582 he was invited to Leyden to be: pro- 
fessor of divinity, and was preacher in the French church 


' Niceron, vols. VI. and £.«-Moreri.— Diet. Hikt.'^^i-PerrauU Lei Homme« 

S A R A V I A. 151 

there. Having studied the controversy respecting church 
government, he inclined to that of episcopacy, and in 1587 
oame to England ^vbere he. was well received by some of 
the pirates and divines of that day, particularly Wbitgift, 
archbishop of Canterbury. He first settled at Jersey, 
where he taught a scbool, and preached to bis countrymen, 
who ^were exiles tbere. He was appointed master of the 
£reet .gnuxiQiar-scbool at Southampton, where Nicholas 
Fii^yWr, . the most renowned critic of bis age, received bia 
education principally under him, and he also educated sir 
ThoKitfis Lake, .secretary of state to James I. He was suc- 
cessively promoted to a prebend in the cburcbes of Glou- 
cn^er, CaAt^rbury, and Westminster. He displayed great 
leaf aing in defence of episcopacy against Beza, when tbat 
4ivine reeofiMOQiended the abolition of it in Scotland. He 
^ed in 1613, at the age of eighty^-two, and was interred 
in. Cii^terbury catbedral, where tbere is a monument to 
his'memory. All bis works were published in 1611, one 
yoU folio. He must have acquiced a very considerable 
knowledge of the English language, as we find his name 
in the first .class .of those whom king J^mes I. employed in 
the new .translation of tbe Bible. He lived in great inti- . 
majcy with hisjellow labourer in the cause of episcopacy, 
the celebrated Hooker. *^ These two persons,^' says Wal- 
ton, ^' began a holy friendship, increasing daily to so high 
wd. mutual .affections, that their two wills seemed to be but 
one. and the same.'^^ 

. ^SARBIEVySKI, or Sarbievi^s (Mattbias Casimir), a 
modern Latin poet, was born of illustrious parents, in 1595^ 
in the duchy of Masovia, in Poland. He entered among 
the Jesuits in 1612, and was sent to continue his theol&gi- 
x^l studies at Rome, whene he devoted himself to the pur- 
suit of .antiquities, and indulged his taste for poetry. Some 
L^tin ^' Odes,'^ which he presested to Urban VIII. gained 
him that pontiff's esteesi, and the honour of heing chosen 
to correct the hymns, intended for a new breviary, then 
composing by Urhan's orders. When Sarbiewski returned 
•to Poland, he taught ethics, philosophy, and divinity, suc- 
cessively at Wilna. Such was the .esteem in which he was 
held, that when admitted to a doctor's degree there, La- 
dislaus V. king of Poland, who was present, drew the ring 

^ Atb.'Ox. Tot. L^ZouQh's edition of Walton'i Lives.—Strype's Life of W^it- 
.f'lft, pp« 429, 441.-«8ee tome reSectioQS on his political conduct at Leyden ip 
IS^jmann's ** Sylloge Epistolarom." 

15a 8ARBI£W,SKT, 

from his finger* and put it on that of Sarbiewski ; and tbif 
ring is still preserved in the university at Wilna, and made 
we of in the inauguration of doctors. Ladislaus also chose 
l^im for his. preacher, an office in which he gained great 
applause ; and he was frequently his oiiyesty^s companioii 
in his journeys, especially when he went to . the baths of 
Baden. Sarbiewski was so enthusiastic in. his admiration 
of the Latin poets, that he is said to have re^d Virgil ove^ 
sixty times, and other poetical classics more ^an thirty 
times. He died April 2, 1640, aged forty-five. His Latin 
poems contain great beauties, mingled with ^ome defects. 
An enlarged and very elegant edition of them was publish- 
ed at Paris, by Barbou, 1759, 12mo. They consist of La<* 
tin odes, in four books; a book of epodes ; one of ditby^ 
rambic verses; another of miscellaneous poems; and a 
fourth of epigrams. His lyric yerses are the most admired j 
their style is elevated, but they are sometimes deficient iu 
elegance and perspicuity.^ 

SARJEANT, or SERJEANT (John), a secular priest^ 
who was sometimes called Smith, and sometimes Holland) 
|vas born at Barrow in Lincolnshire, about 1621, and ad-> 
mitted of St. John's college in Cambridge April 12, 1639^ 
by the masters and seniors of which he wai recommenfled 
to bie secretary to Dr. Thomas Morton, bishop of Durham^ 
While in this employment he entered on a course of read* 
ing, which ended in bis embracing the popish religion. 
He then went over, to the English college of secular priests 
at Lisbon in 1642 ; and^ after studying there ^ome time, he 
returned to England in 1652, and was elected secretary of 
the secular clergy, and employed in propagating his reli« 
gion, and writing books in defence of it^ particularly against 
Dr. Hammond, Dr. Bramhall, Dr. Thomas Pierce, Dr. Til- 
lotsou, .Casaubon, Taylor, Tenison, Stillingfleet, Whitby, 
&c. In the course of his controversies he wrote' about 
forty volumes or pamphlets, the titles of which may be seen 
in Dodd. He bad also a controversy with the superiors of 
his own communion, of which Dodd gives a long, but now 
very uninteresting account. He died, as his biographer 
says^ with the pen in his hand, in 1707, in the eighty-sixth 
year of his age.* 

1 BailleU-^Nov. Act. Erudit: 1753, 8?o, p. 621^624.— Diet. Hift.--Saxii 
s Dodd'8 Cb. Hist.— -Birch's Tillotson.— Aih. Ox. ?ol. II. 

6 A R N E L L I. |5l 

' 6ARNELLI (Pompey), a leanied Italian prelate, wa« 
bom at Poiignano in 1649, and studied principally at Na- 
ples. He connnenced bis career as an author about 1668^ 
and published some pieces connected with grammar and 
polite literature. In 1675, after he had been admitted to 
priest's orders, pope Clement X. made him honorary pro^ 
tbonotary ; and in 1679, he was appointed grand vicar to 
cardinal Orsini, and obtained other preferment in th^ 
jDhurch. He died in 1724, He was the author of abovo 
thirty works, enumerated by Niceron and Moreri, of which 
we may mention, *^ Lettere ecclesiastiche/' in 9 vols. 4to} 
^* II Clero secolare nel suo Splendore, overo della vita 
commune clericale;'* *^ Bestiarum Schola ad Homines 
lerudiendos ab ipsa rerum natura provide instituta, &c. de^' 
^em et centum Lectionibus expUcata ;'^ <^ M emorie Grono- 
logtche de* Vescovi et Arcivescovi di Benevento, con 1^ 
serie de Duchi e Principi Lohgobardi nella stessa citta ;'^ 
^nd the lives of Baptista Porta, Boldoni, &c. He some* 
times wrote under assumed names, as Solomon Lipper, 
Esopus Primnellius, &c.^ 

SARPI (Paul), usually called in England, Father Paul, 
in Italian, Fra Paolo, a very illustrious writer, was born at 
Venice Aug. 14, 1552, and was the son of Francis Sarpi^ 
a merchant, whose ancestors came from Friuli, and of Isa- 
bella Morelli, a native of Venice. He was baptized by the 
name of Peter, which he afterwards, upon entering intb 
his order, changed for P^ul. His father followed merchan- 
dize, but with so little success, that at his death, he left: 
bis family very ill provided for, but under the care of a 
mother whose wise conduct supplied the want of fortune 
by advantages of greater value. Happily for young Sarpi, 
(be had a brother, Ambrosio Morelli, priest of the collegia 
ate church of St. Hermagoras, who took him under h\H 
care, ^^^^'psio was well skilled in polite literature, which 
he taught to several children of the noble Venetians : and 
be took particular care of the education of his nephew^ 
whose abilities were extraordinary, though his constitution 
was very delicate. Paul had a great memory, and much 
strength of judgment ; so that he made uncommon advanceaf 
in every branch of education. He studied philosophy anfl 
divinity under Capella, a father belonging to the monastery 
of th^'Servites in Venice; and when only in bis tendet 

I NiceroOy vol. XLII.^— l^eren't / 

154 S A R P L 

years, made great progress in the mathetnatios, and tb^ 
Greek atrd.Hebrew tongues. Capella, though a celebrated 
master, confessed in a little time that be could give his 
pupil no farther instructioua^, and with this opinion of .his 
lalents, prevailed with him to assume the religious habit of 
the Serviies, notwithstanding his mother and uncle repre** 
seated to bim the hardships and austerities of that kind of 
life, and. advised him with great zeal against it. But be 
was steady in his resolutioos, and on Nov. 24, 1566, took 
the habit, and two years after made his tacit profession^ 
which he solemnly renewed May JO, 1572. 

At this time he was in his twentieth year, and defended 
in a public assembly at Mantua, several difficult proposi- 
tions in natural philosophy and divinity, with such uscom- 
mon genius and learning, that the duke of Mantua, a great 
patron of letters, appointed him his chaplain, at the same 
time that the bishop of that city made him reader of canpM 
Jaw and divinity in bis cathedral. These employment!! 
a^mmated him to improve himself in Hebrew; and heap- 
plied also with much vigour to the study of history, in wfaiieb 
lie was afterwards to shine. During bis stay at Mantua he 
became acquainted with many eminent persons ; and bis 
patron, the duke, obliged him to dispute with persons of 
all professions, and on all subjects. Paul bad a profound 
knowledge in the mathematics, but the utmost cotiteiiipt 
for judicial astrology :" We cannot,'* he used to say, 
'^either find out, or we cannot avoid, what will happfen 
hereafter/' Fulgentio, his biographer, relates a l^udicrQus 
story, in which his patron appears to have been a chief 
actor. The duke, who loved to soften the cares of govern- 
ment with sallies of humour, having a mare ready to^fpalisi 
mule, engaged Paul to take the horoscope of tbe animal's 
nativity. This being done, and the scbeme settled, tbe 
duke sent it to all tbe famous astrologers in Europe, informir 
ing them, that under such an aspect a bastard was born in 
the duke's palace. Tbe astrologers returned very diSerent 
judgments ; some asserting that this bastard would be a 
cardinal, others a great warrior, others a bishop, and others 
A po{>e, and- these wise conjectures ^tended not a little to 
abate the credulity of tbe times. 

Sarpi, however, finding a court life unsuitable to bis in^ 
4;linatioa, left Mantua in about two years, and, returned to 
bis convent at Venice. By chis time he had made a sur- 
prising progress in tbe canon and civil law, m all parts of 

\ S A R P I. 155 

physic, and in the Cbaldee langui^ ; and, as us\taily bi^« 
peM, bis great reputation had exppsed him totinuch envy. 
For, before he left Mantaa, one Claudio, who was jealous 
of bis superior ^talents, accused him to the inquisition of 
heresy^ for .bav'tng dented that the doctrine of the Trinity 
eoald be proved frohxi the first diapiter of Genesis: but 
Paul, appealing to Rome, was honourably acquitted^ axsd 
the inquisitor reprimanded for presuming to determioe upoit 
things written in a language he did not understands At 
.twenty*t\vo he was ordained priest ; and afterwards, when 
he bad taken the degree of doctor in divinity, ai^d was ad* 
mitted a member of the college of Padua, was chosen pro* 
vinciai of his order for the province of Venice, though he 
was then but twenty-six : an instance which had' never hap- 
pened beifore among the Servites. He acquitted himself in 
■this post, «s he did in every other, wji|h the, strictest inte-- 
grity, honour, and piety; insomuch that, in 1579, in a 
general chapter held at Parma, he was appointed, with two 
others, much bis seniors, to dr&w up new regulations and 
statutes for bis order. This employment made it necessary 
for him to reside at Kome, where his exalted talents recom- 
inended him to the notice of cardinal Alexander Faroese, 
and other great personages. 

^ His employment as provincial being ended, he retired 
for three years, which he said was the only repose he had 
ever enjoyed ; and applied himself to the study of natural 
{Aiiosophy aod anatomy. Among other experiments, he 
employed himself in the transmutation of nietats ; but not 
with any view of discovering the philosopher's stone, which 
be always ridiculed as impossible. In the course of his ex- 
periments, he made some discoveries, the honour of which, 
it is said, has been appropriated by others. He likewise 
studied anatomy, especially that part of it which relates, to 
the eye ; on which be made so many curious observations, 
that the celebrated Fabricius ab Aquapendente did not 
scruple to employ, in terms of the liigbest applause, the 
authority of Paul on that subject, both in his lectures and 
writings. Fulgentio expresses bis surprise at Aquapen* 
dente, for not acknowledging, in bis << Treatise of the Eye,'* 
the singular obligations he bad to Paul, whom he declares 
to have merited all the honour of it. He asserts likewise, 
that Paul discovered the valves which serve for the ciriau* 
lation of the blood, and this seems to be allowed ; but npt 
that he discovered the circulatibn itself, as W^le&us, Mof- 


S A R I^ I. 

ho(F| and others have contended^ against the claim of our 
countryman Harvey, to whom that discovery has been 
usually, and indeed jastly, ascribed. 

Father Paul's great fame would not suffer him any longer 
to enjoy his retreat : for be was now appointed procnrator* 
general of his order; and during three years at Rome, 
tebere he was on that account obliged to reside, he disco- 
vered such extraordinary talents, that he was called by the 
pope's command to assist in congregations where matters of 
the highest importance were debated. He was very much 
esteemed by Sixtus V, by cardinal Bellarmine, and by car«* 
dinal Castegna, afterwards Urban VII. Upon his return 
to Venice, he resumed his studies, beginning them before 
6i|n-rise, and continuing them all the morning. The after- 
noons he spent in philosophical experiments, or in conver- 
sation with his learned friends. He was now obliged to 
remit a littfefrom his usual application : for, by too intense 
9ttidy, be had already contracted infirmities, with whiich be 
was troubled till old age. These made it necessary forhim 
to drink a little wine, from which he had abstained till he 
was thirty years old ; and he used to say, that one of the 
things of which he most repented was, that he had 
been persuaded to drink wine. He ate scarce any thing 
but bread and fruits, and used a very small quantity of food, 
because the least fulness rendered him liable to violent 
pains of the head. 

His tranquillity was now interrupted by oth^r causes; 
Upon leaving Venice to go to Rome, he had left his friends 
under the direction of Gabriel Collissoni, with whom he 
bad formerly joined in redressing certain grievances. But 
this tnan did not answer Paul's expectation, being guilty of 
great exactions : and, when Paul intended to return to 
Venice,^ dissuaded him from it, well knowing that his return 
would put an end to his impositions. He therefore artfully 
represented, that, by staying at Rortie, he would be sure 
tp make his fortune : to which Paul, with more honesty 
than policy, returned an answer in cypher, that " there 
was no advancing himself at the court of Rome, but by 
scandalous means ; and that, far from valuing the dignities 
there, he held them in the utmost abomination." Aftet 
this he returned to Venice ; and, coming to an irrecon- 
cileable rupture with Collissoni, on account of his corrupt 
pracitices, the latter shewed his letter in cypher to cardinal 
Sant« Se veriDa, who was then at the head of the inquisitiotb 

S A R P L 15T 

The cardinal did not think it convenient to attack Paiil 
himself, although he shewed his disaffection to him by per* 
secuting his friends ; ^ut when Paul opposed Collissoni^f 
being elected generij of the order, the latter accui^ed bim 
to the inquisition at Rome of holding a correspondence with 
the Jews ; and, to aggravate the charge, produced the let^r 
ter in cypher just mentioned. The inquisitors still did nol 
think proper to institute a prosecution, yet Paul was ever 
after considered as an inveterate enemy to the court. of 
Rome. He was charged also with shewing too great respect 
to heretics, who, on account of his reputation, came to see 
bim from all parts ; and this prevented pope Clement Yllh 
from nominating him, when he was solicited, to the see of 
Nola« He^vas also accused of being an intimate friend of 
Moroay, of Diodati, and several eminent Protestants ; and# 
that when a motion was made at Rome to bestow on him a 
cardinal's bat, what appeared the chief obstacle to his ad«« 
vancement was, his having more correspondence with be** 
retics than with Catholics. <^ Diodati informed me," sayt 
Ancillon, in bis ^^ Melange de Literature," that, *^ observ- 
ing in bis conversations with Paul, bow in many opinions 
he agreed with the Protestants, he said, be was extremely 
rejoiced to find him not far from the kingdom of heaven; 
and therefore strongly exhorted bim to profess the Protest" 
tant religion publicly. But the father answered, that ill 
was better for him, like St. Paul, to be anathema for hia 
brethren ; and that be did more service to the Protestant 
religion in wearing that habit, than be could do by laying 
it aside. — The elder Daill^ told me, that in going to and 
coming from Rome with de Villarnoud, grandson to Mor- 
nay, whose preceptor be was, he had passed by Venice,- 
and visited Paul, to whom Mornay bad recommended him 
by letters ; that, having delivered them to the father, he 
discovered the highest esteem for the illustrious Mr. Du 
Plessis Mornay ; that be gave the kindest reception to Mr* 
de Villarnoud his grandson, and even to Mr. Daill6 ; that 
afterwards Mr. Daill£ became very intimate with fiither 
Paul," &c. All this is confirmed by father Paul's letters^ 
wUcb on every occasion express the highest regard for the 

About 1602, he was diverted from bis private studies, 
which bo had now indulged, though amidst numerous vex- 
atious, for many years,' by the state of public affairs. A 
dispute arose between the republic of Venice and the court 


8 A R P I. 

, ■ » • • • ... 

of Rome, r^lMtng to ecclesiastical immutiiti^s; «lt()^ as 
hotb dmhity and law were concerned in it, father Patil was 
ti[>pointecl divine and canonist for the republic of -Venice, 
to act in concert with the law^bnstrttdrs. Ttie dtspiUe bad 
etoimenced, and been carfi^d oiij tmder Clement VIII. ; bM 
when Paul V. came te thu pdpedotti/ he required absolute 
obedience without disputes. At length, \irhen be found 
his coMfftiaads slighted, the pop^ excommunicated the 
duke, the whole senate, and all thdi^ dominions, in April 
1606, and the Venetians in return recalled their ambassad6r 
at Rome, suspended the inquisition by drder of state, arid 
published by sound of trumpet a proclamation to this eifedl, 
viz. " Thdt whosoever hath received from 'Rome any copy 
of a papal edict, published there, as well ag!)inst the law c^ 
God, as against the honour of this nation, shall immediat€^(y 
bring it to the council of ten upon pain of death.'* But as 
the minds, not only of the common burghers, but also "of 
some noble personages belonging to the state, were alarmed 
at this papal interdict, Paul endeavoured to relieve- their 
fears, by a piece entitled "Consolation of mind, to quiet 
the consciences of those who live well, against the tefrrors 
of the interdict by Paul V." As this was written for th<A 
sole use of the government under which he wds born,'it 
was deposited in the archives of Venice ; till at letigth, 
from a copy clandestinel}' taken, it was first published at 
the Hague, both in the Italian and French latiguages, ahd 
cbe tome year in English, under this title, '* Thfe Rights df 
Sovereigns and Subjects, argued from the civil, cttnon, an*d 
coinmon law, under the several heads of E^^comm'u'm^a- 
tioris, Interdicts, Persecution, Councils, Appeals, ItifatB- 
bility, describing the boundaries of that power which is 
ebimed throughout Christendom by the Crownand theMitr^; 
and of the privileges which appertain to the Subjects, both 
clergy and laity, according to the laws of God atid- Man.*' 
Paul wrote, or assisted in writing and publishing, several 
othdr pieces in this controversy between the two states ; 
and bad the Inquisition, cardinal Beilarmine, and other 
great personages, for his antagonists. Paul and his brother 
writers, uhatever might be the abilities of (heir adyefsaries, 
were at least superior to them in the justice of th^ir cause. 
The propositions maintained on the sfide of Rome were 
these; that the pope is invested with all the authority of 
heaven and earth ; that all princes are his vassals, and that 
he may annul their laws at pleasure; that kings may appeal 

S A R P I. 1^9 

Id hiia, as he is temporal moqarch of the whole earth ; that 
he can discharge subjects from their oaths of aUegiancey 
and .make it their duty to take up arms against their 80ve« 
i^eiga ; that he may depose kings without any fault commit- 
1^ by tbem> if the good of the church requires it-; that the 
^l^cgy are .exeaipt from all tribute to kings, and are not 
acoountable to them even in cases of high treason ; that the 
pope cannot err; that bis. decisions are to be^recieiTed and 
obeyed on pain of sin, though all the world should judge 
tbem to be false; that the. pope is God upon earth, and 
that tacall bis power in question, is to ciA in question 'the 
l^^er of God; — maxims equally shocking, weak, perni-^ 
cious, and absurd, which did not require the abilities or 
learning of father Paul, to dedionstrate their falsehood, and 
jdestructive tendency. The court of Rome, however, w€» 
aow so exasperated against him, as to cite him by a decree^i 
Oct. .30, 1606, under pain, of absolute excommunication, 
to appear, in person at Rome, to answer the charges of 
heresies .against him. . Instead of appearing, he published 
a nianifesto, shewing the invalidity of the ' summons ; yet 
offered to dispute with any of the pope^s advocates, in a 
place of safety, on the articles laid to his charge. 
. In April 1607, the division between Rome and the re- 
pipl^lic was healed. hy the interposition of France ; aud Ful- 
geniio relates, that the affair was transacted at Rome hy 
cardinal Perron, according to the. order of the king bis 
master. But some English writers are of opinion, that ibis 
a^^conimodation between the Venetians and the pope was 
owiug'tQ.the. misconduct of king James I., who, if he had 
heartily supported the Venetians, would certainty have 
disunited them from the see of Rome. Isaac Walton ob- 
serves, that during the dispute it was reported ahfoad, 
** that, the Venetians were all turned Protestants, which was 
believed by many : for it was observed, that the English 
ambassador. (Wotton) WdLS often in conference with, the se- 
nate ; and his chaplain, Mr. Bedel, more often with father 
Paul, whom the people did not take to be his friend; and 
also^ for that the republic of Venice was known to give 
commission to Gregory Justiniauo, then their ambassador 
i^ England, to make all these proceedings known to the 
\\ng of England, and to crave a promise of his assistaocie, 
ijf need should require," &c. Burnet tells us, ^* That the 
breach between the pope and the republic was brought very 
near a crisis, so that it was expected a total separation not 

160 S A R P t 

only from thi court, but the church of Rome, was like td 
follow upon it. It was set on by father Paul and the seven 
divines with much zeal, and was very prudently conducted 
by them. In order to the advancing of it, king James or- 
dered his ambassador to offer all possible assistance to them^ 
and to accuse the pope and the papacy as the chief authors 
of all the mischiefs of Christendom. Father Paul and the 
seven divines pressed Mr. Bedel to move the ambassador to 
present king^ James's premonition to all Christian princes 
and states, then put in Latin, to the senate; and they 
were confident it would produce a great effect. But the 
ambassador could not be prevailed on to do it at that tinle ; 
and pretended, that since St James's day was not far off, 
it would be more proper to do it on that day. Before St. 
James'sday came, the difference was madeup, and that happy, 
opportunity was lost ; so that when he had his audience on 
that day in which he presented the book, all the ahswjer he 
got was, that they thanked the king of England for his good 
will, but they were now reconciled to the pope; and that 
therefore they were resolved not to admit any change in 
their religion, according to their agreement with the court 
of Rome.'' Welwood relates the same story, and imputes 
the miiscarriage of that important affair to *^ the conceit of 
pjreaenting king James's book on St. James's day." But 
Dr. Hickes attempts to confute this account, by observing, 
that the pope and the Venetians were reconciled in 1607, 
and that the king's premonition came not out till 1609, 
which indeed appeara to be true ; so thatj if the premoni« 
lion was really presented, it must have been only in manu* 

The defenders of the Venetian rights were, though com-- 
prehended in the treaty of April 1607, excluded by the 
Romans from the benefit of it ; some, upon different pre« 
tences, were imprisoned, some sent to the gallies, and all 
debarred from preferment. Bnt then their malice was 
obiefiy aimed against father Paul, who soon found the ef-^ 
fects of it; for, on Oct. 5, 1607, he was attacked, on hit 
neturn to his convent, by five assassins, who gave him fif-> 
teen wounds, and left him for dead. Three of these 
wounds only did execution : he received two in the neck; 
the third was made by the stiletto's entering his right ear^ 
ond Coming out between the nose and right cheek ; and so 
violent was the stab, that the assassin was obliged to> leave 
his weapon in the wound. Being come to himself^ and 

S A R P L 461 

having bad bis wounds dressed, be told those about hitn^ 
that the first two he had received seemed like two flashes 
of fire, wbic^i shot upon him at the same instant; and 
that at the third he thought himself loaded as it were with 
a prodigious weight, which stunned and quite confounded 
his senses. The assassins retired to the palace of thepope^s 
nuncio at Venice, whence they escaped that evening either 
to Ravenna or Ferrara. These circumstances di^covefed 
Who were at the bottom of the attempt; and Paul himself 
once, when his friend Aquapendente was dressing bis 
wounds, could not forbear saying pleasantly, that'^^tbey 
were made Sfilo Romariie Curia.*^ The person who drew 
the stiletto out of hi^ head, was desirous of having it ; but, 
as father^s PauPs escape seemed somewhat miraculous, it 
was thought right to preserve the bloody instrument as a 
public monument : and therefore it was hung at the feet of 
a crucifix in the church of the Servites, with the inscrip- 
tion, " Deo Filio Liberatori," ^ To God the. Son the De- 
liverer." The senate of Venice, to shew the high regard 
they had for Paul, and their detestation of this horrid at^ 
tempt, broke up immediately on the news ; came to the 
monastery of the Servites that night in great numbers ; or** 
dered the physicians to bring constant accounts of him to 
the senate ; and afterwards knighted and richly rewarded 
Aquapendente for his great care of him. 

How scandalous soever this design against bis life was, it 
was attempted ' again more than once, even by monks of 
his own order : but the senate took all imaginable precau- 
tions for his security, and he himself determined to livcfe. 
more privately. In his recess, he applied himself to write 
his " History of the Council of Trent," for which. he had 
begun to collect materials long before. Walton tells us^ 
tha( the contests between the court of Rome and the senate 
of Venice '" were the occasion of father Paul's knowledge 
and interest with king James, for whose sake principally 
he compiled that eminent history of the remarkable coun;<* 
cil of Trent; which history was, as fast as it tvas written^ 
sent in several sheets in letters by sir Henry Wotton, Mr. 
Bedell, and others, unto king James, and the then bishop 
6f Canterbury, into England." Wotton relates, that 
James himself '^ had a hand in it ; for the benefit," headds^ 
** of the Christian world." This history was, first published 
by sir Nath. Brent (See Brent), at London,' in 1619, in 
folio, under the feigned name of Pietro Soav^ Polano^ 


162 S A R P l 

which is an anagram of Paolo Sarpi Venetiaik),- and dedf* 
cated to James I. by Antony de Dominis, archbishop of 
Spalatro^ It was afterwards translated into Latin, English^ 
French,- and other languages ; and a new translation oT it 
into French by Dr. le Courayer^ with notes critical, his-^ 
torical, and theological, was published at London, 173o> 
5 vols, folioi Burnet's account of this work may serve to 
ihew the opinion which Protestants of all communities have 
ever entertained of it : "The style and way of writing,'.' 
says he, ^^ is so natural and masctiline, the intrigues wer« 
80 fully opened, with so many judi-ciou^ reflections in att 
the parts of it, that as it was read with great pleasure, so it 
was generally looked on as the rarest piece of history 
which the world ever saw. The author was soon guessed, 
and that raised the esteem of the work : for as^ he was ac-^ 
fjottnted one of the wisest men in the world, so he had great 
opportunities to gather exact informations.': He had free 
access to-all the archives of the republic of Venice, which 
has been now looked on for several ages as very exact, 
twoth in getting good intelligence, and in a most careful way 
of preserving it : so that among their records he must have 
found the dispatches of the ^ambassadors and prelates 6f 
fhat republic, who were at Trent ; which being so neat 
them, atid the council being of such high consequence, it 
k not to be doubted, but there were frequent and parti-r 
l^lar informations, both of more public and sfecreter trains- 
aetidns transmitted thither. He had also contracted a close 
friefidship with Camillus Oliva, that was secretary to one of 
the legates, from whom be had many discoveries of the 
pf^ctices of the legates, and of their correspondence with 
Kotn« : besides many other (Materials and notes of -some 
prelates wlio were at Trent, which he had gathered toge-* 
ther. His work came out within fifty years of the conclu'* 
tion of the council, when several, who had been present 
tttere; were still alLve ; and the thing was $o recent in linen's- 
0iei^ories, that few thought a man of so great prudence as 
^ewasvould have exposed his reputation, by writing in 
^uch a nice manner things which he could not justiiFy* 
Never was there a man more hated by the coilrt of Rome. 
^haTi he was ; and now he was- at their m^rcy, if he had 
^bused the world by such falsehoods in matter of fact, as 
have been since charged on his work ; but none appeared 
l^gainst him for fifty years.'* 

Early ip the winter of 1622, bis health began to decline 

B A R p r. f^ 

gt^Hy ; and he Islnguished till January tbe 14tb, w|ien h^ 
expired, in his seventy-second yean He behaved with tbii 
greatest eotistancy and piety during bis illness, and tbe last 
wordft be uttered were " Esto perpetua/' which was under«» 
itood to be a prayer for the republic. 

When tbe tiews of bis deaib reached Rone, the courtiers 
rejoiced ; nor could tbe pope himself forbear saying, tbst 
the hand of God was visible in taking him out.of tbe worid^ 
as if it bad been a miracle surely that a man of seventy-two 
should die! bis funeral was disiinguisbed by.ltbe public 
magnificence of it, and the vast concourse of nobility and 
persons of all ranks attending it : and tbe senate, out of 
gratitude to his memory, erected a monument to him, tbe 
inscriptioi) upon which was written by John Anthony Ve« 
nerio, a noble V^netiaii. He was of middle stature; bis 
head very large in proportion, to his body, which was ex« 
tremely lean. He had a wide forehead, in tbe middle of 
wbich was a very large vein. * His eye* brows were* well 
arched, his eyes large, black, and sprightly ; bis nose long 
and large; l^s beard but thin. His aspect, though grave»' 
was extremely soft and inviting; and be bad a very fii>0 
hand- Fulgentio relates, that though several kic^gs En4 
princes bad desired him to sit for bis picture, yeb b§ n^^ei* 
would suffer it to be drawn ; but sir Henry Wottoni in bis< 
letter to Dr* Collins, writes thus : *^ And now, sir, .havir|]g 
ft fit messenger,, and not long after the time when love« 
tokens use to pass between friends, let me be bold to send 
you for a new-year's gitt a certain memorial^ not altogether 
unworthy of some entertainment under your roof ; na^oelyy 
a true picture of father Paul the Servite, wbicb was fira8( 
taken by a painter whom I sent uoto bim; my house then 
neigbbouring bis monastery. I have newly added there* 
tontu a title of -my own conception,' ^^ Concilii Tridentiui 
Eviscerator, &c. — You will find a scar iu his face, that was 
from the Roman assassinate, that would have killed bia as 
be was turned to s^wall near bis convent/' 

Father Fulgentio,* bis friend and companion, who was a 
man of great abilities and integrity, and is allowed on alt. 
bands to have drawn up Paul's life with great judgment 
and impartiality, observes, that, notwithstanding the ani- 
mosity of the court of Rome against him, the most eminent 
prelates of it always expressed the highest regard for him ; ; 
and Protestants of all communities have, justly supposed 
him one of tbe wisest and best men that ever lived* <^ Fa? ; 

^ 2 

1^ S A'R PJ. 

ther P.aul,** says sir Henry Wotton, " was one of the hum- 
blest things that could be seen within the bounds of hu- 
manity ; the very pattern of that pre<;e(>t, quanta tloctior, 
40nto subniissiory and enough alone lo demonstrate, that 
knowledge well digested nan inflat. Excellent in positive, 
excellent in scholastical and polemical, divinity : a rare 
naibematician, even in the most abstruse parts thereof, as 
in algebra and the tbeoriques; and yet withal so expert in 
.the history of plants, as if he had never perused any book 
i>Qt nature. Lastly, a great canonist, which, was the title 
of his ordinary service with the state \ and certainly, in the 
'time of the pope's interdict, they had their principal light 
from him. When he was either reading or writing alone, 
his manner was to sit fenced with a castle of paper about 
his ebair and. over his head; for he was of our lord St» 
J^lban^si opinion, that all air is predatory, and especially 
hurtful, when the. spirits are most employed. — He was of a 
quiet and settled temper, which made him prompt in his 
counsels and answers ; and the same in consultation which 
Themistocles was in action, iura-x^ia^.w Inamarog^ as will 
appear unto you in a passage between him and the prince 
of CoikI^. The said prince, in a voluntary jourRey to 
Rome, came by Venice^ where, to give some vent to his 
own humours, he would often divest himself of bis great- 
ness ; and after other less laudable curiosities, uot long be- 
fore his departure, a desire took him to visit the famovt 
obscure Servite. To whose cloyster coming twice, he was 
the first time denied to be within ; and at the second it was 
intimated, that, by reason of bis daily admission to their 
deliberations in the palace, he could not receive the visit 
of so illustrious a personage, without leave from the senate, 
which he would seek to procure. This set a greater edge 
tipo.n the prince, when he saw he should confer with one 
participant of nwre than monkish speculations. So, after 
leave gotten,^ be came the third time ; and then, besides 
other voluntary disoourse, destined to be told by him, who was. 
the true unmasked author of the -late Tridentine History? 
-^To whom father Paul said, that he understood he was 
going to Rome, where he might learn at eaise, who was 
the author of that book.'* 

Cardinal Perron gave his opinion of father Paul in these 
terms : <^ I see nothing eminent in that man ; be is a man 
of judgment and good sense,' but has no great learning : I 
obaerre bis qualifications to be mer4S common ones^ and 


little superior to an ordinary monk's/* But the learned 
Morhoff has justly remarked, ti^iat ^< thi^ judgment of Per- 
ron is absurd and maligf^ant, and directly contrary to the 
clearest evidence ; since those who are acquainted with 
the great things done by father Paul, and with the vast 
extent of his learnings will allow him to be superior^ 
not only to monks, but cardinals, and even to Perron 
himself." Courayer, his French translator, ^^'h ^hat 
** in imitation of Erasmus, Cassander, Thuanus, and other 
great men, Paul was a Cathoiic* in general, and some- 
times a Protestant in particulars. 'He observed every thing 
in the Roman religion, which could be practised without 
superstition ; and, in points which be scrupled, took great 
care not to scandalize the weak. • In short, he was equally 
averse to alt extremes : if he disapproved the abuses of the 
Catholics, he condemned also the too great heat of the 
reformed ; and used to say to those who urged him to de- 
clare himself in favour of the latter, that God had not 
given him the spirit of Luther.'' — Courayer likewise ob-» 
serves, that Paul wished for a reformation of the Papaoy^ 
and not the destruction of it ; and was an enemy to the 
abuses and pretences of the ^opes, not tfaetr place/' We 
see by several of Paul's letters, that be wished well to the 
progress of the relbrmation, though in a gentler manner 
than that which bad been taken to procure it; and, if he 
limself had been silent on this head, we might have col-^ 
iected his inclinations this way, from circumstances relat- 
iirg to Fulgentio, the most intimate of his friends, and who 
waii best acquainted with his sentiments. Burnet iolbrms 
us, that Fulgentio preaching upon Pilate's question, 
** What is Truth ?" told the audience^ that at last, after 
many searches, he had found it out: and holding forth a 
New Testament, said, it was therein his hand; but, adds be, 
putting it again in his pocket, *' the book is prohibited.'' 

Of father Paul's whole works, *^ Tutte le sue opere^ oon 
un supplemento," an edition was published at Verona, 
Under the name of Helmsted, 1761^-68, S vols, 4to$ and 
another at Naples in 1790, 24 vols. 8vo. In 1788, ^ trea- 
tise was published at London in Italian, entitled '^ Qpi- 
nione'di Fra Paolo Sarpi, toccente il governo della repub- 
lica Veneziana," 8vo, we know not whether in any of. the 
preceding editions. Of his works, we have English trans- 
lations, printed at vairious times, of " The Rights of Sove- 
reigns and Subjects," *' The History of the Council of 

166 S A R T O. 

the barpsiebord, with a flute accompaniment, Afust^aof, 
Three, sonatas, in London, 1769. *^ GiuUo Sabino cba^ 
racteristica/' Vienna, 1787.* 

SARTO (Andr£A del), or Vannucchi, a famous It^ian 
painter, was the son of a tailor, whence he bad the name 
of Sarto, and was born at Florence in 1471. He was np^ 
prenticed to a goldsmith, with whom he lived sometime^ 
but was then placed with John Basile, an ordinary painter, 
who taught him the rudiments of his art ; and afterwards 
with Peter Cosimo, and while with him, studied the ear«^ 
toons of Michael Angelo and Leonardo da Vinci ; and by 
these oneans arrived at a mastery in his art. Being at last 
dissatisfied with bis master, he associated with Francia 
Bigio, and they painted various pieces in conjunction, at 
Florence and about it, for the monasteries. At length 
come of Sarto's pieces falling under the notice of Francis X, 
tliat monarch was so pleased with them, that he invited 
Barto into France, and treated him with great, liberality. 
He executed many pictures for the, king and the nobility ; 
but, while employed upon a St. Jerome for the queens- 
mother, he received letters from his wife, with whom het was 
infatuated, which made him resolve to return thither. He 
pretended domestic affairs, yet promised the king not only 
to return, but also to bring with him a good collection of 
pictures and sculptures. In this, however, he was over* 
ruled by bis wife, and, never returning, gave Francis^ who 
bad trusted him with a considerable sum of money, so bad 
9n opinion of JPlorentine painters, that he would not look 
favourably on them for some years after. Sarto afterwards 
gave hinpself up wholly to pleasure, and became at length 
very poor. He was naturally liiild and diffident, and set 
but ver}' little value upon bis own performances: yet th« 
Florentines bad so great an esteem for his works^ that^ 
during the fury of the popular factions among ihem, they 
preserved them from the flames. Sarto died of the plague 
in ] ^20, when only 42. Sarto's works, in Mr.i Fuseli'a 
Opin^n seem to have obtained their full share of justice* 
As a Tuscan, the suavity of his tone and facility of prac- 
tice contrast more strikingly with the general austerity aud 
elaborate pedantry of that school, and gain him greater 
praise *tfaan they would, had he been a Bolognese or Lorn-' 
bard.* It cannot, however, be denied that his sweetness 
spmatimes borders on insipidity : the modesty or rather 

1 From Dr. Burney in Rees's Cyclopaedia. ^ 

S A R T O. UB 

pasiHaniinity of his character cheeked the £dll ^certion of 
his powers ; his faults are of the negative kind, and defects 
rather than blemishes. He had no notions of nature be^ 
yond the model, and concentrated all female beauty in his 
wif^^Lucretia ; and if it be true that he sacrificed his for^ 
tune and Francis L to her charms, she must at least have 
equalled in form and feature bis celebrated Madonna del 
Sacca ! hence it was not unnatural that the proportions of 
Albert Durer should attract him more than those of Mi^ 
cbaelagnolo. His design and his conceptions, which seU 
dom rose above the sphere of common or domestic lifc^ 
kept pace with each other ; here his observation was acute^ 
and his ear open to every whisper of social intercourse or emo» 
tion. The great peculiarity, perhaps the great prerogativoi 
of Andrea appears to me that parallelism of oompositionj 
which distinguishes the best. of his historic works, seem* 
ingly as natural, obvious and easy, as inimitable. In so* 
lemn eflPects, in alternate balance of action and repose, b« 
excels all the moderns ; and if he was often unable to eoii^ 
ceive the actors themselves, he gives them probability and 
importance by place and posture. Of costume he was 
ignorant, but none ever excelled and few approached him 
in breadth, form, and style of that drapery which ought 4o 
distinguish solemn, grave, or religious subjects. ^ • 


SAUNDERS (Sir Edmund), lord chief justice of the 
King's Bench towards the close of the seventeenth cett<* 
tury, seems entitled to some notice on account of hts 
^^ Reports/' although his character in other respects may 
as well be consigned to oblivion. He was originally a 
strolling beggar d.bout the streets, without known parents 
or relations. He Came often to beg scraps at Clement's 
Inn, where bis sprightliness and diligence made the society 
desirous to extricate him from his miserable situation. As 
he appeared desirous to learn to write, one of the attornies 
fixed a board up at a window on the top of a stair-case^ 
which served him as a desk, and there he sat and wrote 
after copies of court and other bands, in which at length 
he acquired such expertness, as in some measure to set 
up for himself, and earn a pittance by hackney-writing. 
He also took all opportunities of improving himself by 
reading such books as he borrowed of his friends, and in 

-> ArgeavUlei vol. li— PilkinstOB by FaseU. 

am S A U N D E R S. 

tbe course of a few years, became an able attorney and a 
rvery eminent 'counsel, his practice in the King*s-beoch 
-being exceeded by none. All'this would have redounded 
•to. his' honour,- had his progress in integrity kept pace with 
ofcher accomplishments, but he appears to have brought into 
ills profession the low habits of his early life, and became 
as iMucb a disgrace as an ornament to the bar. His art and 
cunning were equal to his knowledge, and he carried many 
a cause by sinister means, and when detected, he never 
was out of countenance, but evaded the matter with a jest, 
which he had always at hand. He was much employed by 
the king against the city of London, in the business of the 
quo warranto, and ^vas a very fit tool in the hands of the 
court, and prompted the attorney- general Sawyer, to over- 
throw the city charter* It was when this affair was to be 
brought to a decision, that Saunders was knighted and 
aade. lord chief justice Jan. 25, 1682-3. But just as sen-^ 
tence was about to be given, he was seized with an apo^ 
plexy and died. In our authority, a disgusting descriptioit 
is given of his person, which seems to have corresponded 
wkh his mind. > . 

His ^^ Reports*' are considered as peculiarly valuable^ 
PB .account of the correct state of the pleadings in the ise- 
veral cases in the court of King's-bench. . They were first 
published in French, 1686, 2 vols. fol. and reprinted in 
English,' with the addition of several thousand references, 
in 1722. A third edition, by serjeant Williams, appeared 
in 1799^ with notes and references, 2 vols. 8vo, usually 
bound in three- " 

; SAUNDEBSON {Nicolas), an illustrious professor of 
the n^athiematics in the university of Cambridge, and fel*^ 
low of the Royal Society, was born in 1682, atThurlston 
in Yorkshire ; where ^is father, besides a small estate^ en* 
joyed a place. in the Excise. When he was a year old, he 
was deprived, by the small-pox^ not only of his sight, but 
pf his- eye-balls^ which were dissolved by abscesses; so 
that he, retained no more idea of light and colours than if 
he ha,d been bom blind. He was sent early to a free^ 
sebool at Penniston, and there laid the foundation of that 
kndwle^lge of the /Greek and Roman languages, which he 
aftetiwards improved so far, by his own application to the 
cla^^ic: ^ulhors^ as to. hear the works of Euclid, Archimedes,; 

i North's Liv^p of ttie ChapGellors,-«*BHniet'^ Ovo Timel^.^Qraoger. 


S A U N D E » S O N. IM 

juicl Diophantus, read in their brigioal Greek, When he 
had passed spme time at this school, bis father, whose oc*'' 
cupation led him to be conversant in numbers, began to 
instruct hicn in the common rules of arithmetic. Here it 
was that his genius first appeared : for be very soon he-* 
came able to work the common questions, to make long 
calculations by the strength of bis memory, and to form 
new rules to himself for the more ready solving of such 
problems as are often proposed to learners, as trials of 
skill. At eighteen, he was introduced to the acquaintance 
of Richard West of Underbank,esq. a gentleman of fortune^ 
and a lover of the mathematics, who, observing his unGom<* 
mou capacity, took the pains to instruct him in the prihci** 
pies of algebra and geometry, and gave him every encou- 
ragement in the proiiecution of these studies. Soon after, 
he became acquainted with Dr. Nettleton, who took the 
same pains with him ; and it was to these gentlemen tha6 
be owed his first in&titution in the mathematical sciences.^ 
They furnished him with books, and often read and ex- 
pounded them to him. ; but he soon surpassed hi$ masters^ 
and became fitter to teach than learn any thing from them. 
His passion for learning growing up with him, his father 
sent him to a private academy at Atterqliff near Sheffield; 
6ut logiq and metaphysics being the principal learning of. 
this school, were neither of them agreeable to the genius, 
of our author ; and therefore be made but a short stay** 
He remained some time after in the country, prosecuting, 
bis stt^dies in his own way, without any other assistant? 
than a good author, and some person that could read it to. 
bim;. being abje, by the strength, of his own abilities, ta 
surmount all difficulties that might occur. His educatioa' 
had bithei[to been at the expence of his father^ who, hav«- 
ing <a numerous family, found it difficult to continue it ;' 
and bis friends therefore began to think of fixing him in^' 
some way of business, by which he might support himsellv; 
His own inclination led him strongly to Cambridge; and, 
after much consideration, it was resolved he should make> 
his appearance there in a way very uncommon ; not as a, 
scholar, but a master; for, his friends, observing in him a- 
peculiar felicity in conveying his ideas to others, hoped 
that be might teach the mathematics with credit and ad- 
vantage, even in the university ; or, if this design shouldr 
miscarry, they promised themselves success in opening a 
school for him in London< 

J7« S A U N D E 11 S O N. 

Accordingly, iii 1707, being now twenty-five, he wa« 
brought to Cambridge by Mr. Joshua Dunn, then a fellow- 
cominoner of Christ^s college ; where he resided with that 
friend, but was not admitted a member of the college. The 
society, however, much pleased with so extraordinary a 
guest, allotted him a chamber, the use of their library, 
and indulged him in every privilege that could be of ad- 
vantage to him. But still many difficulties obstructed his 
design : he was placed here without friends, without for* 
tune, a young man, untaught himself, to be a teacher of 
philosophy in an university, where it then flourished in 
the greatest perfection. Whiston was at this time mathe- 
matical professor, and read lectures in the manner pro- 
posed by Saunderson ; so that an attempt of the same kind 
by the latter looked like an encroachment on the privileges 
of bis office; but, as a good-natured man, and an encou- 
rager of learning, Whiston readily consented to the appli- 
cation of friends, made in behalf of so uncommon a person. 
Mr. Dunn had been very i^ssiduous in making known his 
<;baracter; his fame in a short time had filled the univer* 
sity ; men of learning and curiosity grew ambitious and 
fond of his acquaintance, so that his lecture, as soon as 
opened, was frequented by many, and in a short time very 
much crowded. *^ The Principia Mathematica, Optics, 
and Arithmetica Universalis, of sir Isaac Newton," -were 
the foundation of his lecture ; and they afforded a noble 
. field to display his genius in. It was indeed an object of 
the greatest curiosity that a blind youth should read lectures 
in optics, discourse on the nature of light and colours, ex- 
plain the theory of vision, the effect of glasses, the phaeno- 
mena of the rainbow, and other objects of sight : nor was 
the surprize of his auditors much lessened by reflecting, 
that as this science is altogether to be explained by lines, 
and is subject to the rules of geometry, he might be a mas- 
ter of these subjects, even under the loss of sight. 

As he was instructing the academical youth in the prin- 
ciples of the Newtonian philosophy, it was not long before 
be became acquainted with the incomparable author, al- 
though he had left the university several years ; and en- 
joyed his frequent conversation concerning the more diffi- 
cult parts of his works. He lived in friendship also with 
the most eminent mathematicians of the age; with Halley, 
•Cotes, D.e Moivre, &c. Upon the removal of Whiston 
from his professorship, Saunderson's mathematical merit 

S A U N D E R S O N. lit 

was universally allowed so much superior to that of any 
competitor, that an extraordinary step was taken in his 
favour, to qualify him with a degree^ which the statutes 
require* Upon application made by the heads of colleges 
lo the duke of Somerset, their chancellor, a mandate was 
readily granted by the queen for conferring on him the de- 
gree of master of arts : upon which he was chosen Lucasian 
professor of the mathematics, Nov. 1711, sir Isaac New- 
ton all the while interesting himself very much in the affair. 
His first performance, after he was seated in the chair, was 
an inauguration-speech made in very elegant Latin, and a 
style truly Ciceronian ; for be was well versed in the 
writings of TuUy, who was his favourite in prose, as Virgil 
and Horace were in verse. From this time he applied him« 
self closely to the reading of lectures, and gave up his 
whole time to bis pupils. He continued amotvg the gen* 
tiemen of Christ's college till 1723 ; when he took a hous« 
in Cambridge, and soon after married a daughter of the 
rev. Mr. Dickens, rector of Boxworth in Cambridgeshire, 
by whom he had a son and a daughter. In 1728, when 
George 11. visited the university,, he was pleased to signify 
his desire of feeing so remarkable a person ; and accord- 
ibgiy the professor waited upon bis majesty in the senate- 
house, and was there created doctor of laws by royal favour. 
Saunderson was naturally of a strong healthy constitu-- 
tion; but being too sedentary, and constantly confining 
himself to the bouse, he became at length a valetudinarian. 
For some years he frequently complained of a numbness in 
his limbs, which, in the spring of 1739, ended in an in- 
curable mortification of bis foot. He died April 19, aged 
fifty-seven, and was buried, according to his request, in 
the chancel at Boxworth. He was a man ra^er to be ad- 
mired than loved. He bad much wit and vivacity in con* 
versation, and many reckoned him a good companion. He 
had also a great regard to truth, but was one of those who 
think it their duty to express their sentiments on men and 
opinions, without reserve or restraint, or any of the cour- 
tesies of conversation, which created him many enemies; 
nor was he less offensive by a habit of profane swearing, and 
the obtrusion of infidel opinions, which last he held, not«^ 
withstanding the kindness of providence towards him 
throughout his extraordinary life*. He is said, however. 

* '< With respect to the infidel part Monthly ReTiewer* *' we aim her» 
#f Saundersoa*8 chancter/' sayt the turallj remioded of the joke that 


•174 8 A U N D E K S O N. 

to have received the notice of bis approdcbing death' with, 
.great calmnfess and serenity ; and after a short silence, re*- 
^uming life and spirit, talked with as much composure as 
usual, and at length, we are told, appointed to receive the 
jacrament the evening before his death, which a deliriui^ 
that never went off prevented him from doing. 
V A blind man moving in the sphere of a mathematician, 
neems a pba&oomenon difficult to be accounted for, and has 
excited the admiration of every age in which it has appear- 
ed. Tully mentions it as a thing scarce credible in his own 
master in philosophy, Diodotus, that ^' he exercised him- 
self in that science with more assiduity after he became 
blind; and, what he thought almost impossible to be done 
without sight, that he described his geometrical diagrams 
so expressly to his scholars, that they could draw every 
line in its proper direction.*' Jerome relates a more remark- 
able instance in Didymus of Alexandria, who, ^* though 
blind from his infancy, and therefore ignorant of the very 
letters, appeared so great a miracle to the world, as not 
only to learn logic, but geometry also, to perfection, which 
seems the most of any thing to require the help of sight.^" 
But, if we consider that the ideas of extended quantity, 
which are the chief objects of mathematics, may as well be 
acquired from the sense of feeling, as that of sight ; that a 
fixed and steady attention is the principal qualification for 
this study; and that the blind are by necessity more ab- 
stracted than others, for which reason Democritus is said 
to have put out his'eyes, that he might think more in- 
tensely ; we shall perhaps be of opinion, that there is no 
other branch of science better adapted to their circum- 

It was by the sense of feeling, that Saunderson acquired 
most of bis' ideas at first; and this he enjoyed in great 
acuteness and perfection,^ as it commonly happens to the 
blind, whether by the gift of nature, or, as is more pro- 
bable, by the necessity of application. Yet he could not, 
as ^onie have imagined, and as Mr. Boyle was made to be- 
lieve of a blind man at Maestricbt, distinguish colours by • 
that sense ; and, having made repeated trials, he used to 
say, it was pretending to impossibilities. But he could 

passed on the learned university, on they have put in Saandenon, who be- * 

bis bei\ig elected to fill the Lucasiaa lieves in no God at all'." Month. Rev. 

chair — * They have turned out Whis- vol. XXJCVI. 
ton for bftUeviog' in but ooe God ; «od 


B A U N D E R 9 O W. 17^5 

-with great nicety and exactness discern' Ibe least (fiiferehce 
of rough and smooth in a' surface, or the least defect of pd- 
lisb. Thus he distinguished in a set of Roman nnedals tbte 
genuine from the false, though they had been counterfeited 
with such exactness as to deceive a connoisseur who hi£d 
judged by the eye. His sense of feeling was very accurate 
also in distinguishing the least variation in the atmosphere'; 
aiul be has been seen in a garden^' when observations have 
been making on the sun, to take notice of every cloud, that 
interrupted the observation, almost as justly as they who 
could see it. He could tell when any object was held near his 
face, or when he passed by a tree at no great distance, pro«- 
vided there was a calm air, and little or no wind : these he 
did by the different pulse of the air upon his face. 

An exact and refined ear is what such are commonly 
blessed with wfaaare deprived of their eyes; and our pro* 
fessor was perhaps inferior to none in the excellence of hfs. 
He could readily distinguish to the fifth part of a note ; and, 
by his performance on the flute, which he had learned as 
an aipusement in his younger years, discovered such a ge- 
nius for music, as, if he had cultivated the art, would have 
probably appeared as wonderful as his skill in the mathe- 
matics. By his quickness in this sense he not only distin- 
guished persons with whom. he bad ever once conversed so 
long as to fix in his memory the sound of their voice, but 
in some measure places also« He could judge of the size 
of a room, into which he was introduced, of the distance 
he was from the wall ; and if ever he had walked over a 
pavement in courts, piazzas, &c. which reflected a sounds 
and was. afterwards conducted thither agaip, be could 
exactly tell whereabouts in the walk he was placed, merely 
by the note it sounded. 

There was scarcely any part of the mathematics on which 
he had not written something for the use of his pupils : but 
be discovered no intention of publishing any of his works 
till 1733. Then his friends, alarmed by a violent fever 
that had threatened his life, and unwilling that his labours 
should be lost to the world, importuned him to spare some 
time fjcom his lectures, and to employ it in finishing some 
of his works ; which be might leave behind him, as a va- 
luable legacy both to his family and the public. He yielded 
so far to these entreaties as to compose in a short time bis 

£tements of Algebra ;'* which he left perfect, and tran-.. 
scribed fair for the press. It was published by subscription 


176 8 A U N D E R S O N. 

rat Cambridge, 1740, in ^ vols. 4to, with a good me^sfa-- 
tinto print of the author, and an account of his life aad 
character prefixed. 

Saunderson entertained the most profound veneration for 
^Mr Isaac Newton. If he ever differed in sentimeat from 
any thing in sir Isaac's mathematical and philosophical Wri- 
tings, upon more mature consideration ^ he said, he always 
found the mistake to be his own. The more he read his 
works, and observed upon nature, the more reason he found 
to admire the justness and care as well ae liappiness ef ex- 
pression, of that incomparable philosopher. Saunderson 
left many other writings, though none perhaps prepared 
for the press. Among these were some valuable comments 
on the ^' Principia," which not only explain the more diffi^ 
cult parts, but often improve upon the doctrines ; these 
are published, in Latin, at the end of his posthumous 
." Treatise on Fluxions,*' a valuable work, which appeared 
in 1756, 8vo. His manuscript lectures too on most parts 
of natural philosophy, might, in the opinion of Dr. Button^ 
who has perused them, form a . considerable volume, and 
prove an acceptable present to the public.^ 

SAURlN (Elias), a protestant divine, was born August 
28, 1639, at Usseaox, in the valley of Pragelas on the 
frontiers of Dauphiny, where his father^ officiated as minis- 
ter. He was himself appointed minister of Venterole in 
4 661^ of Embrun in 1662, and would have been shortly 
chosen professor of divinity at Die, but meeting acciden- 
tally with a priest who was carrying the host to a sick per- 
son, he would not take off his hat. This trifle, as might 
be expected ia a popish country, was so much resented, 
that Saurin found it necessary to retire into Holland, where 
he arrived in June 1664, was appointed minister of the 
Walloon church at Delft the following year, and had a great 
share in deposing the famous Labadie. In 1671, he was 
invited to be minister of the Walloon church at UtiPecht^ 
where he became very celebrated by bis works, and had 
some very warm disputes with Jarieu, which were th* sub- 
ject of much conversation ; but be is said to have satiifac-* 
torily answered the charge of heresy which that author 
^ brought against him. Saurin died unmarried at Utrecht, 
April 8, 1703, aged sixly-fonr, leaving the following works: 

» Life prefixed to his Algebra — Manin's Biog. Philog.—Biog. Brit. Sopp]*. 
aicnt, TOl. Vli.— 'HutCoa't Diftiouary. 

S A U B I K. I7f 

li.1i << JtxamiAation of M. Juriisu's Theology/' BtqIs* Svdj 
in which he treats of sevleral important questions io diviaity ; 
<' Reflections on the Rights of Conscience,'' a^nst Jurieii^ 
ttisd Bayte's Philosophical Commentary; a treatise on ^ the 
Love of God," in which he supports the doctrines of disin-i 
terested love ; and another on the *^ Love of our Neighs- 
hours," 4a.* , 

SAURJN (James), a very celebrated preacher, was the 
SOD of an esoinent protestant lawyer, and was born at Nismes 
in 1677* His father retired^ aft^r the repeal of the edic4{ 
of N^ta, to Geneva, at which pbce be died. Sauria 
made no small progress in his studies, but abandoned then 
for.aome tiaie» that he might fcdlow arms; In 16d4, he 
inade »> campaign as a cadet in lord Galloway^s company, 
and soon afterwards procured a pair of coloulrs. But ^tci 
soott as ihe duke of Savoy had concluded a peace with 
France,- Saurio quitted a profession for which he never was 
designed; and, on his return to Geneva again, applied, 
himself to philosophy and divinity, under Turretin and 
bther professors. In itOO, be visited both Holland and 
England. In this last country he remained five years, and 
preached among the French refugees in London. Here 
also he married in lt03, and returned to the Hague in 
1705, Soon after be becaitie pastor to the church of 
French refugees, who were permitted to assemble in the 
chapel belonging to the palace of the princes of Orange at 
the Hague, in which he officiated during the remainder of 
his life» When the princes^ of Wales, afterwards queen 
Caroline^ passed through Holland on her way " to England, 
Saurin had the honour of paying his respects to her, and 
she, upon her return, desired Dr. Boulter, the preceptor to 
pirince Frederic, the father of the present king, to write 
to Saurin, to draw up a treatise ^^on the education of 
princes." The work was done> but never printed, and the 
author received a handsome'present from the princess, and 
afterwards a pension from George II. to whom he dedicated 
a volupoEie of his sermons. Saurin died Dec. 30, 1730. He 
possessed great talents, with a fine address, and a strong, 
clear, and harmonious voice, while his style was pure, un- 
affected j and eloquent. His principles were what are called 
moderate Calvinism. Five volumes of his sermons have 
- made their appearance at different times; the first in 1709^ 

t Cliaiirepie.^Moreri.--:I>Mt. Ui^' 

17S SAURtK. 

the second in' 1712, the third some years after/ the fotirlif 
in 1722, and the fifth in 1725. Since bis dearth, the ser-> 
nions relating to the passion of Jesus Christ, and other 
subjects, were published in two volumes. In 1727 h& 
published "The State of Christianity in France." 

But his most considerable work was^ " Discourses histo- 
rical, critical, and moral, on the most memorable Events of 
the Old and' New Testament.'' His first intention was to 
have published a set of prints, with titles and explanations ; 
but^ as that had been before executed by Fontaine amongst 
the Roman catholics, and by fiasnage amongst the protes- 
tants, it became necessary to adopt a newer plan. Thi$ 
gave rise to the work abov^ mentioned, which the authot 
left imperfect. Two Volumes made their appearance in 
folio, and the work was afterwards reprinted in four in 8vo. 
Six other discourses form a part of a fifth volume in 8vo^ 
published by Mn Roques, who undertook a continuation of 
the work. It is replete with learning. The Christian and 
the heathen authors, philosophers, poets, historians, and 
critics, are cited with the utmost profusion, and it forms a 
compilation of all their sentiments on every subject dis-» 
cussed throughout the work. The author shews himself tof 
be a warm advocate for toleration ; and, though the catho- 
lics are more frequently censured than commended, yet 
his principles are very moderate. *^ A Dissertation on the 
Expediency of sometimes disguising the Truth" raised a 
clamour against, the author, the fury of which be had not 
power 16 appease. As an historian^ he believed that he 
was permitted to produce the chief arguments of those that 
maintain, that in certain cases truth may be disguised ; and 
the reasons which they gave who have asserted the contrary. 
Without deciding the question, it is easy to perceive that 
he is a favourer pf the former. His principal antagonist 
was Armand de la Chapelle ; to whom Francis Michael Ga« 
nicoH replied with great spirit, in a work, entitled ^^Lettres 
s6rieuses & jocoses." The three first of the lettres, in the 
second volume, are in favour of Saurin. He was answered 
by La Chapelle with great violence. Saurin imagined, that 
be should be able to terminstte this dispute by reprinting the 
dissertation separately, with a preface in defence o£ his 
assertions : but he was deceived ; for La Chapelle pub- 
lished a very long and scurrilous reply. It was Saurin^s . 
intentkm entirely to have neglected this production ; but 
hs found a new champion in Francis Bruys, This dispuu^ 

S A It R I N. • 119 

liras at length brought before the synod of Cslmpen ; wbo^ 
in May 1730, ordered the churches of Utrecht, Leyden^ 
ami Amsterdam, t6 make their examinations, slnd report 
the result of tbern^ to the synod of the Hague, which was to 
sit in the September following^ Commissaries wdre ap* 
pointed for this purpose. The synod of Campen gave its 
opinion, and that of the Hague confirmed it : but, having 
made no mention of the instructions sent , to the Wailooa 
church at Utrecht, that assembly complained, and ordered 
Mr. Banvoust,'6ne of its ministers, to juaiify his proceed- 
ings and his doctrine, /niis he did in a large octavo vo"* 
luihe, printed at Utrecht in 1731, after the death of Sau^ 
rin, entitled *<^ The Triumph of the Truth and Peace; or. 
Reflections on the most important Events attending the last 
Synod assembled to determine in the case of Messieurs 
Saurin and Maty»^' Saurin had contributed to this peace, 
by ^giving such a declaration of his sentiments as satisfied 
the protestant churches ; and he repeated that declaration, 
when he foresaw that the new lights^ which Mn Bruys had 
thrown upon this subject, were going to raise a storm that 
might perhaps have been severer than the last. Saurin^s 
serofions are how well known^ in this country by the Selec- 
tions translated into English, and published in 1775 — 1784, 
by the rev. Robert . Robinison, 5 vols. 8vOj to which Dr. 
Henry Hunter added a sixth volume in 1796.^ 
: SAURIN (Joseph), a French mathematician, was born 
in 165d at Courtusbn, in the principality of Orange. He 
was educated by his father, and was at a very early age made 
a minister ^t Eure in Dauphiny. But he was compelled to 
retire to Geneva in 1633f in consequence of having givea 
offence in a sermon, which he afterwards heightened at 
Berne by preaching against some of the established doc- 
trines of the church. He then withdrew to Holland, but 
was so ill received by his brethren, that he determined to 
turn Roman catholic ; with this design, in 1690 he went to 
Paris, and made an abjuration of his supposed errors under 
the famous Bossuet, rather, it is believed, to have an op-, 
portunity. of pursuing his studies unmolested at Paris thaa 
firom.any motives of conscience or mental conviction. After 
this he had a pension from the king, and was admitted a. 
member of the academy of sciences in 1707, as a geome-^ 
trician. The dedinie of Saurin's life was spent in the peace* 

A Li£B \^ BobiatOB prefixed to his S^rmouv^Chaofepit,— Mortrit 

N 2 

190 S A U ]^ I N. 

able prosecution of his mathematical studies^ oce^iona%^ 
interrupted by literary controversies witb Rousseau and 
otbenk He was a man of a daring and impetuous spirit^ 
and of a lof^ and independent mind. Saurindied at Paris' 
io ,1737. Voltaire undertook the vindication of bis menMiy^ 
but has not been sufficiently successful to clear it from every 
unfistvourable impresaion.^ It was even said lie had bee» 
guilty of criooes, bybis own confession, that ought to have 
been punished with death. 

Saurin*s mathematical and philosophical papers printed 
in the Memoirs of the Academy of. Sciences, wbieh are 
numerous, are to be found in the volumes for the years fol- 
lowing; viz. 1709, 1710, 17 IS, 1716, 1718, 1720, I722y 
1723, 1725, 1727. He left a son, who acquired some re- 
putation as a dramatic writer and lyric poet.^ 

SAUSSAY (Andrew du), doctor of law and divinity, 
curate of St Leu, at Paris, official and grand vicar in the 
same city, and afterwards bishop of Toul, was bom about 
1595, at Paris. He was preacher in ordinary to Louis XIIL 
who bad a great esteem for him, and by whose CMrder he 
wrote tbe ^^ Marty rologium Galiicanum,'' 1638, 2 vols. foL 
M. du Saussay succeeded Paul de Fiesqoe in the diocese of 
Toul, 164^, and discovered great zeal in the- governnoent 
of his church, and died Septembers, 1675, at Toul, aged 
eighty. He left many works besides that above mentioned, 
which contain great learning, but shew very little critici^ 

SAUSSUtlE (Horace Benedict be), an eminent na*^ 
turalist, was born at Geneva in 1740. Hi» father, an en«* 
lightened agricultiirist, to whom we are indebted for;Bome 
essays on rural economy, resided at Conches, on the bank9 
of the Arve, about half a league from Geneva. Botany waa 
his first study, and this made bim acquainted with Haller, 
whom he visited in, 1764, during his retreat at Bex. He 
was further excited to study the vegetable kingdom in con*- 
sequence of his connection with C. Bonnet, who marriedi 
bis aunt, and who soon discovered-the talents of his nephew^ 
Bonnet was then engaged in e^camining the leaves- of plants^ 
Saussure also turned his attenticm to these vegetable organv 
and published ^^ Observatfons on the Skin of Leaves*' aboucr 
the year 1760* 

At this time the prolessorshi]^ of philosophy at G«fi«w 

6 A U S 8 U R E. 1*1 

kecame Tftoaut^ and Saussure, who was then onljr twenty- 
one^ obtained the chair. While in this office, he com- 
menced his journeys among the mountains, to examine the 
mibstaoces of which the elevated ridges of our globe are 
composed, and during the first fifteen or twenty years of 
his professorship, he was alternately employed in fulfilling 
the duties which his - sitnataon imposed, and in traversing 
the different mountains in the neighbourhood of Geneva. 
He even extended his excursions on one side to the Rhine, 
and on the other to Piedmonts About this time, too, ht 
travelled to Anvergne, for the purpose of examining some 
extinguished volcanos; and soon after he undertook a tour' 
to. Paris, Holland, England, Italy, and Sicily. In these 
journeys his constant object was the study of nature. He 
always carried with him the instruments necessary for ob«- 
servations, and never set out without having formed for 
himself a regular plan of experiments. 

In 1779, he published the first volume of *^ His Travels 
in tbe Alps," which contains a detailed description of the 
environs of Greneva, and an account of an excursion as far 
as Chamouni, a village at the foot of Mont-Blanc. All 
naturalists have read with pleasure tbe description )ie has 
given, in this volume, of his Magnetometre, The more he 
exanained the mountains, the more he felt the importance 
of mineralogy : to enable him to study this branch of science 
with still greater advantage, he learnt the German language. 
The hew mineralogieal knowledge which he acquired may 
be easily seen by comparing the latter volume of bis travels 
with tbe first. 

In the midst of his numerous excursions in tbe Alps^ and 
even during the time of the troubled politics of Geneva in 
1782^ he found opportunities to make his hygrometrical 
experiments, the result of which he published in 1783, 
under the title of "Essays on Hygrometry." We are in- 
debted to him for the invention of tbe bygrometre, although 
Deluc had already invented bis whalebone bygrometre, 
wbich occasioned a dispute between bim and Saussure. In 
1786, be .gaTe up bis professorship in favour of his disciple 
Pictet The second volume of tbe Travels of Saussure was 
published in 1786; and contains a description of the Alps, 
which surround Mont-Blanc. Some years after the publi- 
cation of this' volume, Saussure was received asaforeigd 
associate in tbe academy of sciences at Paris; but our au- 
diof not pnly honoured, but wa$ desirous of serving his 

np 8 A y s s u ji E. 

country. He founded the Society of Artf, tjQ which. Gq^ 
neva is greatly indebted, and presided in this society to 
the very last,, its prosperity being one. of his principal phr 
jects. He also shewed his z^al to serve his country wbil^ 
he was member of the Council pf Five Hundred, and of 
the National Assembly of France. It. was frqm hi^ ^sidur 
ou^ labour in that Assembly that his health Qrst began to 
fail I and in 1794 a paralytic stroke deprived. him of the use 
of one side of his body. It was, however, after this acci- 
dent that he drew up the two l^st volumes of his Travels^ 
which appeared in 1796, They contain an accppnt of hi$ 
travels in the mountains of Piedmont, Switzerland, and in 
particular of his ascent to the summit of IVIont Blaqc, 

He gave the last proof pf his atti^cbment tp science in 
publishing the ^^ Agenda,'! ^hich completes the fpurtl^ vor 
lume. During his illness he also published his observation^ 
^^ on the Fusibility of Stones with the Blowpipe ;*' and h^ 
directed the ^^ experioients on the height of the bed of the 
Arve.*' When be was at the baths of Plombieres for hi^ 
health, he observed the mountains atva distance, and pror 
cured specimens of the strata he perceived in the ipost $teep 
ropks. He had announced to the public, tha^t he ip^ended 
\o complete his travels by his ideas on th^ pripiitive state of 
the earth i; but jthe more new facts hp acquired, and the 
more he meditated on this subject, the less could he deter:^ 
mine with regard to those great revolutions which have pre-* 
ceded the present epoch. In general, he was a Neptunian, 
that is to say, he attributed to water the revolutions of thif 
globe. He admitted it to be possible that elastic fluids, iq 
disengaging themselves from the cavities, ufight ^-^ise 

Though his health w?is gradually imp^iired by degrees, 
he still retained the hope of re-establishing it, but strength, ^ 
and life forsook him by slow and painful steps, and he die4 
March 22, 1799, lamented by his family and his country.* 

SAUVAGES (Francis Boissier de), the inventor of 
modern nosology, was born at Alais, in Lower Languedpc, 
iMay 12, 1706. He appears to have owed little to his first 
tutors, but his own talents enabled him to mal^e a rapid 
progress in literature and philosophy. With a ytew to 
study physic, he went to Montpellier in ,1722, and receive^ 
fbe degree of doctor in 1726. The thesis whi9h he df^ 

\ Life by SenDebier; a most extravagant panegyrje. 

X . 

S A U V A G E S. 18? 

fended on this occasion was on a singular subject^ ^ Si I'a- 
mour petit ^tre gu^ri par ies remedes tir^s des plantes?^' 
To determine whether love can be cured by herbs seems 
rather a trial of skilly than a serious discussion. It procured 
him, however, the name of the Iqverdoctoir, ai^d it is said 
that he wrote some poems on the same subject. In 1730,^ 
he went to Paris with a vi^w to farther improvement 
in hi» profession, and afterwards returned to IVIontpeU 
lier, ']wbere he obtained a professorship in 173^. His re- 
putation for ingenuity of speculation and extensive reading 
for some tikne retarded his practice, but these speculationa 
were not allowed much weight iq the treatment of bis pa- 
tients. In 1740, he was appoinjted demonstrator of tho 
plants in the botanic garden, and in 1752 he was made pro* 
fessor of botany. He married in 1748, and had two sons 
^nd four daughters, who survived him. A serious disease^ 
whipb continued nearly two years, proved fatal in the midst 
of bis useful and honourable career, in the month of Fe- 
bruary, 1767, in the sixty- first year of his age. 

Sauvages was much loved by his pupils, to whom he 
cp^irounicated freely all that he knew, and received with 
equal readiness whatever information any one was enabled 
to give hig^. • He an able mathematician, au accurate 
observer of phi^nomena, apd ingenious in devising expert* 
men^s ; but had too much bias to systeips, sq ,that he did 
not always consult f/acts upinfluenced by prepossession. He 
was a member of the most learned societies of Europe, viz* 
of the Royal Society of London^ of those of Berlin, Upsal^ 
Stockholm, and Montpellier, of the Academy ^^ Nature 
Curiosorum^'' of the Physico- Botanical Academy of Flo- 
rence, land of the Institute of Bologna. He obtained the 
prizes given by many public bodies to the best essays ou 
given subjects ; ^nd a collection of these prize-essays was 
published at Lyons in 1770, in two volumes, with the title 
of " Chef d'CEuvres de M. de Sauvages." 

His works were ye^y numerou/s on varioufi medical sub<- 
jects, and he published a valuablje botanical work, '/ Me« 
thodi^s foliorum, sen Plantar Florap lyionspeliensisjuxta folio- 
rum ordinem,'' containing about 500 plants, omitted in 
Magnoi*s ^^ Botanicon Monspeliense;*' but that on which his 
fame most depends was his system of nosology. This was 
preceded by a small work, entitled *^ Nouvelles classes des 
Maladies,^' &c. .1732, 12mo; and after considering the 
aubject for thirty years, he produced his complete system. 

184 SA0VAGES. 

^ Nosologica methodica, ^stens mdrbortim classed, genera^ 
et species/' &c. 1763, 5 vols. Svo, and after his deatb| 
J 768, 2 vols. 4to. Since the ap(>earance of this Otork, the 
aobject has been ably cultivated by Linnseus, by Vogel, by 
l^agar, and lastly, by Dr. Cullen, to whose arrangemeafc 
many give the preference.* 

SAUVEUR (JosEPji), an eminent French matbematipian,! 
was.born^at La Fleehe, March 24, 1 6 53, He wai totally 
dumb till he was seven years of age ; and ever after was 
obliged to speak very slowly and with difficulty. He very 
early discovered a great turn for mechanics, aqd when sent 
to the college of tb(d Jesuits to learn polite literature, made 
very little progress, but read with greediness books of 
arithmetic and geometry. He was, however, prevailed on 
to go to Paris in 1 670, and, being intended for the church, 
applied himself for a time to the study of philosophy am) 
theology; but mathematics was the only study he culti- 
vated with any success ; and during his eourse of philoso- 
phy, he learned the first six books of Euclid in the space of 
a month, without thb help of a master. 

As heliad an impediment in his voice, he was advised by 
M. Bossuet, to give up the church, and lo apply himself 
to the study of physic i but this being against the inclii^a- 
tion of his uncle, from whom b^ drew his principal re- 
sources, Sauv^ur determihed to devote himself to bis fa- 
vourite study, so as to be able to teach it for his support. 
This scheme succeeded so well, that he soon became the^ 
fashionable preceptor in mathematics, and at twenty-three 
years of age he had prince Eugene for his scholar. — He 
had not yet read the geometry of Oes Cartes ; but a 
foreigner of the first quality desiring to be taught it, be 
tfiade himself master of it in an in<ipnceivably small space 
of time. — Basset being a fashionable game at that time, 
the marquis of <Dangeau asked him for ^ome calculatiods 
relating to it, which gave suqh satisfaction, thai Sauveut^ 
bad the honour to explain them to the king and queen. 

In 1681 he was sent with M. Mariotte to Chantilli, to. 
make some experiments upon the waters there, in which 
be gave great satisfsiction. The frequent visits be made 
to this place inspired him with the design of writing a trea- 
tise on fortification ; and, in order to join practice with 
theory, he went to the siege of Mons in 1691, where bd 

> ]ik>y, Diet, Hut. ck Medioine^^Diot, Hitt. 

S A U V E U R. tSS 

continued all the while in the trenches. With the ssttie 
rhw also be visited all the towns of Flanders ; and on his re^ 
turn he became the mathematician in ordinary at the court^ 
with a pension for life. In 1680 he had been chosen to 
teach mathematics to the pages of the Dauphiness. In 
16S6 be was appointed mathematical professor in the Royot 
College. And in 1696 admitted a member of the Academy 
of Sciences, where he was in high esteem with the mem« 
bers of that society. He became also particularly ac« 
quainted with the prince of Cond^, from whom be received 
many marks of favour and affection. In 1703, M. Vauban 
having been made marshal of France, he proposed Sau<«» 
▼enr to the king as his successor in the office of examinef 
of the engineers ; to which the king agreed, and honoured 
bim with a pension, which our author enjoyed till bit 
death, which happened July 9, 1716, in the stxty-fourthf 
year of his age. 

Sauveur ' was of an obliging disposition, and of a good 
temper; humble in his deportment, and of simple manners. 
He was twice married. The first time he took a precaution 
more like a mathematician than a lover ; for he would not 
meet the lady till he had been with a notary to have the 
conditions he intended to insist on, reduced into a written 
form ; for fear the sight of her should not leave him enough 
master of himself. He had children by both his wires ; 
and by the latter a son, who, like himself, was dumb for 
the first seven years of bis life. 

An extraordinary part of Sauveur^s character is, that 
diough he had neither a musical voice nor ear, yet he 
studied no science more than music, of which he composed 
an entire new system. It was he also who first invented the 
monochord and the echometer. He pursued his researches 
even to the music of the ancient Greeks and Romans, to 
the Arabs, and to the very Turks and Persians themselves; 
and was the inventor of the term Acoustics, now generally 
adopted to signify the theory of sounds atid their proper- 
ties. But Dr. Burney does not speak very highly of some 
of his musical theories. 

Sauveur*s wHtings, wliich consist of pieces rather than 
of set works, are ail inserted in the volumes of the memoirs 
of the Academy of Sciences, from 1700 to 1716, on vari-» 
OHs geometrical, mathematical, philosophical, and musical 
subjects. ^ 

\ Miosmii vol, iy,«THiitUm'i Dict-^aniey's Hist, of Moiio* 


S A V A G E- 

SAVAGE (Henky), an English divine, was bora alKMVt 
1604, of a good family, in the parish of Eldsfield, Wori 
pestershire. He entered of Baliol college, Oxford, as a 
commoner in 1621, took the degree of B. A. in Nov. 1625, 
in 1628 was made probationer fellow, and in 1630 com-r 
pleted his roaster's degree. On the commencement of the 
rebellion, he travelled into France with Williain lord 
Sandys, whose sister, the lady Mary, be afterwards mar- 
ried. Soon after his .return he obtained the mastership of 
his college, Feb. 20, 1650, being at that time bachelor of 
divinity, and next year took his doctor's degree in the 
same faculty. Notwithstanding this compliance with the 
ns^ufping powers, he was, on the restoration, made chap*^ 
lain in ordinary to his majesty, prebendary of Gloucester 
in 1665, and rector of Biadoii near Woodstock in Oxford- 
shire. He died, master of Baliol college, June 2, 1672, 
and was buried i^ the chapel. 

Dr. Savage had a controversy with John Tombes, on in- 
fant bapjtism, and with Dr. Cornelius Surges on church- 
refori|>ations, which produced some pamphlets of little 
eonse^uence now ; bis principal work was his history of 
Balliol college, entitled ^* Balliofergus, qr a commentary 
vpon the foundation, founders,^ and affairs "of Balliolcol- 
lege,*' 1668, 4to. Wood says, he had no natural geny for 
a work of this kind, and has committed many blunders ; 
and it may be added, that bis style is uncommonly vague^: 
diffusive, and pedantic. Hi^ aim was to appear great ia 
little things, and the gravity with which he discusses the 
origin, derivation, &c. of the name Katherine, whether it 
should \)e spelt with a K or.a C, at what time the letter k 
' was introduced, and the double / in Balliol, is truly won-* 
derful. By his wife, lady Mary Sandys, he left issue 
Henry, Edwin, John, Katherine, and Thomas, and bad 
buried two daughters in 1670 and 1671, in St. Mary Mag- 
dalen^s church, Oxford. His widow died in an obscure 
bouse in St. Ebbe's parish, between the church ai)d West- 
gate, May 15, 1683, and was b pried in St. Mary Magda- 
len's church.' 

SAVAGE (John), D. D. the benevolent president of the 
famous club at Rpyston^, an4> sl^ Mr. Cole says, the only 

• • 

"^ 0f this club, ^ee an account by the list of members, . we find Ralph 

Mr. Goagh-in Gent.' Mag. LIII. p. Freeman and Christopber Anstey^ both 

814. , Dr. Sayage, however, was not D. D. The club likewise had iti» cbaQ** 

the only elergymab belonging to if. In lain, and a well-stored wine-cellar*! 

> Ath. Ox. vol. n;-^faaimen*8 Hist, of Oxf.-^W«td's MSS. in Mtt». AshmoU 


l^vgyman ever {tdmitted into it, was a member of Ema^ 
iiuel college, Cambridge, where he took his degrees, and 
was D. D. of both universities. He was rector, first of 
Bygrave, then of Clothall, Herts, and lecturer of St. George^ 
Hanover-square, London. In his younger days he ha4 
traveiled with James,; fifth earl of Salisbury, who gave him 
the great living of Clothall, where Dr. Savage rebuilt the 
rectory-house. In his more advanced years be was sq 
lively, pleasant, and facetious, that he was called the 
f^Aristippus" of the age. One day, at the levee, George L 
asked him, ^' How long he had stayed at Rome with lord 
Salisbury ?•' Upon his answering how long, " Why,'* said 
tbe i^ing, ^f you stayed long enough, why did you not 
convert the Pope ?" ^^ Because, 9ir/ • replied he, ^* I had 
nothing better (o offer him.'' Having been bred at West* 
minster, be had always ^ great fondness for the spboo], at* 
tended at all their plays and elections, assisted in all their 
public exercises, grew young agaiU) and, among boy?^ 
Yfas 9 great boy himself. He used to attend the schools, 
to fi|f qish the lads with extempore epigrams at the flections, 
lie died March 24, 1747, by a fall down the stairs belong- 
ing to the scaffolding for lord Lovat's trial ; and the king^i^ 
pcholars had so great a regard for him, that, after his de- 
Cease, they made ^ collection among themselves, and, at 
their own charge, erected a sqfiall tablet of white marble to 
his memory in the East cloister, with a Latin inscription*- 
Besides a visitation and an assize sermon, Mr. Cole attri- 
l^ntes the following works to him : 1. <^ The Turkish ijisr 
tory by Mr. KnoUes and sir Paul Rycaut abridged,'* 1701^ 
9 vols. 8vo. This was shewn to sir Paul, who approved of 
it so much, that he designed to have written a preface to 
i^ had not death prevented him. 2. ^' A Collection of 
Letters of the Ancients, whereby is discovered the morality, 
gallantry, wit, humour, manner of arguing, and in a word 
(he genius of the Greeks and Romans,** 1703, 8vo.^ 

SAVAGE (Richard), an eminent instance of the use*- 
l^ssness and insignificancy of knowledge, wit, and genius, 
without prudence and a proper regard to the common 
maxims of life, was born in 1698. He was the son 'of 
Anne countess of Macclesfield, by^ the earl of Rivers. He 
might have been considered as the lawful issue of the earl 
of Macclesfield; but bis mother, in order to procure a 

) Nichols's Bowyer.-*Cole'« MS Athenae in Brit, Mtti. 


si^ptitratioH from her husband, made a public eodfeMiott of 
aduhery in this instance. As soon as this spurious ofFgpring 
was brought to light, the countess treated him with every 
kind of unnatural cruelty. Slie committed him to the care 
of a poor woman, to educate as her own. She prevented 
the earl of Rivers from making him a bequest in his will of 
6000/. by declaring him dead. She endeavoured to send 
hitn secretly to the American plantations ; aiul at laftt, to 
bdry him iti poverty and obscurity for ever, she placed him 
as an apprentice to a shoemaker in Holbom. About tbiif 
tiihe his nurse died ; and in searching her effects, which 
^^ Ttnagined to be his right, he found some letters whieh 
infbrmed him of his birth, and the reasons for which it was 
concealed. He now left his low occupation, and tried 
every method to awaken the tenderness, and attract th^' 
regard, of his mother: but all bis assiduity was without 
effect ; for be could neither soften' her heart, nor open hey 
hand, and he was reduced to the miseries of want; By 
the care of the lady Mason, mother to the countess, he 
had been placed at the grammar-school at St. Alban'^, 
where he had acquired all the learning which his situation 
allowed ; and necessity now obliged him %o becoine an 

The first effort of his uncultivated genius was a poem 
stgainst Hoadiy, bishop of Bangor ; of which the author 
was afterwards ashamed. He then attempted to write for 
the stage, but with little success : yet this attempt was at- 
tended with some advantage, as it introduced him to the 
acquaintance of sir Richard Steele and Mr. Wilfcs. Whilst 
he was in dependence on these gentlemen, he was an asii- 
duons frequenter of the theatres^ and never absent from a 
play in several years^ In 1723 be brought a tragedy on 
the stage, in which himself performed a part, the subject 
0{ which was ** Sir Thomas Overbury." If we consider 
the circumstances under which it was wriftten, it will JBLffonT 
at once an uncommon proof of strength of genius, and an 
(evenness of mind not to be ruffled. Whilst he was em- 
ployed upon this work, he was without a lodging, and 
ofton without food ; nor had he any other convenitehces for 
study than the -fields or the street ; and, when he had 
formed i speech, he would step into a sbof), abd beg the 
use of pen, ink, and papen The profits of this plajr 
amounted to about 200/. ; and it procured him the notice 
and esteem of many persons of distinction, some^rays qf 

SAVAGE, 189 

l^diiHis gfiaimenng tbr<>ugli ail the clouds of poverty and 
oppr^ssioD. Buty wb^n the world was . beginning to be#- 
hoild htm with a more favourable eye, a misfortune hefei 
bim, by which not only his reputation, but his life, was in 
danger* In a night-ramble he fell into a coffee-bouse of 
iU<-famei near Charing- Cross; when a quarrel happened, 
and one Mr. Sinclair was killed in the fray. Savage, with 
bis companion, was taken into custody, tried for murdeiv 
and capitally convicted of the offence. His mother was so 
inhuman, at this critical juncture, as to use all means to 
prejudice the queen against him, and to intercept all the 
hopes he bad of life from the royal mercy ; but at last the 
countess of Hertford, out of compassion, laid a true ac- 
count of the extraordinary story and sufferiags of poor Sa- 
vage before her majesty ; and obtained his pardon. 

He now recovered his liberty, but had no means of sub« 
lusteiice; and a scheme struck him, by which he might 
compel his mother to do something for him, and extort 
that from her by satire, which she bad denied to natural 
affection. The expedient proved successful; and lor4 
Tyreonnel, on his promise to lay aside his design, received 
him into bis family, treated him as his equal, and engaged 
to allow him a pension of 200L a-year. In this gay period 
of life, when he was surrounded by affluence and pleasure,, 
be published '^ The Wanderer, a moral Poem/' 1729^ 
which was approved by Pope, and which the author him- 
self considered as his master-piece. It was addressed to 
the earl of Tyrconnel, with the highest strains of panegy*- 
ric. These praises, however, in a short time, he found 
himself inclined .to retract, being discarded by that noble* 
man om account of bis imprudent and licentious behaviour. 
He now thought himself again at liberty to expose the 
4Earuelty of his mother, and accordingly published *^ The 
Bastard, a Poem.'' This bad an extraordinary sale : and^ 
its appearance happening at a time when the countess was 
at Bath, many persons there in hei; hearing took frequent 
opportunities of repeating passages from it, until shaope 
obliged her to quit the place. 

. Some time after this. Savage fofmed a resolution of ap<» 
plying to the queen : she- had given him bis life, and he 
hoped her goodness might enable him to support it. He 
published a poem on her birth-day, which he entitle 
^ The Volunteer Laureat" She graciously sent him fifty 
poandsj adtfa aa intimation that be might annually expect 

m S A V A G fi. 

the same bounty. His condact with regard to this peiisfiofi 
was very characteristic ; as soon as be bad receited it, be 
imtnedi&tely disappeared, and lay for some time out of the 
reach of his most intimate friends. At length he wits see^ 
again, pennyless as before, but never itiformed any person 
where he had been, nor was his retreat ever discoverecl^. 
His perpetual indigence, politeness, and wit, still raised him 
^ew friends, as fast as his misbehaviour lost him his old 
ones; and sir Kobert Walpole, the prime minister, was 
<warmly solicited in hisfatour. Promises were given, but 
ended in disappointment ^ upon which he published a 
poem in the *^ Gentleman's Magazine,'^ entitled| " The 
Poet's Dependence on a Statesman." 

His poverty Still increasing, he only dined by accident, 
when he wasf invited to the tables of his acquaintance, fronft 
which the meanness of his dress often excluded him. Hav- 
ing no lodgings, be passed the night often in mean houses',, 
which are set open for any casual wanderers, sometimes in 
cellars, amongst the riot and fijth of the meanest and most 
profligate of the rabble; and sometimes,- when he wa& 
totally without money, walked about the streets till he was 
weary, and lay down in the summer upon a bulk, and, in 
the winter, with his associates in poverty, among the ashed 
of a glass-house. His distresses, however afflictive, never 
dejected him. In his lowest sphere, his pride kept up bis 
spirits, and set him on a level with those of the highest 
rank. He never admitted any gross familiarity, or sub-^ 
mitted to be treated otherwise than as an eqUaL ThisT 
wretched life was rendered more unhappy^ in 1738, by 
the death of the queen, and the loss of his pension. Hi^ 
distress was now publicly known, and bis friends, there- 
fore, thought proper to concert some measures for pro- 
curing him a permanent relief, tt was proposed that be 
i^hould retire into Wales, with an allowance of SoL peif 
annum, to be raised by subscription, on which he was to^ 
live privately in a cheap place, and lay aside all his aspir«^ 
ing thoughts. . 

This ofl^'er he seemed to accept with great joy, and set 
out on his journey with fifteen guineas in his purse. Hiai 
friends and benefactors, the principal of whom was Pope^ 
expected now to hear of his arrival in Wales ; but, on the 
1 4th day after his departure, they were surprised with H' 
letter from him, acquainting them that he was yet upon 
tha road> and without money, and could noi proceed with-^ 

SAVAGE* 19l 

^\ii t remittance. The money was sent, by which he was 
enabled to ireacK Bristol ; whence he was to go to Swansea 
by water. He could not immediately obtain a passage^ 
and therefore was obliged to stay some time at Bristol; 
where, with his usual facility, he made sin acquaintance 
with the principal people, and was treated with all kinds of 
civifity. At last he reached the place proposed fdr hi^ re- 
sidence ; where he stayed a yeaf^ and completed a tragedy; 
which he had begun in London. Ht was now desiipous of 
coming' to town to bring it on the stage : but his friends, 
and jparticularly Pope, who was his chief benefactor, op« ' 
posed the design very strongly ; and advised him to put it 
into the hands of Thomson and Mallet, to fit it for tbef 
stage, and to allow his friends to receive the profits, out of 
which an annual pension shoi;iId be paid him^ The pfopo^^ 
sal he rejected, Quitted Swansea, and set off for London i 
but, at Bristol, a repetition of the kindness he h^d formerly 
found, invited him to stay. He stayed so long, that by 
his imprudence and misconduct he wearied out all hi9 
friends. His wit had lost its novelty ; and his irregular 
behaviour, and late hours, grew very troublesome to mea 
of business. His money was spent, his cloaths worn out^ 
ahd his shabby appearance made it difficult for him to ob^ 
tain a dinner. Here, however, he stayed, in the midst of 
poverty, hunger, and contenapt, till the mistress of a coffee- 
house, to whom he owed about 8/. arrested him for the 
debt. He could find no bail, and was therefore lodged in 
prison. During his confinement, he began, and almost 
finished, a satire, entitled ^^ London and Bristol delinev 
ated ;*' in order to be revenged on those who had no more' 
generosity than to suffer a man, for whom they professied 
a regard, to languish in a gaol for so small a' sum. 

vWhen he had been six months in prison, he received a 
letter from Pope, on whom bis chief dependance now- 
rested, containing a charge of Very atrocious ingratitudes- 
Savage returned a very solemn protestation of his inno- 
ceiice^ and he appeared much disturbed at the accusation* 
In a few days after, he was seized with a -disorder, which 
at first was not suspected to be dangerous; but, growing 
daily mor^ languid and defected, at last, a fever seizing 
him, be expired, August 1, 1743, in his forty-sixth year, 
and was4>urTed lu the church-yard of St. Peter, at the eX'» 
p^Qce of the g.ioler. Thus lived, and thus died, Richard 
Savage^ leavini; behind him a character strangely chequered 


with vices apd good qualities. H.« was; howtev^r, UQ^owbt^ 
^dly a man of excellent parts ; and, bad be received thp 
full benefits of a liberal education, and had his natural 
talents been cultivated to the best advantage, he mighl 
have made a respectable figure in life. He was happy in 
91) agreeable temper, and a liyely flow of wit, which made 
his company much coveted ; nor was bis judgment, . both 
of writings and of men, inferior to his wit ; but he was. too 
inuch a slave to his passions, and bis passions were too 
easily excited. He was warm in his friendships, but im-^ 
placable in his enmity ; and his greatest faulty which is in«- 
(jleed the greatest of all faults, was ingratitude. He seemed 
to think every thing due to his mei^it, and tbi^t he waa 
little obliged to any one for those favours which he thpu^t 
it their duty to confer on him : it is therefore the less 
to be wondered at, that he never rightly estimated tba 
I(indnes^ of his many friends and benefactors, or pre^^ 
served ^ grateful and due sense of their generosity to wardii 

The works of this original writer, after having long, lain 
dispersed in magazines and fugitive publications, were 
collected and published by T. Evans, bookseller, in . the 
Strandy in an ejegant edition iu two volumes^ octavo,* to 
f^hicb are prefixed the admirable ^' Memoirs of Savage," 
written by Dr* Samuel Johnson. They have since been in« 
^oiporated in the " English Poets*" * 

SAVARON (John), a celebrated president and lieute^ 
Qant*general in the seneschalship and presidial court of 
Clermont in Auvergne, was born there about the begin- 
ftipg of the seventeenth century. He had an extensive 
]|oowledg;e of the belles iettres and law, and. was one of the 
most learned men and eloquent magistrates of his time^ 
Be attended the states-general held at Paris in li614, as a 
deputy from the Tiers Etat of the province of Auvecgne^ 
Md defended its rights with aseal and firmness against the 
nobility and the clergy. He afterwards pleaded with great 
i;redit in the parliament of Paris, and died at a very ad^ 
vanced age in 16B2, leaving many learned works much 
esteemed.; the principal are, an edition of ^< Sidonius; 
Apollinaris," 16Qi}, 4to. with noites. <' Cler-^ 
mont, Capitale d'Auvergne,*' the most complete edition o£ 
which is by Peter Dursmd, 1662, folio. |<Trait6 dea 

^ Life by J>r. Johnson. 

!3 JL V A R O N. \9$ 

^ Dud^'* Uly. ** Traiti da is SouveralntA du Roi et de 
son Roiaiime aux Deputes de la Noblesse/' 161 5^ 8vo, two 
parts ; a carious and scarce work. ** Chronologies des Etats 
Gin^rauxy*' 8vo ; the object of which is to prove that the 
Tiers Etat has always bad admittance there, ft seat, and a 
deliberative voice. ^ 

SAVARY (Francis), seigneur de Breves, a learned 
Frenchman who had the merit of introducing oriental 
printing into bis country about the beginning of the se- 
venteenth century, was the French ambassador at Con- 
^ntinople for twenty^two years. On his return, about 
1611, Henry IV. sent him to Rome as ambassador 
in the pontificate of Paul V. where, in 1613, he ap* 
pears to have established a printing-*office ; for in the title 
of a translation of Bellarmin's conclusion, and a Psalter into ' 
Arabic, they are said to come ex typographia Savariana. 
Savary is said to have cast the types, and employed on , 
th^e two works, as correctors, Scialac and Sionita, two 
Maronites from mount Lebanon. In 1615, Savary re- 
turned to Paris, bringing with him Sionita and the printer 
PauHn, who, in the same year, printed in small quarto, in 
Turkish and French, the "Treaty of 1604, between Henry 
the Great, king of France, and the sultan Amurath,'' &c. 
The following year appeared an Arabic Grammar, edited 
by Sionita and Hesronita. It appears that Savary had the 
liberality to lend his types to those who were desirous of 
printing works in the oriental languages. He diedin'1627, 
when, we are told, the English and Dutch made offers for ^ 
the purchase of his types, and the oriental manuscripts 
wtitch he had collected in the Levant ; but the king of 
France bought them, and sQon after a new establishment 
appeared at Paris for oriental printing, all the credit of 
wbtch was given to the cardinal Richelieu, while the name 
of Savary was not once mentioned. Sic vos non vobis^ fcc. 
Thetiie types are said to be still. extant in the royal print* 
hig office. Savary published an account of his travels, 
ttom which we learn, that be projected certain conquests 
iti the Levant, for the extension of the commerce of his 
country, and the propagation of Christianity. The number 
of oriental M8S. wbiph he brought from the Levant amounts 
to ninety-seven.' 

\ • • 

> KKstMo, taI. XVU. * Mcfc Birt. 

yot.xxvn. o 

194 . S A V A R Y. ^ 

* SAVARY (James), an useful French writer upon the 
subject of trade, was born at Duu6 in Anjou Sept. 22, 
1622. He was sent to Paris, and. put apprentice to a mer- 
chant; and carried on trade tiH 1658, when he left off the 
practice, to apply with more attention to the theory. It 
is said, that he bad acquired a very competent fortune;, 
but^ in 1667, when the king rewarded with certain privi- 
leges and pensions such of his subjects as had twelve chiU 
dren aliv6, Savary wa^ not too rich to put in his claim. He 
was afterwards admitted of the council for the reformation 
of commerce ; and the orders, which passed in 1 670, were 
drawn up from his instructions and. advice. Being re- 
quested by the comrpissioners to digest his principles into 
a volume, he published at Paris, in 1675, 4to, "LeParfait 
Negociant, ou. Instruction generate pour ce qui regarde 
le Commerce des Merchandises de France et des Pays 
Strangers." This went through many editions, the best of 
which is that of 1777, 2 vols. 4to : aud has been translated 
into almost all European languages. In 1688, he pub-^ 
li&bed ^' Avis et Conseiis sur les plus impbrtantes matieres 
du Commerce," in 4to ; which has been considered as a 
second volume to the former work, and often re-printed.' 
He died in 1690; and, out of seventeen children which 
he had by one wife, left eleven. 

Two of the sons, James and Philemon, became after- 
waros writers on the subject. James Savary being 
chosen in 1686 inspector general of the manufactures at 
the custom-house of Paris, took an account of all the se- 
veral sorts of merchandise that passed through it ; and 
ranged in alphabetical order all the words relating to ma- 
nufactures and commerce, with definitions and explications^ 
merely at first for his private use, but being told how use-, 
ful such a work might prove, if extended and methodized^ 
he employed his brother Philemon to assist him, but died 
in 1716, leaving it unfinished. Philemon at length pub-' 
lished it at Paris in 1723, under this title, ^' Dictionnaire 
Universel du Commerce," in 2 vols, folio; and, animated 
by the favourable reception given to this work, spent three 
other years in making it more complete and perfect ; and 
finished a third volume, by way of .supplement to the two 
former, which appeared in 1729. This wa5 after his deaths 
which happened in 1727. This "Dictionary of Com- 
merce" has been universally spoken of as a very Excellent 
work, and has been often jeprinted. The best edition ia 

S A V A R Y. 155 

that fedited by Philibert, at Copenhagen,* 1759— 66^ 5" 
vols. fol. * 

SAVARY (Nicholas), a French traveller, was born at 
Vitre in Brittany^ and pursued bis studies at Rennes with 
considerable distinction. In 1776, he visited Egypt, at 
which place be remained for the space of three years» 
Whilst here he paid particular attention to the manners of' 
the inhabitants, a knowledge of the Arabic tongue, and an 
investigation of antiquities. From Egypt be went to the 
islands of the Archipelago, over most of which he travelled, 
and examined them with careful attention. On his return 
to France, in 1780, he published, " A translation of the 
Koran, with a sketch of the life of Mahomet.'' He also 
published an extract from the above work, which he called 
'^ La Morale de Mahomet." His principal work was 
** Letters on Egypt," which have been well received, and 
translated into different European languages. Yet it is 
objected to this work, and with great appearance of reason^ 
that the author has yielded too much to the powers of a* 
lively imagination, and that he has given rather a fasci- 
nating than a correct picture. ' Volney's Travels may serve 
to restore the likeness, and correct Savary's exuberances* 
Encouraged, however, by the success of this work, Savary 
published his <^ Letters on Greece," which is likewise an ' 
agreeable and entertaining performance. Soon after this 
period he died, at Paris, in 1788. He was a m^n of eon-* 
siderable talents, an excellent taste, and a lively fancy ; and, 
although many of his positions have been controverted, as 
well by Volney, as by other writers on the same subjects, 
his works are written in a style and manner which render 
them highly interesting to a large class of readers. ' 

SAVILE (Sir George), marquis of Halifiix, a celebrated 
statesman, but of equivocal character, was descended from 
an ancient family in Yorkshire. He was the son of sir 
William Savile, bart. and Anne, daughter of Thomas lord 
Coventry, lord keeper of the great seal. He was born 
probably about 1630. Upon the death of his father, he 
succeeded to the title of baronet, and soon distinguished 
himself by his abilities in public affairs ; and being zealous* 
in bringing about the restoration, was created a peer, in 
consideration of his own and his father's. merits. In 1668 
he wa^appointed of that remarkable committee, which sat 

* Kiccf 00, tols. IX aud X.-— Diet. HUt, f Diet. Hist. 

Q 2 

tH S A V I L E. 

alBrook-baH fortbe ^Examination of the accounts of the 
money which had been given during the Dutch war^ of 
which no mennber of the House of Commons was admitted. 
In April 1672 be was called to a seat in the privy council ; 
andy June following, went over to Holland with the duke 
of Bttckingham and the earl of Arlington, as ambassador 
extraordinary and plenipotentiary, to treat about a peace 
with France, when he met with great opposition from hia 

In 1675 be op(K>sed with vigour the non-resistuvg test- 
bill; and was removed from the council-board the year 
following by the intei^st of the earl of Danhy, the trea-- 
surer. He bad provoked this lord by one of those witti- 
cisms in which he dealt so largely. In the examination 
before the council concerning the revenue of Ireland, Iprd 
Widrington confessed that be had made an offer of a coh-^- 
siderable sum to the lord treasurer, and that his lordship 
had rejected it very mildly, and in such a manner as not to. 
discourage a second attempt. Lord Halifax observed upon 
this, that ^^ it would be somewhat strange if a man should 
ask the use of another man's- wife, and the other should 
indeed refuse it, but with great civility.'* His removal; 
was very agreeable to the duke of York, who' at that time 
had a more violent Aversion to him than even to Shaftesbury 
himself, because he had spoken with great firmness and' 
spirit in the House of Lords against the declaration for a 
toleration. However, upon a change of the ministry in 
1679, his lordship was made a member of the new counciL 
The same year, during the agitation of the bill for the ex« 
elusion of the duke of York, he seemed averse to it; but 
proposed such liniit^iions of the duke's authority when the 
crown should devolve upon him, as should disable him 
from doing any harm either in church or state ; such as the 
takiqg out of bis bands all power in ecclesiastical matters^ 
the disposal of the public money, and the power of peace 
or w^r, and lodging these in the two Houses of Parliament ; 
and that the parliament in being at the king's death should 
continue without a new summons, and assume the adminis^^- 
tration; but his lordship's arguiag so much against the 
danger of turning the monarchy, by the bill of exclusion^ 
jtito an elective government, was thought the more dirtra- 
ordidary, because he made an hereditary king the sabjeet 
of his mirth, and had often said *^ Who takes a coachman 
to drive him, l^eo^use bis father was a good coachman V* 

s A y I L E- m 

Yet ht was now jealoos oF a small flip in the sAcceMion ; 
tboagfa lie at the seme ttoie studied to infuse into some 
persons a zeal for a commonwealtfa ; and to these tie pre-* 
tended, that be preferred limitatioiK to an exclusion, be- 
Cftuae the otie kept up the monarcby still, only passing 
over one person; whereas the other really introduced a 
commonwealth, as soon as there was a popish king on thi; 
throne. And it was said by some of his frienda, that the 
limitations proposed we^re so advantageous to public liberty, 
that a man might be tempted to wish for a pojHsfa king, in 
Older to obtain them. (Jpon this great difference of opi<^ 
nion, a fiaction was quickly formed in the new connc:il; 
lord Halifax, with the earls of Essex and Sunderland, de- 
dsiring for limitations, and against the exclusion, while 
the earl of Shaftesbury was equally zealous for thejatter ; 
and when the bill for it was brought into the House of 
liords, lord Halifax appeared with great resolution at the 
head of the debates against it. This so highly exasperated 
the House of Commons, that they addressed the king to, 
remove him from bis councils and presence for ever : bu!^ 
he prevailed with his majesty soon after to dissolve that 
parliaiOient, and was created 4in eari. However, upon his 
majesty^s deferring to call a new parliament, according to 
his promise to his lordsfhip, his vexation is said to hav6 
been so great as to affect hts health, and he expostulated 
severely wi^ those who were sent to him on that affair, 
refusing the pott both of secretary of state and lord- lieute- 
nant of Ireland. A parliament being called in 168D, h^ 
still opposed the exclusion-bill, and gained great reputa- 
tion by his management of the debate, though it occasioned 
tt new address from the House of Commons to remove him. 
Hawever, after rejecting that bill in the House of Lord% 
his lordship pressed them, though without success, to pro- 
ceed to limitations ; and beg^n with moving that the duke 
might be obligedto live five hundred miles out of England 
during the king's life. In August 1682, he was created a 
marquis, and soon after made privy-seal, and, upon kin^ 
James's accession, president of the council. But on re- 
itisiog his consent to the repeal of the tests, he was told 
by ttmt monarch, that, though he could never forget bis 
paet services, yet, since he would not comply in that pointy 
iie was resolved to have unanimity in his councils, and^ 
AeMiore, dismissed him from ail |n^lic employments. H^ 
m/ma ^ti/$mwp4k oonsutod by Mr. Sidney, whether, he. would 

198 - S A V I L E. 

advise the prince of Orange's coining oyer; but, this 
matter being only hinted^ be did not encourage a farther . 
explanation, looking upon thei attempt as impracticabie, 
since it depended oi^do many accidents. Upon the arrival 
of that prince, he was sent by the king, with the earls of 
Kochester and Godolphin, to treat with him, then at Hun^ 

' In that assembly of the lords which m^t after king James's 
withdrawing himself the first time from Whitehall, the 
marquis wais chosen their president; and, upon the king's 
return from Feversham, he was sent, together with the, 
carl of Shrewsbury and lord Delamere, from the prince of 
Orange, ordering his majesty to quit his palace at White- 
hall, and retire to Hull. In the convention -parlii(ment, 
b^ was chosen speaker of the House of Lords ; and strenu- 
ously supported the motion for the vacancy of the throne, 
and the conjunctive sovereignty of the prince and princess, 
upon whose accession he was again made privy-seal. But, 
in the session of 1689, upon the inquiry into the authors 
^of the prosecutions against lord Russell, Algernon Sidney, 
3&C. the marquis, having concurred in these councils in 
1683, now quitted the court, and became a zealous op* 
poser of the measures of the government till his death, 
which happened in April 1695, and was occasioned by a 
^gangrene in a rupture he had long neglected. There 
seems little in his conduct that is steady, or in his charae« 
ter that is amiable. Towards his end he showed some signs 
of repentance, which, according to Burnet, were transient. 
*^ He was," says that writer, " a man of great aqd ready 
wit, full of life and very pleasant, much turned to satire ; 
he let his wit turn upon matters of religion^ so that he 
passed for a bold and determined atheist, though he.oftctn 
protested to me, that he was not one, and said, he be* 
lieved there was not one in the world. He confessed be 
could not swallow down all 4;hat divines imposed on the 
world ; he was a Christian in submission ; be believed as 
much as be could ; and hoped, that God would not Ifiy it 
to his, charge, if he could not digest iron as an ostrich did, 
^or take into his belief things that must burst him. If he 
bad any scruples, they were not sought for nor oberished 
by him; for he never read au atheistical book in hi^. life. 
In sickness, Tknew him very much affected . with a sense 
.of religion : I was then often with him, he. seemed full of 
|;9Qd purpqsesy bu( they went off with his sickness.: h^ W9^ 

S A V I L E. 199 

coBtanaally talking of inorality aikl friendship* He was 
punctual in bis payments, and just in all private dealings; 
buktf with relation to tne pablic, be went backward aiid 

* forward and changed sides so often; that in the conclusion 
Jio side trusted him ; be seemed full of commonwealth no^ 
tions, yet he want into the worst part of king Charles's 
reign. The liveliness of his imagination was always, too 
hard for his judgment. His severe jest was preferred by 
him to all arguments whatever; and he was endless ill 
council ; for, when after much discourse a point was settled^ 
if b0 could find a new jest, whereby he could make that 
which was digested by himself seem ridiculous, he could 
not bold, but would study to raise the credit of his wit^ 
though it made others call his judgment in question. When 
he talked to me, as a philosopher, of the contempt of the 

, world, I asked him what he meant by getting so many 
new titles, which I called the hanging himself about with 
beUs and tinsel ; be had no other excuse for it but this, 
that, if the world were such fools as to value those matters^ 
a man most be a fool for company : he considered them 
but as rattles, yet rattles please children ; so these might 
be of use to bis family." 

By his first wife, daughter of Henry Spencer, earl of 
Sunderland, he had a son William, who succeeded him ; 
and by a second wife, the daughter of William Pierrepoint| 
second son of Robert earl of Kingston, he had a daughter 
Gertrude, who was married to Philip Stanhope, third earl 
of Chesterfield, and was mother to the celebrated earl,. who, 
says Maty, may be perhaps justly compared to his grand* 
father in extent of capacity, fertility of genius, and bril- 
liancy of wit. They bpth, adds, he, distinguished them- 
selves in parliament by their eloquence i at court, by their 
knowledge of the world ; in company, by their art of pleas- 
ing. They were both very useful to their sovereigns, 
though not much attachied either to the prerogative or to 
the^ person of any king. They both knew, humoured, and 
despised the different parties. The Epicurean philosophy 
was their common study. William, the second marquts of 
HaUfax, died in 1699, when the dignity became extinct in 
his family, but was revived in 1700 in the person of Charles 
Montague. The marquis William left three daughters: 
Anne, married to Charles Bruce, earl of Aylesbury ; Do- 
rothy, to Richard Boyle, the last earl of Burlington^ and 
Mary, tp Sackville Tuftou^ earl of Thanet, 

jMfr S A y I L E. 

. George,' marquit of Halifax, was the author of mm^ 
tracts, written with considerable spirit and eieg-idce. Be« 
^ides his ^^ Character of a Trtmfner/' -he wrote *^ Advice tOt 
A Daughter ;" ^^ The Anatomy of an £«|uivaleiit ;*' <* A 
Letter to a Dissenter, upon his Majesty V late Glorious De:t 
claration of Indulgences ;'* '^ A rough Eiraiigbt of a new 
Model at Sea, in 1694;" << Maxims of State," All which 
ir^re prin^d,^)getber after his death; and the third edi« 
tioncame out in 1717» 8vo. Since these, Uiere was alto 
published under bis name, ^* The Character of king Charles 
the ^Second ; to which is subjoined, Maxims of State, &c/* . 
1750^ Bvo, ^^ CharaGter of Bishop Burnet," printed at the 
end of his *^ History of his own Times ;" *^ Historical Obser^ 
cations upon the Reigns of. Edward L H. III. and Richard 
IL with Remarks upon their faithful Counsellors and ftilse 
Favourites^" 16^9. He also left memoirs of his own times, 
from a journal which he kept every day of all the center^ 
aations which he had with Charles' II. and the most distin<^ 
guished men of his time. Of these memoirs two lair oopiei 
were made, one of which fell into the hands of Daniel earl 
tf Nottingham, and was destrt^yed by him. The other 
devolved on the marquis's grand- daughter, lady Burling^ 
ton, in whose possession it long remained; but Pope, as 
the late lord Orford informed Mr« Malone, finding, on a 
perusal of these memoirs, that the papists of those dayt 
were represented in mi unfavourable light, prevailed on faef 
to burn them ; and tBus the public have been deprived of 
probably a curious and valuable work. ^ 

SAViLE (Sir Henry), a most learned nMrn^ and a gteat 
henefhctor to the learning of. his country, was tbe son of 
Kenry Savile o£ Bradley, in the tmirnship of Steiakind, in 
the parish of Halifax, Yorkshire, by £Uen> daughter of 
Robisjt Ramiden. He was born at Bradley, Nov. 30, 1 54d, 
and ficst entered of Brasen*nose college, Oxford, iirhenct» 
he was elected to Merton^coUege in 15€1, where he took 
the degrees in arts^ and was ehosen fellowt When he 
proceeded master of arts in 1570, he read .for that degree 
on the Almagest of Ptotemy, which pmcnred him the re- 
putation of a. man wonderfully skilled in mathematics and 
the Gre^k language; in the former of whicbi he volun^ 
tarily read a public lecture in the university for some ttme^ 

1 Birch's Live8.—Roya1 and Noble Aatbora, hf Mr. F«rk.«»Mslsne'f l^k ^f 
Drydeii.— Ck^sierfield's Itf emoirii by Dr. Matf . ' 

K A V I LE. wn 

HivHig now gr«ftt interest, be wiit elecltd pfoctor ttv ttn^ 
yecrs togeiher, 1575. and 1576, an honour not veryooni*^ 
inon, for bs the proctors were ttieti chosen out of the wfaolii 
body of the aniversiiy, by the doctors and diastera, and the 
elemion was not, as now, confined to particular eoUegei^ 
none bat men of learning, and soch as had considerable 
interest, durst aspire to that honour. In 1679 be Tisiied 
the coMtinent, became acquainted with varioas learned 
foieigners, and obtained many taluable MSS, or copies of 
them, tie is said to have returned a man of high aecomJ> 
plisbflsents, and was made totor in the Greek tfemgtte «e 
queen Etiaabeth, or, as it is otherwise expressed, te read 
Oreek and mathematics with her majesty, who had a great 
^teem for him. In 1595 be wasmade warden of Merton** ' 
ooUege, which he governed sia and thirty years with .grefit . 
credit^ and gi^atty raised its reputation lor learning, b^ 
a jttdiciottH patronage of stedents most distinguished for 
lalents and industry. In 1596, he was chosen provost of 
£ton«eollege, of which society also he increased the fame 
by filling it with the most learned men, among whom waft 
the ever-ademorable John Hales. It is said, however, thai 
be ineurred some odium among the younger scholars by 
1ms severity, and his dislike of those who were thought 
uprightly wi)s. He used to say, *< Give me the plodding 
aittdent. If I would look for wits, I would go to Newgate, 
there be thewits.** John Earle, afterwards bishop of Salis- 
bury, was the only scholar he ever accepted on the reoom- 
nendation of being a wk. James I. upon his accession tA 
the crown of England, e^tpressed a .particular regard for 
him, and would have preferred him either an church or 
state; hot sir Henry declined it, and only accepted the 
^nourof knighthood from his majesty at Windsor on Sept. 
diy 1604. His only son dying about that time, he devoted 
his fortune entirely to the promoting of learning. In 1619 
he founded two lectures, or professorships, one in geome- 
try, the other in astronomy, in tlie university of "Oxford ; 
which he endowed each with a salary of 160/. a year, be* 
sides a legacy of 600/. for purchasing more lands for the 
aaine use. In the preamble of the deed, by which a salary 
was anne^^d to tl^se two professorships, it is expressly 
a»id that ^ geometry was almost totally unknown and aban- 
doned in England." Briggs was his first professor of geo<» 
sietry; but Anbr^y say^, on the authority of bishop Ward, 
Haat be first 'sent ior Cnater fer that pvi^se^ who, coming 

S0« S A VILE. 

<Wiih bij sector and quadrant, *' fell to resolving of ^rl»- 
angles and doing a great many fine things; Said the gra^e 
knight, < Do you call this reading of Geometric ? This k 
«bewing of tricks, man/ and so dismissed him with scome, 
and sent for Briggs/' - Sir Henry also furnished a library 
mth mathematical book? near the mathematical school, for 
ibe use of bis professors ; and gave 100/. to the matfaema* 
ileal chest of bis own appointing; adding afterwards a 
legacyof 40/. a year to tbe same chest, to the universitj 
and to his professors jointly. He likewise gave 120/. to^ 
•wards tbe new^buildrng of tbe schools ; several rare manu- 
scripts and printed books to the Bodleian library ; and a 
good quantity of matrices and Greek types to tbe printing«> 
press at Oxford. Part of tbe endowment of tbe professor- 
ships was tbe manor of Little Hays in Essex. He died, at 
Eton-college, Feb. 19, 1&21-2, and was- buried in* tbe 
chapel there, on the south side of the communion table, 
near the body of bis son Henry, with an inscription on a 
black marble stone. The university of Oxford paid him 
tbe greatest honours, by having a public speech and verses 
made in bis praise, which were published soon after in 4to, 
under the title of ^* Ultima Linea Savilii,"*and a sumptu- 
ous honorary -monument was erected to bis memdry on tbe 
south wall, at tbe upper end of the choir of Merton- college 
chapel. Sir . Henry Savile, by universal consent, rlinks 
among tbe most learned men of bis time, and tbe most 
liberal patrons of learning; and with great justice the 
bigbest encomiums are bestowed on him by ail the learned 
of bis time : by Isaac Casaubon, Mercerus, Meibomius^ 
Joseph Scaliger, and especially the learned bishop Mon^ 
tagu ; who, in bis " Diatribqe" ^ppon Selden's " History of 
Tithes," styles bim *^ tbat magazine of learning, whose 
memory shall be honourable amongst not only the iearned, 
but the righteous for ever.^' 

We have already mentioned several noble instances of 
his muntficence to the republic of letters : and his works 
.exhibit equal zeal for the promotion of literature. In 1581, 
lie published an English version of, 1. '^ Four Books of 
tbe Histories of Cornelius Tacitus, and the Life of Agri<? 
cola; with notes upon them," folio, dedicated to quieen 
Elizabeth. Tbe notes were esteemed so valuable as to be 
.translated into Latin by Isaac Gruter, and published :at 
Amsterdam, 1649, in 12mo, to which Gruter subjoined a 
jlreatise of our author, pu\>Usbed in 1598, under the titl^^ 

S A V I L E. 'HOt 

2. -'f A View of certain Military Ma^tersi or .commentaries 
^nnicerning Roman War&re;'' whicb, soon after its; first 
appearance, was translated injto Latin by Marquardusfre- 
t^rus, and printed, at Heidelberg in 1601/ but having be* 
come ex^cietedidg scarce, was reprinted by Gruten In 1,596, 
he published .a collection of the best ancient writers .o( our 
£ogU^b history, entitled, 3. ** Rerum Anglicaram Scrip* 
tores post Bedam praecipui, ex vetustissimis codicibus.none 
primum in lucem editi f* to which he added chronological 
tables. at ^he end, from Julius Caesar to the coming. in of 
William the Conqueror. This, was reprinted at Francfort 
in 1601, which edition has a complete index to it. The 
collection contains William of Malmsbury's history of the 
kings of England, and the lives of the English bishops ; the 
histories of Henry of Huntingdon ; the annals of Roger de 
Hoveden ; the chronicle of Ethel werd, and the history of 
Ingnlphus; with a dedication to queen Elizabeth, &e. 
Wharton, in the preface to his " Anglia Sacra,*' objects 
only to. Malmsbury's history, whiph he says was printed^ 
frpm an incorrect MS. 4. He undertook and finished an 
edition, mo^t. beautifully printed, of *^ St. Chrysostom't 
Works", in Greek, printed in. 1613, 8 vols, folio. In the 
preface, he says, ^^ that, having himself visited, about 
twelve years before, all the public and private libraries in 
Britain^ and copied out thence whatever he thought useful 
jto his design, he then sent sonie learned men into France^ 
Germany, Italy, apd the East ; to transcribe such parts as 
be. had not already, and to collate the others with the best 
manuscripts." At the same time, he makes his acknow«> 
ledgnient to several great men for their assistance; as 
Thuanus, Vdserus, Schottus, Isaac Casaubon, Fronto Du- 
casus, Janus Gruterus, Hoeschelius, .&c. In the eighth 
volume are inserted sir Henry Savjle's own notes, with those 
of the learned John Boi^, Thomas Allen, Andrew Downes, 
and other learned men. The whole charge of this edition, 
including the several sums paid to learned men, at home 
and abroad, employed in finding out, transcribing, and 
collating, the best manuscripts, is said to have amounted 
(to no less than 8000/. ; but, as soon as it was finished, the 
.bishops and clergy of France employed, somewhat unfairly, 
as has been said, Fronton .Due, or Fronto Ducasus, .who 
was a learned Jesuit, to reprint it at Paris, in 10 vols, folio, 
with a Latin translation, which lessened the price of sir 
Hen ry'-s, edition ; yet we are told, that lhe..thousand copies 

te4 S A V I L t. 

which lie printed were all sold*. In 16 IB, he fmblkh^d a 
Latin work, written by Thomas Bradwardin, abp. of Can-* 
terbury, against Pelagitis, entitled, 5. ** Se Causa Dei 
contra Pelaginm, et de virtnte causarum ;** to which he 
prefixed the life of Bradwardin. This book was printed 
from six M8S. carefully collated. 6. ** Naeianzen's Sce- 
litentics," 1610. Towards this, says Oldys, he was fk- 
Tonred with the MS epistles of Nazianzen out of the Bod- 
leian library, " which was a singular courtesy, and done be* 
cause of his affection to the storing and preserving of th^ 
library," as if any thing could have been refused to such a 
benefactor. 7. •* Xenophon's Institution of Cyrus,'* Gr. 
161S, 4to. In 1621, he published a collection of his own 
mathematical lectures. 8* ** Prselectiones Tredecim in 
princtpium Elementorum Euclidis Oxoni« habitse,** 4to. 
&. ** Oratio coram Elizabeth^. Regina Oxoniae habita, anno 
1S!>2," Oxon. 16^8, 4to; published by Dr. Barlow from 
the original in the Bodleian library, and by Dr. Lamphire, 
in the second edition of ** Monarchia Britannica,** Oxford, 
1681, Bvo. 10. He translated into Latin king James'sr 
** Apology for the Oath of Allegiance." Six letters of his, 
written to Hugo Blotius^ and Sebastian Tenguageliu*, 
keepers of the imperial library, were published in Lambe- 
ciu8*s •* Bibliotheca,** vol. III.; four are printed among 
•• Camdeni Epistote,^ and others are in the Cotton and 
Harleian MBS. He was also concerned in the new trans* 
lation of the Bible, executed by command of James 1. be- 
ing One of the eight persons at Oxford who undertook to 
translate the four Gospels, Acts, and Revelations. He left 
behind him several MSS. some of which are now in the 
Bodleian library, such as 1. "Orations." 2. "Tract of 
the original of Monasteries." S. "Tract concerning the 
Union of England and Scotland, written at the command 
ef Iring James I.'* He wrote notes likewise upon the mar^ 
^in of many books in his library, particularly of Eusebius's 

* Tint mnk reqnirtd ^ocb lon^ and bek^re ChrfSQitcm wat fiohhed. wbeai 

close appUcariou, that sir Henr3''s lady ^ir Henry lay sick, said, " If sir 

thoug1)t herself neglected, and coming Harry djed, she would burn Chrysos- 

«t> hiai MM day nito bis study, she torn for kiHiog berhuaband.** Wiwdh 

said, ** Sir Henry, I would I mere « Mr, Bois bearing j told bar, ** Tbsit 

book too, and then you would a little would be a great pity, for be was one 

taore respect me."' To which one of the sweetest preacher^ since fbn 

'stMMitng by, TflpSed, « Yon must tivea iqiosllcs' tines $'» with wfaich the 

be an almanack, madam, that he might to satisfied, that she said, « i|^ moiM 
tAiaflge etrery year :" which answer dis* not do it for all tbe world." 
flMfBd lMr««-llM Ml« My, a IKUi 

S A.V I L E. ^$ 

^ £c€lefiastical History/* which were afterwsirdft used^ and 
thankfully acknowjedged, by Valesius, io bis editioa of 
that work in 1659. He is mentioned a9 a member of the 
society of Antiquaries, in the introdnctioQ to the ^^ Arcb«« 
cHogia,*' and indeed there was no literary honour at that 
time of which he was not worthy* 

He had a younger brother, TjSOMAS Savilb, who was 
admitted probationer-fellow of Merton college, Oxford, iu 
1580; afterwards travelled abroad into several countries; 
upon his return, was chosen fellow of Eton college ; and 
died at London in 1592-3, whence his body was removed 
to Oxford, and interred with great soiemnity in tbe choir 
of Merton college chapel. He was a man of great learning, 
and an intimate friend of Camden ; among whose letters 
there are fifteen of Mr. Savile^s U> him. 

There was another Henry Savile, related to tbe above 
family, and familiarly called Long Harry Savile, who en* 
tered a student of Merton college in 1587, during the war«^ , 
denship of sir Heury, and was soon after made one of the 
portion tats, commonly called postmasters. After taking 
the degree of B. A. he left Merton college, and removed to 
St Alban-hall, where in 1595, he took the degree of M. A. 
Under the inspection of his learned kinsman, he became an/ 
eminent scholar, especially in the mathematics, physic (in 
which iuculty be was admitted by the university to ptac-» 
tise), chemistry, painting, heraldry, and antiquities. After- 
wards, in (Mrder to extend his knowledge, he travelled into 
Italy, France, and Germany, where he greatly improved 
himsel£ He is said to have written several things, but npne 
have been poblished. He gave Camden the ancient copy, 
of Asser Menevensis^ which he published in 160S, and , 
which contains the leg^idary story of the discord betweeou 
the ilew scholars which Grimbald brought with him to Oxh 
ford, at the restoration of the university by king Alfred, 
&c. This Henry Savile lived some years after his re^tarn 
firom the continent, in the parish of St Martin's in the 
Fields, London, and dying there April 29, 1617, aged 
forty «nine, was buried in the chancel belonging to the pa- 
lish church, where was a monument to his memory. Among 
the Cotton MSS. is a letter from him to Camden,. *^con^ 
cerning antiquities near. Otley in Yorkshire*'^. 

There still remains one of this family to be noticed, sir 
JbHN Savile, elder brother to sir Henry, who wad born at 
Bradley in 1 545^ and entered a coauxioaer e£ Brasenioae ^ 

206 SAVri'E. 


college about 1561^ whence, without taking a degree, Tie' 
went to the Middle Temple for the study of the law. Be- * 
ing called to the bar, he became autumn reader of that 
bouse in 1586, steward of the lordship of Wakefield, Ser- 
jeant at law in 1594, one of the barons of the exchequer* 
in 1598, and at the same time one of the justices of assize. 
In July 1603, a little before his coronation, king James 
conferred the honour of kiiightbood on him, being one of 
the judges who were to attend that solemnity. He died at 
London, Feb. 2, 1606, aged sixty-one, and was buried at 
St. Dunstan's church, Fleet-street, but his heart was bu- 
ried in Methley church, Yorkshire, where is a monument 
to his memory, erected by his son. Camden acknowledges » 
the assistance he received from sir John Savile in his his- 
torical labours. He left at his death several pieces fit for 
publication, but none have appeared, except " Reports of 
divers cases in the courts of common pleas and exchequer,' 
from 22 to 36 Elizabeth," a thin folio, printed first in 1675, 
and again in 1688.' 

SAVONAROLA (Jerome), a celebrated Italian monk, ' 
was born at Ferrara in 1452. In 1466 he became a Domi-' 
nican at Bologna, and afterwards preached at Florence, but 
with very little success, and left the place. In 1489 he 
was invited by Lorenzo de Medici to return to Florence, 
where he became a very popular preacher. By pretensions 
to superior sanctity, and by a fervid eloquence, he hiir- 
ried away the feelings of his hearers, and gained an ascen« 
dancy over their minds by his prophecies, which were 
directed both against church and state. Having by these 
means acquired a powerful influence, he began to tiespise 
the patronage of Lorenzo, and avoided his presence.* 
After the death of Lorenzo, he placed binbself at the head' 
of a popular party in Florence, who aimed at the establish-^ 
ment of a free constitution. Savonarola seems to have pro- 
mised them something between a< republic and a theocracy. 
By such means his party became very formidable ; and ta 
flatter them yet more, he denounced terrible judgments to 
the court of Rome, and to the rest of the Italian states. In' 
1498 many. complaints having been carried to Rome, in 
which hevifas accusterd of having reproached, in his sermons,' 
the conduct of that court and the vices of the clergy, he' 

• • • • 

1 Ath. Ox. to). J. — Biog. Brit.— rWalson's Halifax.— Harwood's AUimni Eto* ' 
nens^s, p. 9 and 62.— -P^Ksk's Desiderata.— ^rype*8 Wbitgift, p. 344.— ^Letten 
l^y £i»iB«at Bi»r«ms, lai^ 9 vob» aTiK«-*Wood^ A«im1s. > 

SAVON A R O L A, 207- 

was publicly exconunonicated, which at ^ first he tegaMed 
so far as to abstain from preaching, bat finding that silence' 
was considered as submission, and would ruin his cause, he 
resumed his function, and renewed his invectives against- 
th6 pope and the court of Rome. But when the pope 
Alexander threatened to interdict the city, the magistrates 
commanded him to desist from preaching. At length be 
procured the assistance of a friar of his own convent, named 
Fra. Domenico da Pescia, who proposed to confirm his 
master^^ doctrines by the ordeal of walking through the 
flames, provided any one of their adversaries would do the' 
same. The challenge was accepted by a Franciscan friar, 
and a day was appointed for the trial. Savonarola, findiug' 
tl^at the adverse party were not to be intimidated, proposed 
that Domenico should be allowed to carry the host with 
him into the fire. This was exclaimed against by the whole 
assembly as an impious and sacrilegious proposal. It was, 
however, insisted upon by Domenico, who thereby eluded 
the ordeal. But the result was fatal to the credit of Savo- 
narola, who was deserted by the populace, apprehended' 
and dragged to prison, and condemned, to be first stran- 
gled and then burnt, which sentence was put into, ex ecu-- 
tipn on the 23d of May,. 1498. 

Various opinions have been entertained of this man's 
real character. Some of the friends of liberty and protes- 
tantism have considered him as a man who had elevated 
views and good intentions, though perverted by a spirit 4>f 
fanaticism y and there seems no reason, to doubt that be was 
really a friend to the liberty of Florence^ and felt an honest 
indignation at the profligacy of the court of Rome, and 
th^~ corruption of the catholic church. For these last rea- 
sons, some have even admitted him among the reformers ' 
and martyrs. But his title to this honour seems veryques-i 
tionable, and the character of a leader of a party is as dis- 
cernible in his conduct as that of a reformer. There are a ; 
great number of his sermons remaining, and other works 
in Latin and Italian^ most of them on religious subjects. 
His life, inserted in Bates's " Vitae Selectorum," was written 
in Latin by John Francis Picus de Mirandola, prince of 
Concordia. Queti published an edition of it, to which he- 
added notes, with the Latin . translation of some of Savo- 
narola's works, and a list of. tl^edi.' . 

I TirtkboMhi.— lUwoe'f Lorenao.— Gen» Diet. 


SAWYBE (Sir Robert), an emiBefit lawj^er in %ht «e^ 
venteenth century^ was a member of M^dalen college^ 
Cambridge, where he took his degree of M*A. in 1655^ 
Md was the saoie year admitted ad gundan at Oxford. He 
was afterwards a benefactor to the library of his colleger- 
After studying law at the Inner Temple^ he was admiuedl 
to the bar, and bad a large share of practice at LoAdot), 
and on the Oxford circuit. In 1661 be was knighted, aiidb 
in Feb. 1680, was appointed attorney-general. As a Iawye€ 
he formed himself after the lord chief ^justice Hale, undef^; 
whom he practised, and of whom he was a just admirer^ 
Like that excellent person, he was a man of gei^eral learn-*' 
ing, and, according to Granger, of an integrity that nothing: 
could corrupt ; but bishop Burnet represents him as a duU 
hot man, and forward to serve all the designs of the court. 
Had this been always the case, however, king James would 
not have dismissed him from the office of attorney general^ 
which he did in 1687, because he perceived that sir Ro* 
bert could not have been prevailed upon to mould tlie laws 
to such purpose as were never intended by the legislature* 
On the other hand, Granger, allows that be was justly cen- 
sured for his harsh treatment of lord Russel on his trial, 
and it is certain that he supported some of king JamesV 
arbitrary measures, being the manager in depriving the 
city of London of its charter. At the time of the revolu- 
tion, be sat as member of parliament for the university of 
Cambridge, and was expelled the house for -being con- 
cerned, as attorney <> general, in the prosecution of sir Tho- 
ibas Armstrong, who was executed for being one of ti^ 
conspirators in the Rye-house plot. In the next sessiona: 
he was re-chosen, and appears to have sat quietly for the. 
Remainder of his life. He died in 1692, at HigbclearJif 
Hampshire, where be had an estate, and rebuilt the parish 
church. His only daughter married the earl of Pembfoke» 
and died in 1706. Under his name, and those of Heneage 
Finch, sir George Treby, and Henry Pollexfen, were pub-^ 
lisbed^in 1690, tblio, *^ Pleadings and arguments with other 
proceedings in the court of king's bench upon the Quo 
Warranto, touching the charter of the city of London, wttia 
the judgment entered thereupon."^ 

SAXE (Maurice, Count of), a celebrated com«a»nder» 
was born October 19, 1696, at Dresden, and was the 

1 Aih. Ox. Tol. II.-^Buraet's Own Timtoi.«^-<:idU>s liS AOieiMB la Brit. Mat. 
^MSraaf er.— Nortb't Life of Lor4 Keep«r Oailford, p. SS7. 

S A X E. 20$ 

ustiiml son of Frederick Augustus II. king of Poland, and 
Aurora, oountess of Konigsmarc. He gave evident (5roofii 
of his taste for military affairs from his childhood ; was 
taught to read and write with the utmost difficnlty ; nor 
could he ever be prevailed upon to study a few hours in 
the morning, otherwise than by a promise that hts should 
ride on horseback in the afternoon. He liked to have 
Frenchmen about him, for which reason their language was 
the only foreign one which he willingly learnt grammati^ 
eally. He attended the elector in all his military expedi- 
tions ; was at the siege of Lisle in 1708, when only twelve 
years old, and mounted the trenches several times both at 
the city and at the fortress, in sight of the'king, kis father, 
who admired his intrepidity. Nor did he discover less cou- 
rage at the siege of Tournay, the year following, where he 
twice narrowly escaped death ; and iat the battle of Mai-' 
plaquet, far from being shocked by the dreadful carnage 
which attended the engagement, he declared in the even- 
ing, -•• that fee was well pleased with the day." In 1711, 
he followed the- king of Poland to-Stralsund, where he 
swam over the river, in sight of the enemy, with his pistol 
in his band, during which time he saw, without any seem- 
ing emotion, three officers and above twenty soldiers fall 
by hi» side. When he retired to Dresden, the king, who 
had been witness to bis courage and abilities, raised a com- 
pany of bdrse for him. Count Sa^e spent the whole win- 
ter in teaching his regiment some new evolutions, which 
he bad invented, and marched them against the Swedes 
the year following. Tliis regiment suffisred much at the 
battle of Gadelbush, where he made them return three 
times to the attack. This campaign being ended, mad. de 
Konigsmarc married him to the young countess de Loben, 
a rich and amiable lady, whose name was Fiitorta, which 
name, count Base* afterwards said, contributed as much td 
frr bis choice on the countess, as her beauty and large for- 
tune. Thi» lady brought him a son, who died young, andf 
the coant having at length a disagreement with her, pro- 
cured his marriage to be dissolved in 1721, but proniised; 
Ae coantess never to marry again, and kept bis word. She 
married a SaKon officer soon after, by whom she had three 
ttbildren, and they li^ed in harmony together. It was with 
gfreat reluctance that the countess had consented to her 
tnarriage being dissolved, for she- loved count Base ; and 
the ^ latter frequently repented afterwards of having taken 
Vol. XXVII. • P 

SlO S A X E. 

such a step. He continued to signalize bioti^lf in the war 
against Sweden, was at the siege of Stralsund in December 
1715, when Charles XII. was blocked up, and bad the 
satisfaction of seeing him in. the midst of his grenadiers* 
The behaviour of this celebrated warrior inspired, count 
Saxe with a high<legree of veneration, which be ever re* 
tained for bis memory. He served against the TurJcs in 
Hungary in 1717, and on bis return to Poland in 1718^ 
received the order of the white eagle from the king. In 
1720, be visited France, and the duke of Orleans, tbeji re- 
gent, gave him a brevet of marechal de camp. Count Saxe 
afterwards obtained leave, from bis Polish majesty to serve 
it) France, where he purchased a German regiment in 1722, 
which afterwards bore his nam^. He changed the ancient 
exercise of this regiment for one of bis own invention ; and 
the chevalier Folard, on seeing this exercise, foretold im- 
mediately, in his Commentary on Polybius, torn. Ill.b. ii. 
chap. 14, that count Saxe would be a great general. >Dur«» 
ing bis residence in France, he learnt mathematics ami the 
art of fortification with astonishing facility, till 1725, wh«n 

Srince Ferdhiand, duke of Courland, falling dangerously 
. 1 in the month of December, he turned his thoughts to 
obtaining the sovereignty of Courland. With this view, fae 
set otit for Mittau, and arrived tbere,' May 18, 1726. He 
was received with open arms by the states, and had seve^^ 
ral private interviews with the duchess, dowager of Cour- 
land, who had resided there since her husband's decease. 
This lady was Anne Iwanaw, second daughter of the cz,ar 
twan Alexiowitz, brother of Peter the Great. Count Saxe^ 
having communicated his design to h^r, soon engaged her 
in his interests ; and she acted with such indefatigable ar* 
dour, and conducted affairs so well, that be was unani- 
Qiously elected duke of^ Courland, July 5, 1726» This, 
choice being opposed by Poland and Russia, the duchess 
supported count Saxe with all her interest, and even went 
to Riga and Petersburg, where she redoubled her soliqita- 
tions in favour of the late election. There seems indeed 
to be no doubt, but that, if the count bad ret^urned her 
paasion, he would not only have maintained his ground in 
Courland, but shared the throne of Russia, which this prin- 
cess afterwards ascended ; but, during his st^y at Mittau^ 
an affair of gallantry between him and one of her ladies 
broke off the marriage, and induced the duchess to abao- 
Aou him. From that moment tHe count's affairs took aa 

SAX E. 211 

linhappy turn, and he was forced to go back to Paris iit 
1729. The following remarkable, circumstance occurred 
during the. course of ^is enterprise : Having written from 
Courlandto France for a supply of men and money, made* 
moiselle le Couvreur, a celebrated actress, who was at that 
time attached to him, pawned her jewels and plate, i^nd 
sent him 40,000 livres. When count Saxe returned to 
Paris, he applied himself to obtain a complete knowledge 
of the mathematics, and acquired a. taste for mef:hanic^» 
He refused the command of the Polish army oSered him 
by the king, his brother, iu; 1733, and distinguished him*- 
self on the Rhine under marechal Berwick, particularly at 
the lines of Etlingen, and th^ siege of Philip^burg, a^ter 
which he was made lieutenant-general Aggust. 1, 1734* 
Hostilities having recommenced on the death of the empe* 
rpr Charles VI. count Saxe took Prague by^assault^ Nov. 
26, 1741, then Egra and Ellebogen, raised a .regiment of 
Hulians, and brought back marechal de BrogUo^s arqiy 
upon the B^hine, where h^ fixed various posts, and ^seized 
the trenches of Lanterburg. He was appointed marechal 
of Flrance, March. 26, 17^4, atud commanded the main 
body of the army in Flanders, where he, so exactly ob- 
served the motions of the enemies, who were superior, ia 
number,, and made use of such excellent ma,noeuvres, that 
he reduced tnem to remain inactive, for they were afraid 
to undertake any thing. . This caoapaign in Flanders did 
count Saxe great honour, and was considered as a chef- 
d'oeuvre of tlie military art. , Pe wonthe famous battie.of 
Fontenoi, undei^ the king's compaand^ May U> 1745, where^ 
though sick and weak, he gave his orders with such pre- 
sence of mind, vigilance, qourage, and judgment, as n^ade 
him the adnriiration of the whole army. This victory was 
followed by the capture of Tournay, whiqh the French be- 
sieged ; of Ghent, Bruges, Oudenarde, Osteqd, Ath,,&c«; 
and at the time that the campaign was supposed tovbe 
finished, he took Brussels, February 28, 1746. Nor was 
the next campaign less honourable to count Saxe. He 
won the battle of Raucoux, Oct. 1 1, the same year, 1746 ; 
' and bis majesty, to reward such a constant series of glo- 
rious services, declared him marechal general, of his camps 
and^nrmies, Jan. 12, 1747.. Marechal Saxe carried troops 
into Zealand, gained the battle of Lanfeldt, July 2 follow- 
ing, approved the siege of Bergen-op-Zoom, of which M. 
de Loewen made himself roasted, and took Maestrecbt, 

P 3 

212 S A X E. 

May ly 1748. In consequence of these victories a peace 
was concluded at Aix-la-Chapelle^ Oct. 18, the same year^ 
Marecbal Saxe went afterwards to Chambord, which the 
king had giten him, ordered his regiment of Hullans thU 
ther^ and kept a s^ud of wild horses, more proper for lio^ht 
cavalry than those used by the French. ,He visited Berlin 
some time after, and was magnificently entertained by hi» 
Prussian majesty. On his return to Paris, he formed a plan 
for the establishment of a colony in the island of Tobago ; 
but gave it up, when he found that England and Holland 
opposed it. Count Saxe died, after a nine days^ illness, at 
Chambord, Nov< 30, 1750, in the fifty -fourth year of his 
age. He ivrote a bbok on the art of war, called ^^ Mes 
Reveries," of which a very splendid edition, with his life, 
was published in 1757, 2 vols. 4to. There is also an Eng- 
lish translation of it. His ** Life" was printed in 1752, 3 
vols. 12mo, reprinted often. 

Count Saxe was a man of ordinary stature, of a robust 
censtitutioh, and extraordinary strength. To an aspect, 
noble, warlike, and nlild, he joined many excellent quali- 
ties of disposition. AfFabJe in his manners, and disposed 
to sympathize with the unfortunate, his generosity some- 
times tarried him beyond the limits of his fortune. He 
was remarkably careful of the lives of his m^n. One day 
a general officer was pointing out to him a post which would 
bare been of great use ; ^ It will only cost you," said he, 
^< a dozfen grenadiers:" "That would do very well," replied 
the marshal, " were it only a dozen lieutenant-generals.'' 
He had been edu€iated and died in the Ltuheran religion. 
*^ It is a pity (said the queen of France, when she heard of 
Ills death) that we cannot $2iy o, smg]e De-profundts Jor a 
iban who has made us sing so many Te Diums^ Religion 
had not much influence on his general conduct, but on his 
death-bed he is said to have reviewed bis errors with remorse, 
«knd expressed much penitence.' 

SAXI, or SAS8I (Joseph Anthony), an ecclesiastical 
historian, was born at Milan in 1673. He for some time 
taught the belles lettres in his native city, and afterwardi 
was employed as a missionary. Iii 1703 he was admitted a; 
doctor of the, Ambrosian college at Milan, and eight years 
afterwards was appointed director of that college, and keeper 
0f its fine library. He died about 1756. He wa» author 

»Dict.BUj,, . , . : ,, 

« A X I. iiS 

^ lOany tbeologicftl^ bistioricaly and chronological works, 
4aioDg which are, 1. *^ Epistolaad Card. Quirium de Lite* 
ratura Mediolanensiuoi," 4to. 2. '< De Scudiis Medioia* 
nensium Antiquis et Novis/' Milan, 1729. 9u << Arcbi* 
episcoporuin Mediolanensiuin Series critico-chronologioa,*' 
ibid. 1756, 4to. 4. '< St. Caroli Borromei Homilie, prefa* 
tione et notis/* 1747, &c. 5 toIs. fol. Some of' the works 
of Saxi have been inserted in the collection ^^ Rerum ItaK** 
carum Scriptore^" by Muratori.^ 

SAXI US (Christopher), a very learned philologer and 
literary historian, wa$ born at Eppendorff, a village betweM 
Chemnitz and Freyberg, in Saxony, where his father was 
a clergyman, Jan. 13^ 1714. His proper name was Chris* 
topher Gqttlob Sacb, which, when he commenced author, 
he Latinized into Sachsius, and afterwsrdff into Saxius, 
dropping the Gottlob altogether. His father first gave blm 
some instructions in the learned languages, which he after* 
wards improved at the school of Chemnitz, but more effec* 
tually at the electoral school of Misnia, where he also stu* 
died classical antiquities, history, and rhetoric, and in 1735 
went to Leipsic with the strongest recommendatioas for tn«> 
dustry and proficiency. Here he studied philosophy under 
the celebrated Wolff, but as he had already perused the 
writings both of the ancient and modern philosophers witk 
profound attention, he is said to have had the courage to 
differ from the current opinions. Philosophy, however, as 
then taught, was less to his taste than of antiqui- 
ties, classical knowledge, and literary history, to which be 
' determined to devote his days ; and the instructions of pro* 
fessor Christ, and his living in the house with Menkenius, 
who had an excellent library, were circumstances which 
very powerfully confirmed this resolution. He had not been 
here above a year, when two young noblemen were confided 
to his care, and this induced him to cultivate the modern 
languages most in use. His first disputation had for its 
subject, " VindicifiB secundum libertatem pro Maronis 
JEneide, cui manuih Jo. Harduious nuper assertor injece- 
rat," Leipsic, 1737. Amongother learned men who iiighly 
applauded this dissertation was the second Peter Burmann, 
in the preface to his Virgil, but who afterwards, in his 
character as. a critic, committed some singular mistakes in 
condemning Saxius, while be applauded Sachsius, not know* 

> Diet. Hist. 

«1* S A X I U S. 

ing that they were one and the same. In 1738 Saxius took 
' bis master^s degree, and commenced his literary career by 
writing a number of critical articles in the " Nova acta 
eruditoram," and other literary journals, from this year to 
1747. This employment involved him sometimes in' con- 
troversies with bis learned brethren, particularly with Peter 
Burmann, or with foreign authors with who^e- works henad 
taken liberties. In 1745 he visited the most considerable 
parts of Germany, and Was at Franckfort on the Maine 
during the coronation of the Emperor. In 1752 he was 
appointed professor of history, antiquities, and rhetoric at 
Utrecht, and on entering on his office pronounced an ora* 
tion on the science of antiquity, which was printed in 1753, 
4to. . After this his life seems to have been devotf d entirely 
to the duties of his professorship, and the composition of a 
great many works on subjects of philology and criticism, 
some in German, but principally in Latin. The most 
considerable of these, the only one much knQwnin this 
country, is his " Onomasticon Literarium," or Literary 
, Dictionary, consisting of a series of biographical and criti- 
cal notices or references respecting the most eminent writers 
of every age or nation, and in every branch of literature^ 
in chronological ordeir. The first volume of this appeared 
in L775, 8vo, and it continued to be published until seven 
▼olumes were completed, with a general Index, in 1790, 
To this, in 1793, he added an eighth or supplementary vo- 
lume, from which we have extracted some particulars of his 
lif^, as given by himself. This is a work almost indispen- 
sable to biographers, and as the work of one man, must 
have been the production of inany years' Ubour and atteur 
tion. Some names, however, are omitted, which we m^gbt 
have expected to find in it ; and the English series, as in 
every foreign undertaking of the kind, is very impeffect. 
We have seen no account of his latter days. lie lived to a 
very advanced age, dying at Utrecht, May 3, 1.806, in his 
ninety-second year.* " , • 

SAXO (Grammaticus), a Danish historian, is supposed 
to have been a native of Denmark, but this has been a 
disputed point. As to bis name Sachse^ it is evident from 
inany monuments of Danish antiquity, that it is of no ob- 
scure or late origin in the history of Denmark. Saxo him* 
self calls the D^nes his countrymen, Denmark l^is country; 

> Saxii Onomast. toI. VIIL-^Haclti de Vilis Philolcgorum, vol. I. 

8 A X O; 215 

. . . • 

tnd'speaking of the kings^ he terms them our kings. Some 
attribute bis'oirigin to Ambria', othefs with more reason tq 
Stalandia, a Danish island. The natne Scalandicus is also 
added to that of Saxo, in some editions of his works. He 
has been called Longus, which has induced some to attri- 
bute his descent to the noble family of the Langii. Others 
have rather chosen to ascribe this name to the height of his 
stature. Saxo, in bis preface, speaks of his ancestors as 
having been distinguished in war, which indicates that they 
were of no ignoble race. His name of Grammaticus was 
titular, and expressive of his attainments in literature. 
There are difiFerent opinions concerning the year of his 
birth. It is, however, certain that he flourished in the 
twelfth century. Carpzovius endeavoured, by some acute 
and subtile reasonings^ to ascertain the date. The educa- 
tion of Saxo is equally involved in uncertainty. Pontoppi- 
dan supposes that he studied at Paris, and there acquired 
the elegance of style for which he afterwards was distin-^ 
guished« It is certain, that in the 12th century the Cimbri 
and the Danes frequently went to France for education. It 
ma}', howevei*, be doubted, whether in the rage for trifle 
which then prevailed at Paris, Saxo could have procured a 
master who was capable of instructing him. We must bQ 
rather inclined to suppose that he owed his attainments tq 
his own industry and talents. It appears that he applied 
to theology, for we find him appointed capitular in the 
bishopric of Lundens, and afterwards a prefect in the ca* 
thedral of Roschild. While he filled this office he was sent, 
in 1 161, by Absalon, the bishop of Roschild, to Paris, with 
a view of inviting some monks from St. Qenevieve, who 
might correct the depraved morals of those which belonged 
to Eskilsco. William Abbas accepted the invitation of 
Saxo, and three brothers followed him. These monks in- 
troduced into Denmark the monastic discipline which had 
been prescribed by St. Augustine. Various opinions have 
been offered about the date of Saxons death. Pontanus 
supposes it to have beenin the year 1208. Some conjecture 
the time to bavebeen^ 1190, others in 1201. But, when 
we reflect that in his preface he speaks of Waldemar II. 
who ascended the throne of Dennoark in 1203, and that 
Andrew Suno, to whom the history is dedicated^ succeeded 
Absalon in the bishopric in 1202, we cannot agree with 
those who have adopted the earlier dates. Thou|;h some 
others have fixed the date in 1204> and others in 1206, the 

316 S A X O. 

general opinion is, that he died in 12O89 aged upwardg ctf 
seventy; He was buried in the cathedral of Roschild. 
Three centuries afterwards, an inscription was added to hia 
tomb by Lago Urne, bishop of Scalandre. Though more 
elegant verses might have been invented, says Klotzius, 
none could have been more true. 

Absalon, bishop of Roschild, first instigated Saxo to un<» 
dertake the history of Denmark, and assisted him with his 
advice and with books. Saxo employed twenty years iii 
accomplishing his undertaking, and at last rendered it wor- 
thy the expectations of Absalon : who, however, died be-^ 
fore the history was completed, which Saxo inscribed to 
Andrew Suno, who was the successor to the see. After 
remaining in MS. for three hundred years, Cfaristianus Pe« 
traeus undertook the publication, having received the ma<» 
nuscript accurately written from Bergeius the archbishop 
. of Lundens. It was delivered to be printed to Jodocus Ba« 
dius Ascensius, and was published at Paris in 1514, and 
re-published at Basil, in i534> by Oporinus. A third edi« 
tion appeared at Francfort on the Maine, in 1576. At last, 
jStephanus Johannes Stephanius, historian to the king, and 
professor of eloquence and history in the university of Soraj 
with the aid of some Danish nobles, and the liberal con^ 
tribution of the king, was enabled to publish an edition of 
Saxo, in folio, printed at Sora, 1644. A second part df 
the volume appeared in the following 3^ar, containing the 
*^ Prolegomena,'* and copious notes. There is a later edi« 
tion by Christ. Adolphus Klotz, printed at Leipsic in 
177 J, 4to, and there are several Danish translations. The 
credibility of Saxo is somewhat doubtful, but his style it 
good, and much praised by critics of authority.^ 

SAY (Samu£L), a dissenting minister of considerable 
talents, was born in 1675, and was the second son of the 
Kev. Giles Say, who had been ejected from the vicarage 
of St. MichaePs in Southamptoh by the Bartholomew-act 
in 1662 ; and, after king James the second's liberty nf con- 
scieiice, was chosen p^istor of a dissepting congregation at 
Guestwick in Norfolk, where he eontinued till bis death, 
April 7, 1 6953, Spme years after, the subject of this article 
beiug at South wark, where he bad been at school, and 
conversing with some of ^the dissenters of that place, met 


1 From the last edit, of thli Diet, probably tak^n from Klotaiaa'f Prolefpomeoi* 
^ — Diet. HifU 

SAY. sit 

with a woman of great reputation fof pletf^ who told him^ 
with jpy, that a $eraion on P9. cxix« 130^ preached by his 
father thirty years before^ was the means of her conversion. 
Being strongly inclined to the ministry, Mr. Say entered 
a$ a pupil in the academy of the Rev. Mr. Thomas Rowe 
at London about 1692, where he had for his feliow^stu- 
dents Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Isaac Watts, Hughes the poet, 
and Mr. Josiah Hort, afterwards archbishop of Tuam. When 
he had finished his studies, he became chaplain to Thomas 
Scott, esq. of Lymioge in Kent, in whose family he conti- 
nued three, years. Thence he removed to Andover ip 
Hampshire, then to Yarmouth in Norfolk, and soon after 
to Lowestoffin Suffolk, where he continued labouring in 
word and doctrine eighteen years. He was afterwards co- 
pastor with the Rev, Mr. Samuel Baxter at Ipswich nine 
years; and lastly was called, in 17S4, to succeed Dr. Ed- 
mund Calamy in Westminster, where he died at hi^ house 
in James-street, April 12, 1743, of a mortification in his 
bowels, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. 

In his funeral* sermon, preached by Dr. Obadiah Hughes, 
and afterwards printed, a due elogium is paid to his mini- 
sterial abilities ; and, soon after his death, a thin quarto 
volume of his poems, with two essays in prose, '^ Ou the 
Harmony, Variety, and Power of Numbers," written at 
the request of Mr. Richardson the painter, were published 
for the benefit of his daughter, who married the Rev. -Mr. 
Toms, of Hadleigh in Suffolk. The essays have been much 
admired by persons of taste and judgment. And the Gen- 
tleman^s Magazine, for 1780, p. 568, has rescued from 
oblivion some remarks, by the same judicious hand, from 
the margin of a copy of Mr. Auditor Benson's *^ Prefatory 
Discourse to his Edition of Johnston's Psalms, and the 
Conclusion of that Discourse, 1741.'' 
. In the preface to his works, we are told that Mr. Say 
*^ was a tender husband, an indulgent father, and of a most 
benevolent, communicative disposition, ever ready to do 
good, and to distribute. He was well versed in astronomy 
and natural philosophy; had a taste for music and poetry, 
was a good critic, and a master of the classics. Yet so 
great was his modesty, that he was known only to a few 
select friends, and never published above two or three ser- 
mons, which were in a manner extorted from him." Among 
the modern Latin poets Broukhusius was his favourite^ 
among the English, Milton, whose head, etched by Mr. 

ai J SAY. 

JUchairSsbn/ » prefixed to fam second essay. A letter froni 
Mr. Say to Mr. Hugfaies, and two from Mr. Say to Mr. Dun- 
coipbe, with a Latin translation of the beginning of '< Pa« 
radise Lost," are printed among the " Letters of Eminent 
Persons deceased/, vol. I. and vol. H. His characters of 
Mrs. Bridget Bendysb, grand-daughter of Oiiver Cromwell, 
in tl^e appendix to vol. IL first appeared (without a name) 
in Gent. Mag. 1765, p. 357. In the same volume, p. 423, 
<* The Resurrection illustrated by the Changes of the Silk- 
worm^', is by the same hand. And some of his poetical 
pieces are in 'Nichpls's "Select Collection, vol. VL 

Mr. Say had collected all the forms of prayer on public 
occasions from the time of archbishop Laud, which after 
his death were offered to the then archbishop of York (Dr. 
Herring), but were declined by him as " never likely to be 
employed m compositions of that sort for the public, that 
work being in the province of Canterbury," Yet, unlikely 
as it: seemed, this event soon happened.' 

; SC ALA (Bartholomew), an Italian, eminent as a states- 
man and man of letters, when letters were just reviving in 
Europe, was born about 1424, some say. 1430. He was 
oply the son of a miller; but, going early to Florence, he 
fell under the notice of Cosmo de Medici; who, observing 
uuconqmon parts in him and a turn for letters, took him 
;iinder his protection, and gave him an education. He stu- 
died the law ; and, taking a doctor's degree in that faculty, 
frequented the bar. After the death of Cdsmo in 1464, 
Peter. de Medici shewed the same regard, for hiin ; and 
Scala,, througti his means, was trusted by the republic in 
the mos^ important negociations. In 1471, the freedom of 
tbe city was conferred on him and his descendants ; and the 
year after he obtained letters of nobility; he was then se- 
cretary or chancellor of the republic. In 1484, the Flo- 
rentines sent a solemn embassy to Innocent VIII, to con-> 
gcatulate him on his being raised to the potitificate ; . when 
Scala, one of the embassy, delivered a speech so very 
pleasing to the pope, that be was made by hiofi a knight of 
'the golden spur, and senator of Q,ome. In 1486, he was 
made holy-standard-bearer to the republic. He died at 
Florence in 141>7 ; and left, among other children, a daugb- 

• • 

1 Geot. Mag. See Index. — Abp. Hemoj^s Letters.^WiUon^t Hi^t. of Di^*^ 
Hnting ChurchcF. 

S C A L A. ns 

ter. named AleKandra. who afterwards bebame fanioas foe 
ber learDing and skill in the Greek and Latin tongues. 

During his life-time were published the abovemeationed 
speech to pope Innocent ; another speech which he made 
as chancellor of Florence, ^^ Pro Imperatoriis militaribus 
signis dandis Constantio Sfortise Imperatori^'* 1481; and 
^^ Apologia contra vituperatores civitatis Florentise/' 1^96^ 
in folio. His posthumous works are four books, ^^ De His- 
toria Flbrentina," and " Vita di Vitaliafni Borromeo ;" both 
printed at Rome in 1677, 4to. This history of the Floren-^ 
tine r^p^blic was written in' twenty books, and deposited in 
the Medicean library ; but, as only four of these books and 
part of a fifth were finished, no more have been thought fit 
for the press. He was the author also of "Apologues,** 
and of some Latin and Italian ^* Poems/' Some few of his 
letters have been published ; and there are eight in the 
colfection ' of Politian, with whom Scala, as appears from 
the correspondence, had the misfortune to be at variance. 
Politian probably despised him for being his superior in 
evetry thing but letters; and Scala valued himself too much 
on his opulence. Erasmus also has not passed a very fa- 
vourable judgment on him : he represents him as a Cicero- 
nian in his style. Scala*s daughter Alexandra, above men- 
tioned, was no less distinguished by her personal beauty, 
than i)l3r literary acquirements^ She gave her hand to the 
Greek Marullus (See Makullus); and Politian is numbered « 
among her unsuccessful admirers; a circumstance that may 
in some degree account for the asperities which marked his 
controversy with her father. She is said' to have been as« 
sisted in her studies by John Lascaris, and Demetrius Cbal- 
condylks; In evidence of her proficiency, we are told 
thac*she replied t6 a Greek epigram, which the gallantry of 
Politian 'addressed to her, in the same language and mea- 
sure; and in a public representation of the '* Electra*' of 
Sophocles at Florence, she undertook' to perform the prin- 
cipal female character, which, according to Politian, she 
did with great success. She died in 1506.^ 

SCALIGER (Julius C^sar), a very learned and emi- 
nent critic, was born, according to h^ son^s account, April 
23, 1484, at Ripa, a castle in the territory of Verona, and 
was the son of Benedict Scaliger, who, for seventeen years, 
comrmanded the troops of Matthias, king of Hungary, to 

I Tirabos'chf. — ^Geo. Diet.— OreiswelPs Politian.«->Roicoe'9 Lorenxo. 

SiO S C;A L I G E R. 

whom ha WM rejatied. His mother was Berenice Lodronia, 
daughter of count Paris. From the same authority we 
learn, that Scaliger was a descendant from the ancient 
princes of Verona ; bul while other particulars of the birik 
and family of Scaliger are. called in question, this seems to 
be refuted by the patent of naturalization which Francis L 
granted him in 152B, in which such an honourable descent 
would unquestionably have b^en noticed, whereas in this 

* instrument he is called only ^^ Julius Csesar della Scala de 
Bordons, doctor of physic, a ns^tire of Verona*'' When 
therefore, his critical asperities had raised him enemies, 
they did not fail to strip him of bis royal origin, and in- 
stead of it, asserted that he was the son of a school-master 
(some say an illuminator) of Verona, one Benedict Bor- 
den, who, removing to Venice, took the name of Scaliger, 
either because he had vl scale for his sign, or lived in a street 
called from that instrument; and although Thuanus seems 

. inclined to consider this story as the fabrication of Augus- 
tine Niphus, out of pique to Scaliger, it is certain that the 
royal origin of the Scaligers has always appeared doubt- 
ful, and we have now no means to remove the unc^* 

He was taught LatiA at home, and, according to his son^ 
bad for his preceptor John Jocundus of Verona, whom he 
himself in various parts of his works mentions as his qaaater; 
but even this circumstance his opponents are not disposed 
to credit, and tell us, that as he was the descendant of 
princes, it was necessary to provide him with a preceptor 
like Jocundus, who was a man not only of high character, 
but a gentleman by birth. They also add some circum- 
stances which certainly make it doubtful whether Scaliger 
really was taught by Jocundus, because it was neither by 

-his knowledge of Latin, nor by philosophy or theology, 
that Jocundus acquired his reputation, but by bis- skill in 
the fine arts. (See JocuKDUS.) It appears, however^ less 
questionable, that at the age of twelve Scaliger was pre- 
sented to the emperor Maximilian, who made him one of 
his pages, and that he served that emperor seventeen years, 
and gave proofs of his valour and dexterity in several exr 
peditions, in which he attended his master. He was at 
the battle of Ravenna in 1512, in which be lost his father 
and brother Titus, whose bodies he conveyed to Ferrara, 
where his mother resided, who some time after died with 

S C A L I G E R. Ml 

His father dying in narrovr circuoistanceSy Soaliger found 
himself almost without a maintenance, and therefore re- 
solved to enter into the Franciscan order, for which purpose 
be went to Bologna, and applied himself vigorously to 
study, especially to logic and Scotus^s divinity ; but chang- 
ing his views of the ecclesiastical profession, he agarn 
entered into the army, and served some time in Piedmont. 
A physician, whdm be knew at Turin, persuaded hira to 
study physic ; and accordingly he prosecuted it at his lei* 
sure hours, while he was in the army : he likewise learned 
the Greek language, of which he had been entirely igno^ 
rant till then. At length, frequent attacks of the gous 
determined him, at forty years of age, to abandon a mili- 
tary life, and devote. himself entirely to the profession of 
physic. In this he had already acquired both skill and 
fame, and the bishop of Agen, being indisposed, and ap« 
prehending some need of a' physician in his journey to his 
diocese, requested Scaliger to attend him. 8caliger con<« 
sented upon condition that he should not stay at Agen 
above eight days : there, however, he conceived an at*» 
lachment for a young lady, said to be not more than thir-^ 
teen years of age, and remained at Agen waiting for her 
parents' consent. That obtained, he married her in 1529, 
lived with her twenty-nine years, and had fifteen children 
by her, seven of whom survived him. Whatever bis ori« 
gin, he must have beien now a man of some consideration, 
tor this lady was of a noble and opulent family. 

After his settlement at Ag^n, be began to apply himself 
seriously to those general studies which made him most 
known in the literary world. He learned the French tongue^ 
at bis first cominjg, which he spoke perfectly well in thn&e 
months ; and then made himself master of the Gascon, 
Italian, Spanish, German, Hungarian, and Sclavonian^ 
During these studies, he maintained himself by the prac* 
tice of physic. It is probable that he had taken a doctor's 
degree in, this faculty at Padua; for, the letters of natu* 
ralieation, which were granted him by Francis I. in 1528> 
give him this title. As he begdn his studies late, it was 

J' roportionably so before he commenced author, none of 
is ivorks having appeared until he was forty»seven; but 
he soon gained a name in the republic of letters, which 
was jboth great and formidable. From this time^ compo- 
fcuion and controversy employed htm till his death, which 
happitaied ia 14^58, in the seventy-^fourlb year of k^i 

^M S C A L I G E R. 

age. His epitaph waS| ^'Julii Caesaris Scaligeri quod 

His son Joseph has described him as a man with many 
excellent qualities both of body and mind ; tall, well-made^ 
of a noble and venerable air, and yery strong and active 
even to old age ; of such sagacity*^ that he could divine 
the characters of men from their looks ; of a prodigious 
memory ; singularly averse to every departure from truth, 
and so charitable that his house was a kind of hospital to 
the indigent and distresfsed. With these good qualities, 
however, he had an insupportable pride and vanity, and 
a fastidious aud petulant temper, which was excited to fury 
by every difference from his opinions, and every, the least 
contradiction, or fancied mark of disrespect. This ap- 
peared particularly in his treatment of Erasmus, wjho, in 
his " Ciceronianus, sivevde pptimo dicendi genere,". had 
ridiculed certain of the learned in Italy, who would allow 
no expressions to be pure latinity but what were to be i 
found in Cicero ; and had even criticised the style of Ci- 
cero himself, for whom, nevertheless, ' he had the pro- 
fouhdest veneration. This provoked Scaliger to publish 
two orations in his defence; m which he treated his. an- 
tagonist with the utmost virulence of contempt. The death 
of Erasmus, however, which happened while th^ second 
oration was printing, appears to have softened Scs^liger^s 
heart,. and he wrote a poem, in which he expressed great 
grief at his dying before they were reconciled, and shewed 
a willingness to acknowledge bis great virtues and.merit. 

Julius CsBsar Scaliger was certainly a man of extraordi- 
nary capacity, and of great talents both natural and ac- 
qtiired^ but those who were his contemporaries, or who 
}ived nearest to his times, have spoken of him in language 
too nearly approaching to extravagance. Colerus dpes not 
scruple to say, that he was the greatest philosopher sinoe 
Aristotle, the greatest poet since Virgil, and the greatest 
physician since Hippocrates. Lipsius goes a little. farther, 
find not only gives us Homer, Hippocrates, Aristotle, and 
Scaliger, as the four greatest men that ever appeared, but 
adds, that he prefers Scaliger to the three others. The 
elder Vossius ascribes to him a sort of human. divinity ;.and 
H^et thinks he was expressly formed by nature as a con* 
solation for our degeneracy in these latter days.' From 
these, and other encomiums, which might be multiplied 
by a reference to the works of. bis contemporaries and im^ 

S C A L- I G EJEU 331 

tnedjate successors, it is le^ident that his repataHon was 
great and extensive ; and if he tfegaa tgo study and to write 
so late in life as has been report^d^ it is .«ai»y to believe that 
his endowcneqts and appiicatipQ^Qiu^t have been of the 
most extraordinary kind. A: list >of his principal worksy 
therefore, seems necessary to illugstrate his character.. !• 
*^ Exotericarum exercitationum liber quintus deci^tnus de 
subtilitate ^d Hieronymum Cardanum/' Paris, 15,5,7^ .4to, 
often reprinted in 8vo. He calls this attack on Cacdao the 
fifteenth book, because he had written fourteen others 
under the same title of " J^xercitationes," which had no 
relation to Cardan.. [These, however, never were pub- 
lished. 2. " In Theopbr^sti libros sex de cgusis planta- 
rum commentarii," Geneva, 1566, folio. 3. "Commen- 
tarii in Aristoteli ail^qriptos; libros duos, de plantis," ,ibid^ 
1566, folio, 4. V^A|ristp(e]is Hist. Animalium liber decimus, 
ac versione et comq^ntario," Lyons, 1584, 8vo. This was 
a prelude to the entijre work published by Maussac at 
Toulouse, in 1619, fol. " AristoteJis Hist. Animalium, Gr. 
& Lat. ex versione et cum comme.ntariis J. C. Scaligerl" 
5. " Animadversiones in Theophrasti historias plantarum,'' 
Lyons, 1584, 8vo. 6. " Commentarii in Hippocratis li- 
brum de Insomniis,'* Gr. & Lat. Lyons, 1538, 8vo, re- 
printed several times after. 7. " De causis linguas Latinas 
libri XIII." Lyons, 1540, 4to, &c. This is esteemed one 
of his most valuable Works. 8. " J. C. Scaligeri adversus 
Desiderium Erasmum orationes duae elpquentise Komanas 
vindices, cum ejusdem epistolis & opusculis," Toulouse, 
1621, 4to. The first of these orations, which we have al- 
ready noticed, was printed at Paris in 1531, 8vo, andseejoas, 
therefore, to have been the first of pur authors publica- 
tions, an earnest of what the world might expect both 
from his genius aod temper. 9. " Epistolae," Leyden, 1600, 
8vo. 10. ^^ Epistolsc nonnullaB ex manuscripto Biblto- 
thecaeZ. C. ab UfFenbach," printed in the sixth and eighth, 
volumes of the *' Amcenitates Litterarise," by Schelhorn. 
They all'relate to his orations against Erasmus. H. " De 
Analogia sermonis Latini," subjoined to Henry Stephen^s ' 
" Appendix ad Terentii Varronis assertiones analogiae ser- 
monis, Latini," 1591, 8vo. 12. " Poetices Libri Sfeptem,,'% 
1561,. fol. and several times reprinted ; this is. his greatest 
critical work, in which, however, many, mistakes and many 
Ufltennble opinionis have ,been discovered by more recent 
critics, 13, ** Heroes," or epigrams on Various personage» 

«24 S C A L I G £ R. , 

of antiquity, Lyons/ 1539, 4to. 14. " Epidorpides, seU 
carmen de sapientia et beatitudine," ibid, 1573, 8vo. 15. 
'< Poemata in duas partes divisa,** 1574 and 1600, 8 vol 
16. **' De comicis dimensionibus," prefixed to an edition 
of Terence printed at Paris, 1552, foL* 

SCALIGER (Joseph Justus), son of the preceding, and 
heir to his talents and temper, was born at Agen in 1540 ; 
and, et eleven years of age, was sent with two of his bro- 
thers to the college of Bordeaux, where he was taught 
Latin. Three years after, on the appearance of the plague, 
he was obliged to return home to his father, who theii 
superintended his education. He required of him every 
day a short exercise or theme upon some historical sub- 
ject, and made him transcribe some poems, which he him- 
self had composed. This last task is supposed to have in- 
spired him with a taste for poetry^ and so eager was he to 
show his proficiency, that he wrote a tragedy upon the 
story of Oedipus before he was seventeen. His father 
dying in 1558, he went to Paris the year following to study 
Greek, and attended the lectures of Turnebus for two 
months. But finding the usual course too dilatory, he re- 
solved to study it by himself, and with the assistance of 
some knowledge, of the conjugations, attenripted. to read 
Homer with a translation, in which he succeeded very 
soon, and at the same time formed to himself a kind of 
grammar, with which he' was enabled to proceed to the 
other Greek poets, and next to the historians and orators, 
and by persevering in this course, he gained in the space 
of two years a perfect knowledge of the language. He 
afterwards turned his thoughts to the Hebrew, whicli he^ 
leajrned by bimselT in the same manner. All are agreed 
indeed, that he had an extraordinary capacity for learning 
languages, and is said to have been well skilled in no less 
than thirteen. He made the same progress in the sciences, 
and in every branch of literature; and he at length obtained 
the reputation of being the most learned man of his age, 
and his biographers have handed down to us little else than 
the progress of his studies and the chronology of his publi- 
cations. In 1503 he was invited to the university of Ley- 
den, tq be honorary professor of Bellas Lettres, on which 
occasion, if we may believe the " Menagiana," tienry IV. 

1 Gen. Bict.-'-l^iceroD, vol. £XlII.r-Life by b» son in Bates'i Vit» Seieetoi- 
ru».— $.«xii OuoiQiasticon. 

9. C A I; I O E R, 9ii 

of F<tTi0e tr^ted bim with. great ctMn^s$ add ntsg^tdx^ 
Scaliger had determined to accept the offer ; andf waiting 
upon the king to acquaint him ivith his jonrnej^ and th^ 
occasion of it, \^ Well, Mr. Scaliger,** said his maje^ty^ 
*^ the Dutch want to have yoo with them, and tp allow you 
a good stipend : I am glad of/ it," adding some other re* 
mAf]^ of a grosser kind. , Henry was no patcoa of learning 
t>r learned men; but soo^ have supposed that he wished to 
mortify Scaliger, who had already shewn too much of his 
fatber^s vanity and arrogant spirit. He now went to Ley-» 
den, where he spent the remainder of his. life; and died 
there of a dropsy, Jan. 21, 1609, without having ever been 
married* He was i man of perfect sobriety of mannersi 
and whose wbole time was well spent in study;* He had as 
great parts as his father, and far greatei: Jeaming, having 
been trained to it from bis infancy, which his father haa 
not. He had a profound veneration for bis fatter^ aad unf 
fortunately exteuded it to an imitation of bis irritable tem- 
per, and disrespect for his learned contemporaries. ^ But he 
was often a discerner and encouriger of inetit* While at 
Ley den he was so struck with the early apf>eahince of .ta« 
Lent in Grotius, that be undertook to dinect his studies. 
Grotiqs repaid his care by the utmost respect, and Scali* 
ger^s counsels were commands to him. ^ The elder Scaliger 
lived and died in the church of Rome: but the son em« 
bfaced the principles of Luther, and relates that bis fatber 
also had intentions of doing so. 

The works of Joseph Scaliger are very numerous u^ 
Various : but his ^^ Opus de Emeodatione Temppnun^'^ 
printed at Paris 1583 in folio, is his greatest performance^ 
\n which be has collected every thing which might serve to 
fstablish the principles of chronology, and was the first 
who undertbok to forqti a complete system. He has in this 
work rendered his liame memorable to posterity, by th^ 
invention of ttie Julian period^ whioh consists of TdMyears, 
being the continued ptoduct of the three cycles, of the 
sun 28, the moOn 19, and Roman indiction 15. This pe^ 
riod bad its biegtnning fixed to the 764th year before tfa^ 
^eation, and is not yet completed, and comprehends all 
other cycles, periods, and epochas, with the times of all 
memorable actions and histories. Scaliger has, therefore, 
been styled the father of chronology ; and his '^ Thesauros 
Temporum, complectens Eusebii Pamphili Chronicon cpm 
Isagogicis Chronologic Canonibus,** in which be has €ot« 


^26 &" C A L I G E It 



fecied and teformed' many things ih bis" Opus dte En^efr* 
dbtione Tenlpbrucn/* seems to give him a sufficient claini 
to the title. The best edition 6f " De Emendatione Tem- 
porum'* is that of Geneva, 1609, folio; o^f the "Thesaurus 
Temporum*' that cff Amsterdatt), 1658, in 2 vols, folio. 

He wrote notes and' animadversions uport almost all the 
Gredk and Latin atfthors: those upon Varro " de Lingua 
Latina** were Written by him at twenty years of age; but 
scarcely any of liis editions of the classics are now held in 
esteem. Gerard Vossius' observes, that his conjectures are 
too bold, and quotes Peter Vicfcorius, who said, that Scali- 
ger was born to corrupt the ancients rather than to correct 
them. It is certain, at least, that ht dealt too much in 
conjectural criticisni, although be often shows a great 'de« 
gree of ingenuity, even in the most fanciful of the free- 
doms be takes with bis author^s meanings and always leaves 
the reader impressed with his extensive learning; 

He wrote some dissertations upon subjects of antiquity ; 
and gave specimens of bis skill in all branches of literature* 
He made a Latin translation to two centuries of Arabian 
proverbs, which were published at Leyden, 1623, with tb6 
notbs of Erpenius, at the request of Isaac Casaubon, who 
tells tis/, that he employed less time in translating it than 
others who underistood Arabic would have done in reading 
it. He was afso obliged to write some controversial pieces : 
and bis controversy with Scioppius, concerning the biogra«^ 
phy of his family in his work, entitled ^' De vetustate & 
splendore gentis Scalig^ranae,*' is a wretclied example of 
literary rancour and personal obloquy. His "Poemata,** 
iir which there is not much poetical spirit, were publisbect 
at Leyden, 1615, 8vo; his ** £pistolds,*' which are learned, 
and cotitain many interesting psfrticuUrs of literary history, 
were edited by Daniel Heinsius, at the same place, 1637,^ 

8i^o. ' . \ * ; ' 

. There are two *' Scaligerana;'* one priritecf at the Hagud 
in' 1666 ; the other at Groninlgeh 1669, and for some rea- 
son or other called ^^ Scaligerana Prima." Desmaizeaux 
piiblished a neat edition of tnem, together with the ^^ Thu- 
ana^*' ** Perroniana," *' Fitboeana,'* and " Colomesiana,** 
at Amsteirdam, 1740, in 2 vols. l2mo.' 

SCAMOZZI (Vincent), a celebrated architect, was 
born at Vieeiiza in 1550. He was educated under bis 


> Gen. Diet.— Nieeroo, volrXXIIl.— Batesii Vile, &c.— ^lii Onomaat^ 

9 C A M O Z 2 I. 227 

tfither, also an able arcf)itect, and went to Venice roFim* 
proveaient, where afterwacds, on Palladio^s death, be be* 
came the first architect, and was employed in rarroas 
works, particularly the additions to the library of St. Mark/ 
the Olympic theatre at Vicenza, and the new theatre at 
Sabbioneta. In 1615 he published iq 2 vols, small folio, a 
work entitled " L'Idea dell' Architettura universalei" in 
six bdoks^ the sixth of which, containing the five orders of 
architecture, is most esteemed. The Fre^ich ha«^e atrans;;* 
lation of his works^ and an abridgment by J<i>ubert. Sca- 
inozzi also published '< Discorsi sopra le anticbita di Roma/' 
1583, fol. with forty plates. He died in 1616.^ i * 

SCAPULA (John), the reputed author of a Greek Lex-^ 
icon,., studied first at Lausanne; but bas his narpe reebrded 
in the annals of literature, neither on account of his talent^ 

t ' * 

and learning, nor for his' virtuous industry, but for a gro^$ 
act pf di^ingenuity and fraud which be coipmitted agaiiiisc 
an eminent literary character of the sixteenth centuYy^ 
Being employed by Henry Stephens^ the celebrated prin-t 
ter, as a corrector to his.pressj white he was. publishing hi$ 
"Thesaurus Linguae Graecie," Scapula extracted thpsQ 
words and explications which be reckoned most usefui|. 
comprised them in one volume^ and published them as an. 
original work)' with his own nanie. The compilaiioa and 
printing of the Thesaurus had cost Stephens immense labour 
andexpence^ but it was so. much admired by the learned 
men to whom be had shown it, and seemed to be of such 
essential importaruce to the acquisition. of the Greek Ian-* 
guage,. .that he reasonably hope^ his labour would b& 
crowned with honour, and that the money he had expended 
would hb repaid by a rapid and .extensive sale. : Before^ 
boweyer, bis work came abroad. Scapulars abridgment ap- 
peared; which, from its size, price, and obvious utility, 
was qidckly purchased, while the Thesaurus itself lay neg* 
lected in the autbor^s . haiids. The consequence was a^ 
bankruptcy on the part of Stephens, while be who bad oc^- 
casioiied it was^ enjoying the fruits of bis treachery. Sea* 
pula's. Lexicon was first published in 15S0, in Mo.t It was 
afterward enlarged, and published in folio. It has gone 
through several editions, th^ best. of which is the Elzevir 
of 1652, some copies of which have the following imprint, 
'^ Londini, impeusis Josues Kirktou et Samuelis Thomp- 

1 Tiraboscbi« . 


son;" but it is the genuine Elzevir editioni the names cff 
Kirkton atkid Thompson being appended only to the copies 
they purchased from the Leyden proprietors. Stephens 
charges the author with omitting a great many important 
articles, and with misunderstanding and perverting hit 
meaning, and tracing out absurd and trifling etymologies 
which be himself had been careful to avoid* Dr. Busby, 
to much celebrated for his knowledge of tbe Greek ]an<» 

fuage, and his success in teaching it, would never permit 
is scholars in Westminster-school to make use of Scapula.' 
SCARBOROUGH (Sir Charles), an emiaent physi- 
cian and mathematician, was bom about 1616. After th^ 
usual classical education he was admitted 6f Caius college, 
Cambridge, in 1632, and took his first degite in arts in 
1636. He was then elected to a fellowship, and com** 
aaenciog A. M. in 1640, he took pupils. In the meifin 
time, intending to pursue medicine as his profession, he 
applied himself to all the preparatory studies necessary for 
that art. Mathematics constituted one of these studies : 
and the prosecution of this science having obtained him 
the acquaintance of Mr. (afterwards bishop) Seth Ward, 
then of Emanuel college, they mutually assisted each other 
in their researches. Having met with some difficulties in 
Mr. Ougbtred's ^^Clavis Mathematica,*^ which appeared to 
them insuperable, they made a joint visit to the author, 
then at his living of Aldbury, in Surrey. Mr. Oughtred 
(See Oughtred) treated them with great politeness, being 
sauth gratified to see these ingenious young men apply &> 
aeaiously to these studies, and in a short time fully resolved 
all their questions. They returned to Cambridge complete 
masters of that excellent treatise, and were the first tfant 
read lectures upon it there. In the ensuing civil wars, Mr- 
Scarborough became likewise a joint sufierer with his fiel- 
low-student for the royal cause, being ejected from his fel- 
lowship at Caius. Upon this reverse of fortune lie witlt« 
drew to Oxford, and entering himself at Merton college^ 
was incorporated A*M. of that univendly^ 23dof June,> 
1646. The celebrMed Dr. Harvey was then warden of 
that college, and being employed in writing bis treatiseL 
^^ De Generatione AnimaliUIti,^* gladly accepted the assisl>- 
ance of Mr. Scarborough. The Jattcr also became Ao 
quaiftted with sir Christopher Wreo, then, a gentlematt 

> Clark's Bibljog. Diet, vol IV.«.Bai)lei JagmeDt.— Morboff Polybiit 

S C A R B O R O UGH. 22f 

commoner of Wadhftm college, and engaged him to trans* 
bte. *' Qughtred's Geometrical Dialling'* into Latin, which 
was printed in 1 649. 

Upon leaving Oxford, and taking the degree of doctor 
of physic, Dr. Scarborough settled in the metropolis, where 
he practised with great reputation. In the College of 
Physicians, of which be was a fellow, he was particularly 
respected as a man of uncommon talents; and, in 1658, 
by the special appointment of the president,^he introduced, 
with an elegant Latin speech, the marquis of Dorchester 
for his admission into the college that year. In the mean 
time Dr. Scarborough began to read his highly celebrated 
anatomical lectures at Surgieons' Hall, which he continued 
for sixteen or seventeen years, and was the first who in- 
troduced geometrical and mechanical reasonings upon the 

Such extraordinary merit did not escape the notice of 
king Charles IL, who conferred on him the order of knight- 
hood in 1669, and at the same time appointed him his 
principal physician. He was nominated to the same ho- 
nourable office by his majesty's brother, which he held both 
before and after his accession to the throne ; and he also 
served king William in the ^ame capacity. He was like- 
wise Appointed physician to the Tower of London, and held 
that office till his death, which occurred about 1696. Sir 
Charles Scarborough was married and left a son, who was 
created doctor of civil lavv at Oxford, in August 1702. In 
1705, this gentleman printed in folio, from his father^s 
matiuscript,^^ An English Translation of Euclid's Elements, 
with excelljBnt explanatory notes." Sir Charles also wrote 
** A Treatise, upon Trigonometry;*' "A Compendium ^of 
Lily's Grammar ;'^ and ** An Elegy on Mr. Abraham 
C<5vi^ley."V . 

SCAftHON (Paul), an eminedt* burlesque French wri- 
ter, was the son of Paul Scarfon, a counsellor in parlia- 
tnent, and born at Paris ia 1610. Although deformed, and 
of very irregular manners, his father designed him for an. 
ecclesiastic, and he went iii Italy for' that purpose, in his 
twenty-fourth year, whetice he returned equally unfit for 
his intended profession, and continued his irregularities un- 
til he lost the use pf his limbs, and could only use big 

I Biog. Brit. ▼•I.Vli.-^Siippleineat.— Knight's Life of Colet.-*Atb.Oie.Yo|. IK 
Cole's MS Atjiea«.CaiiUb« in Brit* Mill. 

230 S C A R R t) N. 

h^pds and tongue. This happened in bis twenty^»eTeotfa 
v€ar^ but, melancholy as his condition was, bis burlesque 
humour never forsook him : he was continually talking and 
w/iting in this strain ; and his house became the rendez- 
vous of all tbe men of wit. Afterwards, a misfortune 
overtook him : his fatheor, who had hitherto supplied his 
wants, incurred the. displeasure of cardii)al Ricbelieu, arid 
was banished, and although Scarron presented an bumble 
ri^quest to Richelieu, which from its humour j)leased 
tbaL minister/ no answer appears lo. have been returned, 
and both Richelieu and his'fiitber died soon after. Scar^* 
ron at length, helpless, and deformed as he was^ c6o« 
ceived thoughts of marriage; and, in 1651, was aotuatly 
married to mademoiselle d'Aubign6, afterwards the cele«» 
brated madam de Maintenon, wbp lodged near him, and 
was about sixteen years of age. , Uiiequal a$ this maldl 
Avas, she had influence enough to produce some salutary 
change in his manners and habits, and her wit and beauty 
^erv^d to increase the good company which frequented bia 
house, Scarron, died in 1660, and within a few minutes af 
las deaths when his acquaintance were about him all in 
tears, ** Ah ! my good friends," said he, " you will nevejr 
cxy for me so much as I have made you laugh.^' 
, He had a considerable fund of wit, but could never pre- 
vent it from running into buffoonery, which pervades his 
works to such a degree, that few men of taste or deltdn^y 
have be^u able to peruse them. They sunk into oblivion 
in the refined age of Louis XVI. and have, never been 
efi^ctually revived since. Yet his " Virgil Travestie" aad 
lijjy "Comical Komance'* are occasionally read. The whoje 
of his works were printed at Paris, in 168^, and at Auot- 
3ter4am in. 1737. and 1752, 10 vols, l^mo." 

SCHAAFx (Charles), a learned German^ was born at 
Nuys, in. the electorate of Cologne, 1646; his father was 
a n^jor in the army of the landgrave of Hesse Cassel., He 
was educated for the church at Duisbourg; and| having 
made the Oriental tongues his particular study, became 
professor of them in that university in 1677. In- 1679 he 
removed to Leyden, to fill the same post for a larger sti- 
pend ; and there continued till 1729, 'when he died of acx 
apoplexy. He published some useful books in the Oriei^ 
tal way ; as, 1. *' Opus Aramzeum, coaiplecteos Gram^ 

\ Morcri.«->Dict. Hist. — D^IiraeliVCuriotitiCf, vol. II. 

« C H A A F. «3l 

w^Cdm Chaldarcam & Syriacatn,'* 1686, 8vq. 2. '< No« 
Tum Testamentuai Syriacum, cum versione Latina/' 1708, 
ilto. The Latin version is that of Tremellius, retouche<i» 
Leusden laboured jointly with bitn in this work till ..death, 
which happened when they were got to Luke xv. 20 ; and 
Schaaf wrote the remainder by himself. At the end of it 
is subjoined, ^^ Lexicon Syriacum Concordantiale.^* 3. 
V Epitome Gcammaticae Hebraic®," 1716, 8vo. 4. '^ A 
Letter in Syriac of tlie bishop Mar Thqmas, written froin 
Malabar to the patriarch of Antioch, and a Lfitin version by 
himseir," 1714-, 4to. .5. *^ Sermo Academicus de Lingua- 
mm Orientaliom scientia," an Inauguratioa-Speech. In 
1711 he drew up, at the request of the curators of the aca- 
demy aj; Leyden, a catalogue of all the Hebrew^ Chaldee, 
JSyriae, and Samaritan books and manuscripts in the li- 
Jbrary there ; which was joined to the catalogue of that li« 
brary, published in 1711.' 

SCHALKf^N (Godfrey), an ingenious painter, wai 
iborh at J>ort, in 1643. His father placed him first witl| 
.iM>lonion Van Hoogstraten, and afterwards with Gerar4 
Dow, from whom he caught a great delicacy of finishing; 
but bis chief practice was to paint candle-lights. He 
placed the object and a candle in a dark room ; and look- 
ing through a small hole, painted by day^light what he saw 
in the dark chamber. Sometimes he drew portraits, and 
came with that view to England, but found the business 
:too much engrossed by Kneller, Closterman, and others^. 
Yet he once drew king William; but,.^as the piece was tQ 
\>e by candle-light, he gave his majesty the candle to hold^ 
till the tallow ran down upon his fingers. As if to justify 
this ilUbreeding, he drew his own picture in the same situ- 
ation. Delicacy was no part of his character : having 
•drawn a lady^who was marked with the small-pox, but had 
handsome hands, she asked him, when the face was finished| 
if she must not sit for her hands : " No,'* replied Schalkea, 
^^ 1 always draw them from my house- maid.'' After carry;- 
ing on his business for some time in England, he settled at 
the Hague, where he died in 1706. Some additional anec- 
dotes of him may be found in our authority.* 

SCHEELE (Charles William), avery learned chemist, 
was born in 1742, at Stralsund in the capital of Swedish 

1 Bibl. German, vol. XXIL— KiceroD, vol. XXXIX.— Chaufepie* 
9 Wafpole'i Anecdotet. 

f $« S C tl IE £ L E. 

Ppmeraniai where bis father was a tradesman. Having 
shown an inclination to learn pharmacy, be was bound ap- 
prentice to an apothecary at Oottenburg^ with whom he 
lived eight years, and at his leisure hours contrived to 
makd himself master of the science of chemistry, reading 
the best authors, and making such experiments as his con- 
fined means would permit. From Gottenburg, he went to 
MalmO, and two years after to Stockholm. In 1773 be 
went to Upsal, and resided for some time in the house of 
Mr. Loock. -Here Bergman first found him, saw bis merit 
and encouraged it, adopted bis opinions," defended him 
Ivitb -zeal, and took upon him the charge of publishing his 
treatises. Under this liberal patronage (for Bergman pro- 
cured trim also a salary from the Swedish academy), 
Sdh)eele produced a series of discoveries which at once 
astonished and deKghted the world. He ascertained the 
nature of manganese ; discovered the existence and singu- 
laif'prdperties of oxymuriatic acid : and gave a theory of 
the composition of muriatic acid, which promises fair to 
be the true one. He discovered a new earth which was 
liflerwards called barytes ; and he determined the consti* 
tuents of the volatile alkali. All these discoveries are re- 
lated in one paper published about 1772. He discovered 
Jand ascertained the properties of many acids, the nature 
of plumbago and molybdena; analyzed filuor spar, which 
lilid eluded the searches of all preceding chemists ; and 
deteriEdtned the constituents of tungstate of lime. His 
t#o e&s&ys on the prussic acid are particularly interesting, 
end display the resources of his mind, and his patient in- 
dustry, m a very remarkable point of view; His different 
papers oti animal substances are particularly interesting, 
and replete with valuable and accurate information. On 
<me bCcasion, in bis treatise on fire, Scheele attempted 
the very difficult and general subject of combustion; but 
Ills attempt was not crowned with success. The acuteness, 
\ay^^'se;t^ fvith which he treated it deserves our admiration ; 
and the vast number of new and important facts, which he 
i>rotight forward in support of his hypothesis, is truly 
astonishing, and perhaps could not have been brought to- 
gether by any other man than Scheele. He discovered 
oxygen gas, and ascertained the composition of the atmo- 
sphere, without any knowledge of what had been previously 
done by Di^. Priestley. His views respecting the nature of 
atmospheric air were much more correct than those of 

S C H E E L E. at 

Priestley ; and his experiments onTt^etattoin iind rdspiration^ 
founded on those viewi, were possessed of consideirable va^ 
lite* These and other discoveries wbidv stamp the charae^-^ 
fer of Scheele as a philosopher, are to be found f;eneraliy 
in the transactions of the Royal Society of Stoekhohn. Dr. 
Beddoes published an English tmnslation of most of hii 
dissertations, with useful- and ingeuieus notes. There it 
also an English translation of his dissertation on air and 
fire, with notes by Ricb&rd Kirwan, esq. 
' In 1777 he was appointed by the medical college to he 
apothecary at Hoping ; and in this situation he reinained 
until his death, although it was often wished that he had 
obtained a more conspicuoufl sittiation. He is said t6 hare 
been offered an annuity of 300/. if he would settle irt Eng^ 
land, and that bis death only preveiRed his accepting it. 
On May 19, 1786, he was confined to his bed ; on the 2Ist 
he bequeathed his whole property to the widow of his pre^* 
decessor at Koping, whom, when bis end was lipprOaohingp 
be married out of a principle of gratitude, tod od th'e ^m6 
Any he died, aged only forty-foun 

According to the report of his 'firiends^ the moral- tht* 
racter of this ingenious man was irreproachable, arid though 
his manners were reserved, and he mixed little in cOm<* 
pany, be was of a very friendljp' and communicative dispo«i 
sition. He attained high fame under Tery disadvantageout 
drcumstances. He understood none of the modern lan- 
guages, except the German and Swedish, so that he had 
not the benefit of the discoveries made by foreigners', unleiA 
by the slow and uncertain medium of traifislations. Hie 
important services, howevet, which he rendered to natural 
philosophy, entitled him to universal reputation, and h6 
obtained it/ 

SCHEFFER (John), a learned German, was born at 
Strasburg in 1621, and probably educated there. He apv 
plied himself principally to the study of Gteek and Latin 
antiquities, and of history ; arid made himself a tolerable 
Verbal <^ritic upon Latin and Greek 'authors. He was dri- 
ven out df his own country by the wars ; and, as Christina 
of Sweden was at that time the general patroness of all men 
of letters, h^ withdrew into her kingdom in 1648. He waa 
made^ the same year, professor of eloquence and politics 

1 CreU'B Chemical Joansl in Gent, tlaf, toI, LIX«— Thomf oa's Hist, of tiia 
Royal Societj. 

134 S t! H E F F E R. 

|it Upsal ; afterwards, honorary professor royal of tlie l&w 
of nature and nations, and assessor, of tiie royal college of 
dotiquities ; and, at length, librarian of the university of 
Upsal. He died in 1679, after having published a great 
Dpoiber of works. Many of his pieces relate to Greek and 
^oman antiquities, and are to be found in the collection of 
'Qrp&vius and Groooiiius. He wrote notes upon many an- 
jcient authors; upon ^lian, Phsdrus, *< Arriani Tactica,^' 
of which last he made also a Latin version ; Petronius, Hy^ 
gin^s, Julius Pbs^quens, Justin, &c. • He was one of those 
who stoutly defended the authenticity of that fragment of 
Petronius, pretended to have been found at Trau ; which, 
however, is generally jud^'ed to be a forgery, and accord* 
ingly rejected by Burn^an and other critics.* 

SCHEINER (CHftiSTOPHER), a considerable malbema- 
tician and astronomer, was born at Muadeilheim in Schwa- 
hen, in 1575. He entered into the society of the Jesuits 
when he was tviwnty; and aft<erwards taught the -Hebrew 
^oqgue and the matbentatics at Ingolstadt, Friburg, Brisaq, 
and Rome. At length, he became rector of the college 
of the Jesuits at Neisse in Silesia, and confessor to the 
archduke Charles. He died in 1650, at the age of seventy** 
five* . 

« /Scbeiner was chiefly remarkable for being one of the 
first who observed the spots in the sun with the telescope, 
though not the very first; for his 6bservations of fbose 
spots were first made, at Ingolstadt, in the latter part of 
16 11« whereas Galileo and Harriot both observed them in 
the latter part of the year before, or 1610. Sobeiner con* 
^inued bis observations on the solar phenomena for many 
years afterwards at Rome, with great assiduity and accu« 
racy, constantly making drawings of them on paper, de-* 
scribii^ their places, figures, magnitude,* revolutions, and 
4>eriods, so that Riccioli delivered it as his opinion that there 
was little reason to hope for any better observations of those 
apots. Des- Cartes and Hevelius also say, that in their 
judgment, nothing can be expected of that kind more sa« 
jtiffaqtory. These observations were published in 161^0, in 
Ptt.e volume folio, under the title of ^^ Rosa Ursina/' &c« 
Almost every page is adorned with an image of the sun 
|vitb spots. He wrote also several smaller pieces relating 
(o mathematics and philosophy, the principal of whicli are» 

1 G^n. Diet.— Nicero9, vol. XXXIX, 

8 C H E I N E- R. fiS» 

4.. ** OculuSi sive Fundamentum Opticum/* &c. ; wKich 
was T/eprinted at London, in 1652, in 4to. 2. ^^So) Eolip^ 
ticusy Diaquisitiones Mathematical." 3. '* De Controver* 
siis et Novitatibos Astronomicis.^* * 

$GH£LHAMM£R (Gonthier Christopher), a cele^ 
Wated German physician and philosopher, was born March 
3, 164.9, at Jena, and was son of Christopher Scfaelham- 
mex, a. learned professor of anatomy and surgenry in that 
city), ajQd at Keil, where be was also physician to the duke 
pj^ Hoktein. Gonihier died January 1 1, 1716, in his sixty^ 
seventh year, leaving ^^ Introdtictio in artem medicam,*^ 
rl}aU. 17^6, 4to, and a great number of valuable audlearn^ 
■^d viForks Qu physic, of which it is to be wished that aieom^ 
plete collection was published. He published also sotHtS 
bot^uicaji dissertations, and first described the {Peculiar 
.cfaangjs which, .during germination, takes place in she co* 
tyledon of palms. The Schelhaoiaiera, in botany, ' was so 
called tn honour of him* His life, by Scheffelias, in Latin, 
Visoiar, 1727, 8vo, is prefixed to the letters written to him 
by several of the literati.' , . 

SCHEUCHZER (John James), an eminent physician 
and naturalist, was the son of a very. .learned physician of 
the same names at Zurich, where he was born, August 2^ 
167^. His father dying in the prime of life, he appears 
to have been left to the care of bis mother, and his mater*^ 
pal grandfather^ H« was educated at Zurich under tb^ 
ablest processors, of whom he has. left ua>a list, bmt says 
that be might with great propriety add bis own name to 
the number, as he went through the greater part of his 
studies with no other guide than bis own judgment. « In 
1692 be commenced his travels, and remainisd some tim6 
at Altdorf, attending the lectures of Wagenseil, Hoffman^ 
father and son, Stqiun, &c. In 16^3 be went to^Uirecbt^ 
wh^re he took his degree of doctor of physic in Jan^ 1694^ ld95 returned to Nuremberg and Altdorf tostudy 
mathematics under Sturm and Eimmart. To Sturm be ad^ 
dressed a learned letter on ^the generation of ibssil riiells, 
which he attempted to explain on mathematical principles i 
hut, discovering the fallacy of this, he adopted the tfaeovy 
of :Our Dr. Woodward, whose work on the subject oftra 
natural history of the earth be translated into Latin, and 
published at Zurich in 1.704. . . 

* » Martin's Bipg. Philos.— Button's Diet. 
* Diet Hist.— Refes*8 Cyclopsdia, art. Sehelhammerx. 

«3$ 8 C B E U C H Z E R. 

Returning to Zurich, before this period, he was appmnl- 
ed 6rst physician. of the city, with the reversion of the pro- 
fessorship of aiathematics. He now began to write various 
dissertations on subjects t)f natural history, particularly that 
of SwissCrland, and wrote a system of natural history In 
iGerman, which he published in parts in the years 1705, €y 
and 7, the whole forming three small 4to volumes. He 
published afterwards three more in 17 16, 1717, and 1719, 
which complete the natural history of Swisseriand, with 
the exception of the plants, of which he had formed an 
herbal of eighteen vast volumes in folio. . His ** Nova litte- 
raria Helvetica" began in 1702, and were continued to 
1715. In 1694 he began his tours on the Alps, which be 
repeated for many years, the result of which was published 
iHider the title of ^* Itinera Alpina,V* one volume of which 
was published at Londoin in 1708, 4to, and four at Ley den 
ID 17 13.. In the course of these journeys, he improved the 
geography of his country, by a small map of Toggenbourg, 
and by bis map of Swisseriand in four large sheets. Amidst 
all these pursuits, his official duties, and his extensive lite- 
rary correspondence^ he found leisure to gratify bis taste 
for medallic history, and translated Jobert^s work on that 
subject, which does not, however, appear to have been 
printedu In 1712, Leibnitz, being acquainted with his 
learning and fame, procured him an invitation from th^ 
csar, Peter the Great, to become his majesty^s physician, 
btUt the council of Zurich induced him to decline the offer, 
by an additional salary. Some time afterward, he obtained 
a fianonry ; but, according to Meister, his colleagues bad 
no very profojind respect for him, of which he gives the 
following ludicrous proof : A favourite crane belonging to 
Pr. Scheuchzer one day made her escape, and the doctoi^ 
^as obliged to climb the roof of the house to recover her, 
which he did at no small risk. The canons are siiid to havl^ 
declared on this occasion, that they would have given a 
pension to the crane, if the doctor bad broke his neck» It 
appears that this disrespect was mutual. They considered 
Scbeochzer as an intruder, and he despised their ignorancid 
in condemning the Copernican system, and the theory of 
Simammerdam, as profane and pernicious. He appears to 
have had a considerable band in the political and ecclesi- 
astical affairs of Zurich, and hkd at one time a sharp con« 
tjroversy on religion with a Jesuit of Lucerne, whom Meis- 
ter describes as tbe Don Quixote of the Romish church. . 


In 1731 appeared bis great work, *' Pbysica eacritiF^' in 
4 vols, folio, which was immediately republished in FreiK^ 
•at Amsterdam, in both instances enriched with a profusion 
of fine plates illustrative of the natural history of the Bible. 
This bad been preceded by some lesser works on the same 
subject, which were now incorpcnrated. He did not long 
survive this learned publication, dying at Zurich about the 
end of June i 733« He was a member of many learned so- 
icieties, of our Royal Society, and of those of Berlin, ViennSi^ 
'&c. and carried on a most extensive correspondence with the 
principal literati of Europe. He left a well-^chosea and na* 
pierous library, a rich museum of natural history, and a col- 
lection of medals. Besides- the works we have incldentalljr 
noticed, he published, 1. ** Herbarium Diluviannm,''^^ Ztt- 
rich, 1709, reprinted and enlarged, at Ley den, 1?23, fbtiQ. 
2. *^ Piscium querelas et viadiciae,^' Zurich, 1708, 4to. 3« 
5^ Oratio de Matheseos usu in Theologia,*' ibid. 1711> 4to« 
4. '< Museum Diluvianum,'' ibid. 1716, 8vo. 5. << Homo 
diluvii tenis," ibid. 1 726, 4to. 6. ^* De Heivetii aeribus, 
aquis, locis, specimen,^' ibid. 1728, 4to. He also wrote in 
German, a treatise on the mineral waters of Swiisserland, 
Zurich, 1732j 4to. In 1740, Klein published ^^ Sciagra- 
phia litbologtca curiosa, seu lapidum figuratorum nomen^ 
cliator, olim 4 Jo. Jac. Scheuchzero conscriptus, auctus et 
iUostratus,'' 4to. Of bis << Physica Sacra,*' we have bo«* 
tiped the first edition publiriied at Augsburgh, 1731 — 1735^ 
four vols, folio, or rather eight volumes in four, the text 
of .whicb is. in German ; this edition is valued on account of 
its having the first impressions of the plates. The Amster- 
dam edition, 1732 — 38, -8 vds. has, however, the advantage 
of being in French, a language more generally understooc^ 
wid has the same plates. Sobeucbzer had a brother, pro- 
fess<Mr of natural j^losophy at Zurich, who died* in 1737^ 
tud is known to all botanists by bis laborious and teamed 
^' Agpt>stographia," no .valuable for its minute descrtptionf 
of grasses. He bad a son rith whom we seem more inte- 
rested, John Gaspar Scheu^hzer, who was bom at Zurich 
in 1702, and after studying at home came over to England, 
and received the degree of M. D, at Caflri>ridge, during die 
royad visit of George I. in 1728, and died at London April 
13, .1729, only twenty «seven years old. He bad mueh of 
the genius and learning of his£uniiy, and wias a>good tnti« 
quary, medallist, and natural historian. He tranidated into 
Engjush Koempfer*s history of Japan, 1727^ 2 vols. foUo^ nA 


j&n 8 C R E U C HZ E R. 

iad begun a translation of Koempfer's travels in Mtistovy, 
Penia, &c. but did not live to complete it. H« wrote alsb 
ta treatise on inoculation. Some part of the correspondence 
of this learned family is in the British Mnseum.^ ^ 

SCHIAVONI (Andrea), named Meduia, an eminent 
^artist^ was born in 1522, at Sebenico, in Dalmatia. Ri^ 
purents, who were poor, placed him with a house*painter ^t 
Venice, where, at bis leisure hours, he acquired a superior 
taste^ by stndyi^ng the etchings and compositions of Pai^mi-- 
.giano ami the works of Giorgione and Titian in the ^libUc 
buildings of the city. At length, Titian; being infoiKned 
of his unfortunate situation and promising talents; xodk 
him under his care, and soon afterwards employed him in, 
.the Kbrary of St. Marco, where Schiavoni is said to hhv^ 
painted three entire cielings. Feeling his strength, he tnen- 
ture.d to paint,, in competition with Tintoretto, a picturli 
for the church of the Santa Croce, representing thfe visr- 
^tation of the Virgin to Elizabeth; and though h^'did'not 
equal hia antagonist, yet he received a cohsidet-afUe share 
of applause. Schiavoni was accounted one of the finest 
colourista of the Venetian school, and to colouring sacri- 
jBeed almost every other attribute of the art ;' yet h^s trbm- 
positJQPs are managed with great' dexterity, and executed 
with astonishing freedom. Two of bis most admired ^orki 
are in the church of the Padri Teatit)i at Rimini, fepre- 
senting the Nativity and the Assumption of the Virgin, and 
bis *^ Perseus and Andromeda,*^ and the *< Apostles at the 
-Sepulchre,'* are in the royal collection at Windsor. He 
died at Venice in 1 582, at the age of sixty.' 
. SCHIAVONETTI (Lewis), a very ingenious artist, was 
born« at Bassano, in the Venetian territory, Aprill, 1765* 
Hia father .wassa stationer, who was enabled to give him a 
useful, but limited education. From his infancy he had a 
peculiar taste for drawing ; and attained such proficiency, 
that an able painter, Julius Golini, to whom some of his 
productions were shewn, undertook to instruct him in 'that 
art. At the age of thirteen Lewis was put under his care, 
and the high opinion he had formed of the boy^s genius wasr 
confirmed by the rapid progress he niade, while his amiable 
disposition endeared him so tnuch, that he loved bith zjs hia 
own son. After three years of ' useful instruction, be had 
tbe mififottune to lose this master, who expired in his arms. 

. 1 Moreri.-i-Meister's Homines Illogtree de Soissc.— -Eloy, Dict« Hist, de Mede*^ 
cint;— Ayicough'f Catalogue of HISS, * Argcnville^ tol I.— StruU's Diet 

SCHIAVO^ffr Tl. 2J» 

Left fo pursue his own course, he turned his views to Count 
Remaudiniy whose extensive typographical and chalcogra- 
pfaical concern is rendered more fanK>us by. the giving em- 
ployment to Bartolozzi and Volpato ; and the works of those 
artists gave fresh impulse to the youth's ardour for imprdvie- 
ment. About this time he became acquainted with one 
Lorio, an indifferent engraver, with whom be worked about 
twelve months, when, finding he had exhausted his fund of 
instructions, be resolved to alter his situation. A copy of a 
holy family in the litie manner, from Bartolofzzi, after Car-: 
io Maratta, gained him immediate employment from Count 
Remaudini, and attracted the notice of Mr. Suntach, aii 
engraver and printseller in opposition to Remaudini. About 
this time came to Bassano a wretched engraver of architec- 
ture, but a-man of consummate craft and address. Hebe^ 
caii^e acquainted with Schiav^neiti at Mr. Suntach's, and 
wa3 ultimately the means of bringing him to England, where 
he became acquainted with Bartolozzi, apd lived in his 
house uptil be established himself on his own foundation;; 
after which Scbiavonetti cultivated his genius with a shccess 
that answered the expectations which were first formed of 
it, and conducted all his affairs with an uprightness &nd in* 
t^rity that will cause bis memory to be equaUy revered as 
a gentleman and an artist. . He died at Brompton, Juiie 7; 
1810, in the forty^fourth year of his age; and on the 14th 
was buried in Paddington church-yard, ifllh a solemnity 
worthy of his talents and character. 

In bis person, Mn Scbiavonetti. was rather tall and weif 
inade, and his amiable modesty, equability of temper, at)d 
promptness to oblige, won the good will of all who saw and 
conversed with him. Many a^ts of his private life showed 
the excellence of his character ; among others, as soon at 
he began to derive profit from his profession, be devoted a 
portion of it to the support of his relatives in It^ly; and 
constantly remitted to his aged parent a stipend suffioienc 
to etisure him comfort. 

Some of his principal performances are, the " Madre 
Dolorosa,'* after Vandyke: the Portrait of that Master in. 
the character of Pariis : Michael Angelo's celebrated Cartoon' 
Of the Surprize of the Soldiers on the Banks of the Arno : 
a iieries of Etchings, from designs by Blake, illustrative of 
Blair's Grave: the Portrait of Mr. Blake, after PhiiHps, fot 
the same work : the. Landing of the British Troops in Egypt, 
from Eoutherbourg ; and the Etching of the Canterbury 
Pilgrimage, from Stothard*s esteemed picture* 

Hi S C H I L L C R. 

« » 

him from reading his works, and is said to bavtif rodsed 
him from those Habits of dissipation in which he had in* 
dulgedy and to which he was in great danger of falling ^ 
victim* He was now patronized by the duke qf Saxe-Wei- 
mat, who conferred on him the title of aulic counsellor, and 
nominated him to the professorship of history and philoso* 
phy at the university of Jena. He had previously written 
an account of the " Revolt of the Netherlands from the 
Spanish government,^' and he now set about composing hit 
** History of the thirty Years' War in Germany,'* a work 
which has been much admired in his own country. At 
length he removed to Weimar, where the pension, as ho* 
norary professor from the duke, was continued to him ; and 
produced the ^^ History of the mo$t memorable Conspirao^ 
cies," and the " Ghost-Seer," which displayed the peculiar 
tiirn of his mind, and were much read. In the latter part 
of bis life he conducted a monthly work published at Tu- 
bingen, and an annual poetical almanac, and composed a 
tragedy entitled " The Maid of Orleans." He was the au- 
thor of other dramatic pieces^, some of which are known, 
though imperfectly, in this country, through the medium 
of translation. ' He died at Weimar, May 9, 1 805, and 
be was interred with great funeral solemnity. In his private 
character Schiller was friendly, candid, and sincere. Iii 
his youth he affected eccentricity in his manners and appear* 
ance, and a degree of singularity seei^s always to have ad- 
hered to him. In his ^orks, brilliant strokes of genius are 
unquestionably to be found, but more instances of extra- 
vagant representation of passion, and violation of truth and 
naturae. They enjoyed some degree of popularity here, 
during the rage for translating and adapting German playi 
for our theatres; and although this be abated, they have con- 
tributed to the degeneracy of dramatic taste, and have not 
produced the happiest effects on our poetry.* 

SCHILTER (John), an eminent jurist, was bom atPe* 
gaw in Misnia, Aug. 29, 1632, and studied at Leipsic and 
Naumberg, wherein 1651, he removed for two years td 
Jena, and then completed his course at L^psic. In 1655. 
he took the degree of doctor in philosophy, as he did the 
same in the faculty of law at Strasburgh some years after. 
He practised for some time as an advocate ^t Naumberg^ 
where prince Maurice of Saxe made* him keeper of his ar- 

1 Qent. Mag.— 'Reel's Cytlepcdia. 


iebfves, and intendant or director of the territory of Sul in 
the county of Henneberg. About 1686 he accepted an 
invitation to Strasburgb, where he was appointed counsellor 
^nd advocate of the state, and honorary professor of^ the 
academy. He died there, May 14, 1705, in the seventy- 
third year of his age. He wrote a great many volumes on 
subjects connected with antiquities and with his profession, 
Ihe principal of which are, 1. ^' Codex juris Alemannici 
feudalis,'* 1696, 3 vols. 4ta 2. <^ Thesaurus antiquitatuod 
Tentonicarum," 1728, 3 vols. foL a posthumous publica- 
tion, edited by Scherzius at Ulm. 3. *^ Institutiones Ca« 
nonici," 1721, Svo, in which he endeavours to recopcile 
the canon law to that iii use among the protestaut churches. 
4. <Mnstitution«s juris publici,*' 1696, 2 vols. 8vo, one of 
his first, and a very learned work.' 

SCHMIDT (Christopher), a learned German, was bora 
May 1 1, 1740, at Nordheim, and studied law at Gottingen. 
In 1762 he visited St. Petersburgh in company whh count 
Munich, in whose family be had been tutor for some time, 
hut returned to his studies, and took his law degrees atGot-* 
tinmen, whence he removed to Helmstadt. He was soon 
after appointed professor in the Caroline college at Bruns- 
wick, where he lectured on history, public law, and statis* 
ties until 1779, when the prince made him a counsellor and 
keeper of the archives at Wolfenbuttel. In 1784, the 
prince added the title of aulic counsellor. He died in 180K 
In bis visit to Russia he contracted a fondness for that coun-^ 
try and its language, and employed much of his time on 
its history* This produced various works, published in 
German, ** Letters on Russia," *^ Materials for a knowledge 
of the Constitution and Government of Russia,'^ ^* An at* 
tempt towards a new introduction to the History of Russia,? 
&c. &c« He published also ^^ A manual of History," ^' His- 
torical miscellanies," and " A History of Germany,^' which 
IS spoken of as an eloquent and useful work.* , 

SCHMIDT (Erasmus), an excellent Greek scholar, wat 
born atDelitzch in Misnia, 1560, and became eminent for 
bis skill in the Greek tongue and in the mathematics ; botK 
which, although they are accomplishments seldom found 
in tlie same person, he professed .with great reput^^tion for 
nany years at Wittemberg, where he died in 1637, He 

1 NiceroD, toI. IL— Mereri.— Pict. Uiit— Saxii OnoiBMt. 
f IMct. Bitt« 

K 3 


published an edition of •* Pifldar*' in 1616, ito, with li 
Latin version and learned notes. While Heyiie finds many 
defects in this edition, he honours the editor with the title 
of " Editornm Pindari faci^le ppineeps." He wrote notes 
•alsd upon Lycophron, Dionys4u« Periegetes, and Hesiod ; 
»which last was published at Geneva in 1693; an excellent 
" Concordance to the Greek Testament,** fol. the best edi- 
tion of which is that of 17 17 ; and a " Commentary on the 
New Testame^n," much espt-een^ed, Argent. 1650, fol.' 
- SCHMIDT (John Andrew), a learned Lutheran di^ne, 
was born at Worms, in 1652. In his twenty-seventh year, 
lie hurt bis right arm with a fail so much, that he could 
never recover the use of it : he learned to write, however, 
«o well with the left, as to be able to compose near a hun- 
dred publications, without the help of an amanuensis, but 
they are chiefly theses upon subjects of ecclesiastical his-^ 
tory. One of his pieces is entitled " Arcana dominationiv 
in rebus gestis Oliverii Cromwelli ;" another is against a 
book, supposed to be Le Clerc's, with this title, ** Liberii 
tie sancto amore Epistolae Theologicee.'* He translated Par- 
die's " Elements of Geometry" out of French iqto Latin. 
He died in 1 726 ; and his funeral oration was made by John 
Laurence Mosheim, who speaks very highly in' bis praise.* 

SCHN'EBBELIE (Jacob), was son x)f a native of Zu- 
rich, in Switzerland, lieutenant in the Dutch army at the 
memorable siege of Bergen-op-Zoom in 1747 ; when, after 
a gallant resistance of two montfhs, it was, as generally be- 
lieved, surprised by the French under marshal LowendaK 
Upon quitting the service Mr. Schnebbelie carae over to 
£ngiand, and settled in the business of a confectioner, iii 
which capacity he had frequently the h©f>our of attending 
on king George II. He afterwards opened a shop at Ro-* 
cihester, where one of his sons still resides ; and the same 
profession his son Jacob (who was born Aug. 30, 1760, in 
Duke's Court, in the parish of St Martin in the Fields) 
followed for some time, first at Canterbury, and afterwards 
at Hammersmith ; till, nature pointing out to him the pro- 
per road to fame and credit, he quitted his shop and com- 
menced self-taught teacher, at Westminster and other 
public schools, of the art of drawing, in which he made a 
proficiency which introduced him to the notice of many 
among the learned and the great. To the earl of Lei- 

1 Moreri. — Diet. Hist. * Moreru 


cester^s notice he was first introduced by accidentally 
sketching a view in his park near Hertford, and was em* 
ployed b^ him in taking some of the most picturesque 
landscapes about Tunbridge Wells, with a view to their 
publication for his benefit. At* their noble president's ex- 
press recommendation he was appointed draughtsman of 
the society of antiquaries ; and Biled that office with equa) 
credit to himself and his- patron. The merits of his pencil 
are too generally known and acknowledged to require any. 
exaggerated eulogium. Happy in a quick eye and a dis- 
criminating taste, he caught the most beautiful objects in 
the happiest points of view; and for fidelity and elegance 
of delineation, may be ranked high among the list of first*. 
rate artists. The works put forth on his own account are 
not numerous. In 17S1 he intended to publish six views 
of St. Augustine's Monastery, to be engraved by Mr. Ro- 
gers, &c. ; five of which were completed, and one small 
view of that religious house was etched by himself. In 
17S7 he etched a plate representing the Serpentine River,f 
part of Hyde Park, with the house of earl Bathurst, a dis- 
tant view of Westminster Abbey, &c. now the property 
and in the possession of Mr. Jukes, intended to be aqua- 
tinted for publication. Mr. Jukes purchased also from him 
several views of Canterbury cathedral, St. Augustine's mo- 
nastery, &c. In March 1788 he published four views of 
St. Alban's town aiul abbey, drawn and etched by himself; 
which in the November following were published, aqua* 
tinted by F. Jukes. About the same time that he set oa 
foot the ^'Antiquaries Museum,*' he became an associate with 
the late James Moore, esq. F. S. A. and Mr. Parkyns, in the 
*^ Monastic Remains*;" which, after five numbers had ap- 
peared, be relinquished to his coadjutors. The assistance 
he occasionally gave to ^^ The Gentleman's Magazine," the 
smallest part of his merit, it will be needless to particu- 
larize ; bis masterly hand being visible on whatever it was 
exerted. It is of more consequence to his fame to point 
out the beauties of many of the plates in the second and 
third volumes of the " Vetusta Monumenta" of the Society 
of Antiquaries; and in the second volume of the ^^ Sepul- 
chral Monuments of Great Britain f," the far greater part 
of the numerous plates in which are after him ; or in the^ 
very many drawings he had finished, and the sketches he 

* See Gent. Mag. voK LXI. pp. 743, 1118, 1207. 

f lo the preface te which b« n gratefally coQuaeiDonted. 

m S C H O E P F L I N. 

• ' . ' • 

Paris he wetft to Italy, stajed at Rome six months, reV 
ceived from the king of the Two Sicilies a copy of thef* 
*' Antiquities of Herculaneum," and fronn the duke of 
Parrtia the *^ Mirseum Florentinum." He came to Eng^ 
land at the beginning of the late krng*s reign, and left it 
the day that Fere Courayer, driven out of Paris by theolo- 
gical disputes, arrived in London. He was now honoured* 
with a canonry of St. Thomas, one of the roost distinguished 
Lutheran chapters, and visited" Paris a third time in 1728, 
Several. dissertations by him are inserted in the " Memoiraf 
of the academy of inscriptions and belles lettres j'* one, 
ascribing the invention of moveable types to Guttenberg of 
Strasbou-rg, 1440, against Meerman, 

In 1733, he narrowly escaped from a dangerous illnes»« 
tie had long meditated one of those works, which alone, by 
their importance, extent, and difficulty, might immortalise 
a society, a " History of Alsace." To collect materials 
for this, he travelled into the Low Countries and Oermany 
in 1738, and into Switzerland 1744. At Prague be found 
that the fragment of St. Mark's Gospel, so carefully kept 
there, is a continuation of that at Venice. The chancellor 
D'Aguesseau senc for hioi to Paris, 1746, with the sain<» 
view. His plan was to write the History of Alsace, and to 
illustrate its geography and policy before and under the 
Romans, under the Franks, Germans, and its present go-* 
vernors; and, in 1751, he presented it to the king of 
France, who had before honoured him with the title of 
** Historiographer Royal and Counsellor," and. tl>en gave 
him an appointment of 2000 livres, and a copy of the cata* 
logne of the royal library. He availed himself of this op-» 
portunity to plead the privileges of the Protestant univer-^ 
sity of Strasbourg, and obtained a confirmatit^n of them. 
His second volume appeared in 1761; and be had prepared, 
as four supplements, a collection of charters and record*, 
im ecclesiastical history, a literary history, and a li»t of 
authors who had treated of Alsace: the publication of thesd 
he recommended to Mr. Koch, his assistant and successor 
in his chair. Between these two volumes he published fats 
** Vindicise Cdticae,'* in which he examities the origin, 
revolution, and language of the Celts. The ** History of 
Baden'* was his last considerable work, a duty which be 
thought he owed his country. He completed ibis history 
in seven volumes in four years ; the first appeared in 176^ 
the last in 1766. Having h^ this history illustrated bis 

S C H O E P F L I N. 4« 

country, he pfevaiied upon the marquis of Baden to build 
^ room, in which all its anciertt monuments were deposited 
in 1763. He engaged with the elector palatine to found 
the academy of Manheim. He pronounced the inaugural 
discourse, and furnished the electoral treasury with an- 
tiques. 'He opened the public meetings of this academy, 
which are held twice a year, by a discourse as honorary 
president. He proved in two of these discourses,' that no 
electoral house, no court in Germany, had produced a 
greater number of learned princes than the electoral house. 
In 1766, he presented to the elector the first volume af the 
** Memoirs of a Rising Academy," and promised one every 
two years. 

A friend to humanity, and not in the least jealous of his 
literary property, he made his library public. It was the 
most complete in the article of history that ever belonged 
to a private person, rich in MSS. medals, inscriptions, 
figures, vases, and ancient instruments of every kind, 
colieeled by him with great judgment in his travels. All 
these, in bis old age, he presented to the city of Strasbourg, 
without any other condition except that bis library shauld 
be open both to foreigners and his own countrymen. The / 
city, however, rewarded this disinterested liberality by a 
pension of a hundred louis. He was admitted to the de\ 
bates in the senate upon this occasion, and there compli- 
inented the senate and the city on the favour they had 
shewn to literature ever since its revival in Europe. No- 
vember 22, 1770, closed the fiftieth year of the professor- 
ship of Mr. S. ; this was celebrated by a public festival : 
the university assembled, and Mr. Lobstein, their orator, 
pronounced before them a discourse in praise of this ex- 
traordinary man, and the whole solemnity concluded with 
a grand entertainment. Mr. S. seemed born to outlive 
himself. Mr. Ring, one of his pupils, printed his life in 
1769. In 1771, be was attacked by a slow fever, occa- 
sioned by an obstruction in his bowels and an ulcer in hii 
lungs, after an illness of many months. He died August 7, 
the first day of the eleventh month of his seventy-seventh 
year, sensible to the last. He was buried in the colle<* 
giate church of St. Thomas, the city, in his favour, dis- 
pensing with the law which forbids interment within its 
limits. * 

1 Gent. Mag. 1783, by Mr, Goos^, aj^pMtwktr ff^n^ H«tl«i de Vitis PhllOs 
lofforam, toL III. or from Ring'i Life. 


SCHOMBERG (Alexander Crowcher), a learned 
English clergyman, was born July 6, 1756,' and educated 
at Southampton-school, where he laid the foundation of his 
classical learning, and displayed his taste in some juvenile 
performances which were much approved. He afterwards 
cultivated these attainments under Dr. Warton at Winches- 
ter-school, whence he removed to Magdalen -college, Ox- 
fordj of which he became M. A. in 1781, and fellow and 
tutor. Although formed to excel in polite literature, his 
inclination led him into other pursuits, and the whole oeco- 
pomy of human life became the subject of his observation. 
The interests of nations, the relations of arts, the cir- 
cuitous channels and the secret recesses of commerce, and 
the wide range of operations in manufactures and agri- 
culture, were open to his intuition. His " Chronological 
View of the Rornan Laws,"- published in 1785, was the in- 
troduction to a larger work, for which he had furnished 
himself with ample materials, by his study of juridical an- 
tiquities. Connected with this, was his " Treatise on the 
Maritime Laws of Rhodes," in which he clearly investi- 
gated the origin, and elegantly described the nature, of the 
piaritime codes which bore an analogy to the Rhodiaii 
laws. During the intervals of his occupation as tutor of 
the college, he visited the principal seats of commerce and 
manufactures in England and on the continent.' There* 
suit of these researches was given, in 1787, in his *^ Histo- 
rical and Political Remarks on the Tariff of the Commer- 
cial Treaty with France,** which proved the very enlight- 
ened progress he had made in the science of political 
iteconomy. From that time he had, with minute attention, 
observed the effects of that famous treaty upon both na- 
tions ; and he had made a considerable progress in print- 
ing a series of facts and collateral deductions, under the 
title of *' Present State and Manufactures in France,'* 
'when he was interrupted by an excruciating disorder, 
>vhich proved fatal April 6, 1792, at Bath, whither he had 
gone in hopes of relief from the waters. He was a man 
of an amiable disposition, and greatly lamented by hi^ 
friends. He had taken orders, but had no preferment in 
the church. * 

SCHOMBERG (Frederic duke of), a distinguished ge- 
neral, was descended of a noble family iii Germany^ and w^ 

' » Q^nt. Mas. t©1. IXlh 

S C H O M B E R G, 251 

the son of count Schomberg, by hisfirst wife, anEnglisb lady, 
daughter of the lord Dudley; which count was killed at the 
battle of Prague in Bohemia in 1620, together with seve- 
ral of bis sons. The duke was born in 1608. He served 
first in the army of the United Provinces, and afterwards 
became the particular confident of William IL prince of 
Orange ; in whose last violent actions he had so great a 
share, and particularly in the attempt upon Amsterdam, 
that, on the prince's death in 1650, he retired into France. 
Here be gained so high a reputation, that, next to the 
prince of Cond^, and Turenne, he was esteemed the best 
general in that kingdom ; though, on account of his firm 
adherence to the Protestant religion, he was not for a con- 
siderable time raised to the dignity of a marshal. In Nov. 
1659 he offered his service to Charles II. for his restora- 
tion to the throne of England ; and, the year Following, 
the court of France being greatly solicitous^for the interest 
of Portugal against the Spaniards, he. was sent to Lisbon; 
and in his way thither passed through England, in order 
to concert measures with king Charles for the support of 
Portugal. Among other discourse which- he had with that 
prince, he advised his majesty to set up for the head of 
the Protestant religion ; which would give him a vast as- 
cendant among the princes of Germany, make him umpire 
of all their affairs, procure him great credit with the pro- 
testants of France, and keep that crown in perpetual fear 
of him« He urged him likewise not to part with Dunkirk, 
the sale of which was then in agitation ; since, considering 
the naval power of England, it could not be taken, and th6 
possession of it would keep both - France and Spain in a 
dependence upon his majesty. 

In Portugal he performed such eminent services to that 
kingdom that he was created a grandee of it, by the title 
of count Mertola, with a pension of 5000^. to himself and 
his heirs. In 1673 be came over again into England, to 
command the army ; but, the French interest being then 
very odious to the English, though he would at any othet 
time of his life have been acceptable' to them, he was at 
that crisis looked on as one sent over from France to bring 
pur army under French discipline. Finding himself, there- 
fore, obnoxious to <the nation, and at the same time not 
loved by the court, as being found not fit for the designs of 
the latter, he soon returned to France. In June 1676, he 
ivas left by the king of France, upon bis return to Parish 


with the command of bis army in Flanders ; and doon after 
obliged the prince of Orange to raise the siege of Maesr* 
tricbt, and was made a marshal of Frai>ce. But, when 
the prosecution against those of the reformed religion wa^ 
begun in that kingdom, he desired leave to return into his 
own country ; which was denied him, and all the favour be 
«ould obtain was to go to Porlugal. And, though he had 
preserved that nation from falling under the yoke of Cas^ 
tile, yet now, when he came thither for refuge, the inqui- 
sition represented that matter of giving harbour to an 
heretic so odiously to the king, that he was forced to send 
i^he marshal away. He went thence to England ; and, 
passing through Holland, entered into a particular con* 
fidence with the prince of Orange ; and, being invited by 
the etector of Brandenburgh to Berlin, was made governor 
of Prussia, and placed at the head\of all tl^ elector's 
armies. He was treated likewise by the young elector 
with the same regard that his father had shewn him ; and, 
in 1688, was sent by him to Cleves, to commaod the 
troops which were raised by the empire for the defence of 

When the prince of Orange was almost ready for his ex- 
pedition into England, marshal Schomberg obtained leave 
of the elector of Brandenbonrg to accompany bis highness 
in that attempt ; and, after their arrival at London, he is 
mipposed to have been the author of that remarkable stra* 
tagem for trying the affections of the people, by raising 
«n universal apprehension over the kingdom of tbe ap- 
proach of tbe Irish with fire and sword. Upon the prince's 
advanceuheut to the throne of England, he was appointed 
master of the ordnance, and general of his majesty's forces ^ 
in April 16H9, knight of the garter, and the same month na- 
turalized by act of parliament ; and, in May, was created a ba^^ 
ro», earl, marquis, and duke of this kingdom, by the name 
and title of baron Teys, earl of Brentford, marquis of Har- 
wich, and duke of Schomberg. Tbe House of Commons like- 
wise voted to him 100,000/. for the services wliich he had 
done; but be received only a small part of that sum, tbe king 
after his death paying his son 5000/. a year for the remain- 
der. In Ajug. 1689 he sailed for Ireland, with an arnnyy 
for the redaction of that kingdom ; and, having, mustered 
$11 bis forces there, and finding them, to be not above 
14,000 men, among whom there were but 2000 horse, he 
oAitrched to X>midaU;> where ho posted hiouolf ; img J^mcB 


1>«in£ oome to Ardee. within fire or »x miles of him, with 
4tbove thrice his number. Scbomberg^ therefore, being 
<lisapp<Mfited of the supplies from England, which had been 
f>ro«iised him, and his arni}^ being so greatly inferior to the ^ 
Irish, resolved to keep himself on the defensive. He lay 
there six weeks in a rainy season ; and his men, for want 
of due management, contracted such diseases that almost 
one half of them perished. 

He was censured by some for not making a bold attemjit ; 
and «uch complaints were sent of this to king William, 'that 
iiis majesty wrote twice to him, pressing him on the sub- 
ject. But the duke saw that tbe enemy was well posted 
and .well provided, and had several good officers among 
them; and knew that, if he met with a check, his whole 
army, and consequently all Ireland, had been lost,' since 
he could not have made a regular retreat. The surest me* 
thod was to preserve his army ; which would save Ulster, 
and although his conduct exposed hini to the reproaches of 
tome persons, better judges thought, that bis management 
of this campaign was one of the greatest actions of his life. 
At the battle of the Boyne, July I, 1690, he passed the 
river in his station, and immediately rallied and encou- 
raged the French Protestants, who had been left exposed 
by the death of their commander, with this short harangue; 
*^ Allons, messieurs, voiR vos pers^cuteurs,^' pointing to 
the French Papists in the enemy's army. But these word« 
were scarcely uttered, when a few of king James's guards, 
who retdrned full speed to their main body, after the 
slaught«er of their companions, and whom the French re- ' 
fugees suffered to pass, thinking them to be of their own 
party, fell furiously upon the duke, and gave him two^ 
wounds over the head, which, however, were not mortal. 
Upon this, the French regiment acknowledged their erroi^ 
by committing a greater; for, firing rashly on the enemy, 
tbey shot him through the neck, of which wound he in^ 
ftantly died. He was buried in St Patrick's cathedral,* 
where die dean and chapter erected a small monument ta 
his honour, at their own expence, with an elegant inscrip- 
tion by I>r. Swift, which is printed in the Dean's works. 

Burnet tells us, that he was ^^ a calm man, of great ap<^' 
plication and conduct, and thought much better than he* 
apoke ; of true judgment, of exact probity, and of an hum-* 
ble and obliging temper." And another writer observes-, 
that he had a thorough experience of the world ; knew 

854 S C H O M B E R O. 

men and things better than any nian of his pFofession e^et 
did ; and was as great in council as at the head of an army. 
He appeared coprteous and affable to every person, and 
yet had an air. of grandeur that commanded respect from alL 

.In king William's cabinet are the dispatches of the duke 
of Scbomberg in Ireland to king William^ which sir John 
Dalrympie has printed in the second volume of his me- 
moirs ; " because/' he remarks, *^ they paint in lively co- 
lours the state of the army in that country ; clear Scbom- 
berg of inactivity, which has been unjustly thrown upon 
him ; and do honour to the talents of a man, .who wrotd 
with the elegant simplicity of Caesar, and to whose repu- 
tation and conduct, next to those of king William, the 
English nation owes the revolution. ^ 

SCHOMBERG (Isaac), one of a family of physicians of 
^ome note in their day, w«s the son of Dr. Meyer Scbom^ 
berg, a native of Cologne, a Jew, and, as it was said, 
librarian to some* person of distinction abroad, which oc- 
cupation he left, and came and settled in London, where 
be professed himself to be a physiician ; and, by art and 
address, obtained a lucrative situation amidst the faculty* 
In 1740 he had outstripped all the city physicians, and 
was in the annual receipt of four thousand pounds. He 
died March 4, 1761. This, bis son, was born abroad^ 
and at the age of two or three years was brought to Eng- 
land, where he received a liberal education, and afterwards 
studied at Leyden. After his retui*n to London he set up 
in practice, but had a dispute with the college of physi- 
cians, as, we are told, his father had before him. The 
partic^ilars of this dispute are not uninteresting in the 
history of the college. 

After Dr. Schomberg had practised some years as a phy- 
sician in London, he received a notice from the college of 
their intention to examine him in the usual form, and to 
admit him a licentiate. This notice he was thought to 
have trieated with contempt ; for, instead of submitting to 
the examination, be objected to the names of some persons 
who were to be examined at the same time, and behaved, it 
is said, with some haughtiness to those of the college who,- 
hexornplained, had used him ill, in ordering him to be 
axat^ined in such company. The college considering 

themselves' the sole judges of what persons they should 

. . •• ' 

J BirA^s Liv«*.— Burnet's Own Times.— Swift's Workt. Sec to^tz. 

8 C H O M B E R O. iBS 

tall upooy refused to attend to the doctor-s objection, but 
examined the persons against whom he seemed most to 
except ; but this not tending to make up the dispute, tbejr 
proceeded to interdict the doctor from practice until he 
bad given such satisfaction as his conduct required. la 
the mean time the doctor submitted to be examined, and 
in 1750 procured the degree of doctor of physic to be con«- 
ferred on him by the university of Cambridge ; and, thug 
supported, demanded his admittance a second time, not 
as a licenciate, but one of the body. This demand was re^* 
fused to be complied with, and it was objected, that the 
doctor, though naturalized, eould not hold the office of 
censor of the college, which was an office of trust ; and 
this refusal brought the determination of the business tQ 
the decision of the lawyers. A petition was presented to 
the king, praying him, in the person of the lord chancellor^ 
to exercise his visitatorial power over the college, and re« 
•tore the licenciates to their rights, which, by their arbi* 
trary proceedings, the president and fellows had for a sue-' 
cession of ages deprived them of. This petition came on 
to be heard at Lincoln's Inn hall, before the lord chie^ 
justice Willis, baron Smythe, and judge Wilmot, lords 
commissioners of the great seal ; but the allegations therein 
contained not being established, the same was dismissed. 
This, attack on the college was the most formidable it ever 

In this dispute Dr. Schomberg was supposed to have 
employed his pea against his adversaries with considerable 
effect. It is certain he was well supported by bis friends ; 
one of whom, Moses Mendez, esq. exposed bis opponents 
to ridicule, in a performance entitled *^ The Battiad," since 
reprinted in Dilly*s Repository. 

From thi*s period Dr. Schomberg took his station in the 
medical profession, with credit and approbation, though 
without the success that inferior talents sometimes expe« 
rienced. On the last illness of David Garrick, he waa 
called in, and hailed, by his dying friend, in the affectionate 
terms of — <' though last not least in|our dear love." He sur- 
vived Garrick but a short time, dying at his house in Con- 
duit-street, the 4th of March, 1780 J and the following 
character was given of him by one who seems to have 
known him well : 

** His great Jtalents and knowledge in his profession, 
were universally acknowledged by Uie gentlemen of the 

isB S C H O M B E R G. 

. faculty ; aod his t€«<Jerrie98 abd humanity recomm^niledl 
bim to the friendship and esteem, a« well as veneration, of ' 
his patieqts. He was endued with uncommon quickness 
und sagacity in discovering the sources, and tracing the 
progress, of a disorder ; and though in general a friend to 
jprudent regimen, rather than medicine, vfet,' in emergent 
cases, he prescribed with a correct ahcf happy boldness 
equal to the occasion. He was so averse from that sordid 
avarice generally charged, perhaps often with great injus- 
tice, on th« faculty, that many of his friends in affluent cir* 
cumstanoes found it impossible to force on him that rewarcl 
for bis services which he had so fairly earned, and which 
iiis attendance so well merited. As a man he wis sincere 
«nd just In his principles, frank and amiable in his temper^ 
instructive and lively in conversation; his many singulari- 
ties endearing him still further to his acquaintance, as they 
proceeded from an honest plaiii-ness of mannerj and visibly 
Slowed from a benevolent simplicity of heart. He was, for 

V flnany days, sensible of his approacbirig 6nd, which been* 
countered with a calmness and resignation, not easily to 
be imitated by those who now regret the loss of so good a 
inan, ^o valuable a friend, and so skilful a physician.'* 

Dr. Schomberg had a younger brother, Ralph Schoat- 
£ER6, M. D. who first settled at Yarmouth ^$ a physidiari, 
and published some works on pr6fession^l Subjects that' in- 
dicated ability, and others from which he derived little rfi- 
putation. Of the former kind are, 1. •*'Aphorisnii prac- 
tici, sive observationes medicse/' for the u^e of studentfj; 
und in alphabetical order, 1750, ^vo. 2. " Prbsperi Mar- 
tiani Anpotationes in csecas pracnotationes synopsis,"'! 751. 

5. "'Van Swieten's Commentaries" abridn;ed. ' 4.- ** A 
Treatise of the Colica Pictonum, or Dry Belly-ache,*' f764; 
Svo. 5. ** Diiport de signis morborum trbrl quatuor,'* 
4766. Of tlie latter, are sonie dramatic pieces of very 
little valufe, and 6. " An Ode on thfe present rebeJliort,*^ 
1746. 7. " An Account of the present rebellion," 1746; 

6. "The Life of Maecenas," 1767, 12mo, taken without 
Bckiiowledgment from Meibonvius. 9. *' A critical Disser- 
tation on the characters and writings of Pindar and Hdrace; 
in a letter to the right bon. ,the earl of B — ," also a shame- 
ful instance Xif plagiarism from Blondell's " Comparison de 
Pindare et D' Horace." It would have been well if his piU 
ferings had only been from books ; but after he had removed 
to iBakb, and practised there some years with considerAbi* 


S C H O M B E R 0. tfS7 

success^ be tried bis skill upon ^he funds of a public cba* 
rity^ and, detection following, was obliged to make a pre* 
cipitate retreat from Bath, aiid from public practice. He 
appears to have hid himself first at Paugbourn in Berkshire, 
and afterwards at Reading, where he died June 29, 1792* 
In the obituary be is called " Ralph Schomberg, I!sq.\^^ 

SCHONER (Joim), a noted German philosopher and 
mathematician, was born at Carolostadt in 1477, and died 
in J 547, aged seventy. From bis uncommon acquirements, 
he was chosen matheipatical professor at Nuremberg when 
he was but a young man. He wrote a great many works, 
and was particularly famous for his astronomical tables, 
which he published after the manner of those of Regiomon-* 
tan us, and to which he gave the title of Resolutay on ac-* 
count of their clearness. Bur, notwithstanding his great 
knowledge, he was, after the fashion of the times, much 
addicted to judicial astrology, which he took great pains 
to improve. The list of his writings is chiefly as follows : 
J. " Three Books of Judicial Astrology." 2. " The astro- 
nomical' tables named Resolutas,'* 3. ^ De Usu Globi 
Stelliferi; De Compositione Globi Coelestis ; De Usu Globi 
Terrestris, et de Compositione ejusdem.'* 4. *^ iEquato- 
rium Astronomicum.^' 5. '< Libellus de Distantiis Loco- 
rum per Instrumentum et Numeros investigandis.'* 6. *^ De 
Compositione Torqueti." 7. " In Constructionem et Usum 
Rectanguli sive Radii Astronomic! Annotationes.*' 8. 
'^ Horarii Cylindri Canones.^' 9. ^ Pianisphserium, sea 
Meteoriscopium.*' 10. " Orgahum Uranicum." 11.** In- 
strumentum Impedimentorum Lunse.** All printed at Nu- 
remberg, in 1551, folio. Of these, the large treatise of 
dialling rendered bim more known in the learned world 
than all his other works besides, in which he discovers a 
surprising getiius and fund of learning of that kind ; but 
some have attributed this to his son.* 

rard), a learned Norwegian, was born at Skatnss, in Nord- 
tand, in 1722. He went in 1740 to the school of Dron- 
tbeim, the rector of which conceived so high an opinion of 
his ti^lents, as to assist him in carrying ou his studies a( 

1 Eurob. Mag. Ibr 1803.— Kiobols*8 Bowyer.— Minutes of Proceedings of tbt 
RoTal college of Physicians, relating to X>r. Isaac Scbomberg, from Feb. 5, 
1146, to Bt& 99, 1/753, tvo, 1754. 

s Martin's Biog. PbiL— Hutton't Pictionar7.«-Fnh«ri,Tb«atruiii.— Saxii On*" 

Vol. XXVIT. S . 

Si5d S G H O N N I N G.* 

Copenhagen, wbe^e in 1758, be was elected a member of 
the aoademy of sciences at Copenhagen. In 1764 be was. 
appointed professor of history and eloquence^t Sera, and. 
received literary honours from various societies. , In 1773, 
1774, and 1775, be went on a tour,, at the king^s expence, 
through various parts of Norway, to examine the remsiiot 
of antiquity, but was recalled to Copenhagen to be keeper 
of the archives, and in 1776 was appointed a member of 
the society formed for publishing Icelandic works from the 
collection of Arnas Magnseus. He died July 18, 178p. 
He is said to have passed his time and employed his 
thoughts entirely on bis peculiar studies, having an utter 
aversion to theological controversy, and being equally par* 
tial to men of merit of all persuasions. Hi& works* 
roerous, but many of them are academical disser|;atiQns« 
Among those of a more permanent form are ^^ An Essay 
towards the ancient Geography of the Northern Countries^ 
particularly Norway ;" " Observations on th^ old Nprthertt 
Marriages and Weddings ;" ** De Anni Ratione apud ve- 
leres Septentrionales ;" " History of Norway from tbo 
foundation of the kingdom till the time of Harold^ Haar- 
feger," 1771 — 1781, 4 vols. 4to, the last vohirne edited 
by Sahm ; ** Travels through Norway," &c. He was aka 
the contributor of many papers to tbe Transactions of the 
Norwegian society, and of the. academy of sciences at Co-* 
penhagen, on subjects of antiquity, bearing sonfie relation 
to the northern nation«.^ 

SCHOOCKIUS (Martin), a learned and v^ry laborious 
writer, was born April 1, 1614, at Utcecht, and was sue- 
cessively professor of languages, rbetqric, hi^tony, natural 
philosophy, logic, and experimental philqsopby in that 
Qity, at Deventer, Groningen, and lastly, at Franoford 
upon Oder, where he died in 1665, aged (ifty-one. Scbooc** 
kius delighted in singular subjects, and has left a prodi-* 
gious number of works. Burman says he never knew a 
man who published so much and acquired so little- fame^ ia 
the learned worlds Some of his works are qritijcal^ others 
on philosophy, divinity, history, and literature, chiefly in 
12GDO or 8vQ, &c. The known atre, tri^ts on turfs, 
*^ De Turffis, sen de cespitibus Bituminosis ;'' *^ On But- 
ter f* " On Antipathy to Cheese ;" " On Eggs and Chic^ 
kens ^** ^^ On Inundations ;'' *^ De Harengi^ seu Haleci^ 

» Diet. Hist 1 

S C H O O C K lU S. 2S9 

hm ;^* « De Sigiiaturis fotus f " De Ciconiw ;" « De Ni- 
hilo ;** " De Sternutatione ;'* " De figmento legis Regi» ;'* 
" De Bodtii Ecclesiasticis et Canonicis/* 4to ; " De Statu 
Reipublicft foedecati Belgii/' &c* &c. He vrrote also agaiDi^t 
Des CarteS) at the request of the famous VoetiuSy with 
whom be was much connected. Some other pieces on sin- 
golar subjects are in his " Exercitationes varia,'' 1663, 4to, 
reprinted under the title of ** Martini Themidis exercitii- 
tiohes," 1688, 4to, &c.* 

SCHOOTEN (Francis), professor of mathematii^s at 
Leyden about the middle of the Seventeenth century, ' i^as^ 
a very acute proficient in that science. He published, in' 
1649, an edition of Descartes's geometry, with learned 
and elaborate annotations on that work, as also those of 
Beaunnie, Hudde, and Van He^uralt< Schooten pablisbed 
also two very useful and learned works of his own compo^i-' 
tioft ; " Principia Matheseos universalis," 1651, 4to; and 
" Exercitationes Matbematicae," 1657, 4to.* 

8CHOTT (Andrew), a very learned German, to wh6m 
the republic of letters has been considerably indebted,^ utras 
born at Antwerp, Sept. 12, 1552; and educated at Lou- 
vain. Upon the taking and sacking of Antwerp in 1577^ 
he retired to Douay ; and, after some stay there, went to 
Paris, where Busbequius received him into bis house, and 
fnade him partner of his studies. Two years after, he went 
into Spain, and was at first at Madrid ; then he removed 
to Alcala, and then in 1580 to Toledo, where his great' 
reputatioii procured hira a Greek professorship. The car- 
dinal Gaspar Quiroga, abp. of Toledo, conceived at the 
same time stich an esteem for him, that he lodged him in 
Kis psilace, and entertained him as long as be remained in 
that placev tn 1 584, he was invited to.Saragossa, to testch 
rhetoric aftd the Greek latiguage r atyd, two years after, 
entered into the society of Jestiits, and was called by Che 
general of the order iht6 Italy ta teach rhetoric at Rotoe. 
He continued thre6 years thercj and then returned to hisi 
own country, where he spertt ihk remainder of a long life 
in study and writing books. He was not only well skilled 
in Latin and Greek learning, but had also in him a candour 
Md generosity seldom to be found among the men of hirf 
<^der. He had an earnest desire to oblige all mankind, of 

- ' Kkeroiiy Yot.- XII. — Burman Traj* £radU.r-|^ico}8i's Vittt Professoruia 
* Hutton*s Diet, new edit. 1815. 

S 2 

260 S C H O T T. 

•. « 

what religion oi^ country soever ; and would freeljr cemmii^ 
ilicate even with heretics, if the cause of letters could be 
served : hence protestant writers every where mention him 
with respect He £ed at Antwerp Jan. 23» 1629, after 
having published a great number of books. Besides works 
more immediately connected with and relating to his owo 
profession, he gave editions of, and wrote notes upon, se** 
veral of the classics ; among which were Aureiius Victor^ 
Pomponius Mela, Seneca Rhetor, Cornelius Nepos, Vale« 
ritts Flaccos, kc. He wrote the life of Francis di Borgia, 
and- ^* Hfspania illustrata," 4 vols, folio, but there are rea- 
sons for doubting whether the '* Bibliotheca Hispana9^^.S 
vols, in one, 4to, was a publication of hia own ; it. seema 
rather to have been compiled from his MSS. He published,; 
howevetj an edition of BasiPs works, and is said to havei 
triMislated Photius; but this has been thought to be so modi 
below the abilities and learning of Schott, that some have 
questioned bis having been the author of it.^ 

SCHOTT (Caspar), a learned Jesuit, was bom in 1608, 
in the. diocese of Wurtzburg. His favourite studies were 
philosophy and mathematics, which he taught till his death* 
He passed several years at Palermo, whence be removed* 
t» Rome, where he contracted an intimacy with the cele-^ 
brated Kircher, who communicated to bira several of hir 
observations on the arts and sciences. Schott wasLauthor 
of several works, of which the most remarkable are, 1^' 
'* Pbysica curiosa ; stve Mirabilia Natures et arti»," J 667|r 
4to. 2. << Magia naturalis et artificialis,''. 1657^^59^ 4 vel& 
4to, reprinted in 1677. 3. "Technica curiosa," Norim* 
berg, 1664, 4to, in which is foimd the first idea of the air*«^ 
pump. 4. ^<'Anat6mia Physico-hydrostatica Foatium ei 
Fluminum.'* 5. ^^ Organum Mathematicum." In the va» 
rious writings of this Jesuit are to be met with the germa of 
the greater part of modern experiments'in pbysics* Coa<^ 
plete sets of them should consist of 20 vols, but they are 
not easily procured, as they were almost entirely forgotten, 
till brought to notice in 1785 by the abbe Mercier, in hisi 
** Notice des ouvrages de Caspar Schott.-' * 

SCHREVELIUS (CoaNEUUs), a Dutch commentator, 
was the ion of Theodore Schrevelius, first rector of the 
school at Haerlem, the lustory of which city lie published^ 

. 1 Dapin.— NiceroD» Tpl. XXVL-*Marehaii4 lo Psregriaos.*— Foppea's Bikti 
lel)^.— Sanii Onoinaft. 
K 0i«t Hist — BniB«t Maniisl 4u Ubraire* 

S C H R E V E L I U S. 261 



tnd afterwards rector of that of Leyden. He waa born pro- 
bably at the former place, and removed to Leyden with biis 
father in 1625, who being then advanced in years resjgfied 
hi^ office in favour of Cornelius in 1642. Cornelius ap- 
pears before this to have atudied and took his degrees in 
medicine, but bis promotion to the school turned his at- 
tention to classical pursuits, in the course of which he pub- 
lished editions vamrum of Hesiod, Homer, Ctaudiitn, Vir.* 
gil, Lucan, Martial, Juvenal and Perfiius, Erasmus's col- 
loquies, &c. none of which have been so fortunate as to 
obtain the approbation of modern critics. He applied^ 
however, to lexicograpby With more success, and besides 
a good edition of the Greek part of Hesychius*s Lexicon, 
published himself a Greek and Latin Dictionary, which has 
been found so useful to beginners, that perhaps few works 
of the kind hare gone through so many editions. Those <^ 
this country, where it still conttniies to be printed, have 
been enlarged and improved by Hill, Bowyer,'aad others. 
Schrevelius died in 1667.' 

SCHULTENS (Albert), a German divine, was born $t 
Grooingen, where he studied till 1706, and greatly <}iatin« 
guisbed himself by taste and skill in Arabic learnings Hw 
became a minister of Wassenar, and professor of tbe orien- 
tal tongues at Franeker. At length he was invited to Ley* 
4en, ' where he taught Hebrew and the oriental languages 
with reputation till his death, which happened in 1750. 
There are roatiy works of Schukens, which shew profound 
learning and just criticism ; as, ^ Commentaries upon Job 
and the Proverbs ;^* a book, . entitled ** Vetus et regia via 
Hebraieandi ;'' *< A Treatise of Hebrew Roots,^' &c. ,He 
had a son John Jacob Schultens, who was professor of divi- 
nity and oriental languages at Leyden, in his room.^^ This 
John Jacob was father to the subject of the following m^ 
tide.* - 

SCHULTENS ( Henuy Albert ), was born Feb. 15, 
1749, at Herborn (where his father was at that time divinity* 
professor), and was educated at tbe university at Leyden, 
where he applied himself with great diligence to the Ara^^ 
faic, under his father*^ instmcdions, and those of Scheie 
dfais^ who then lodged in his house* By his fiber's wir^ 
vice, he commenced his study of the eastern langui^g^es by 

1 Jopptn Bibl. Belg.-*BaiUct Jttf cmeDS.*-Moreri. * 

s Mor«n.-^Dict. Hilt * -*- 

^$» S C H U L T E N «. 

JearniQg the Arabic, to which he applied during two ycnira, 
:before be began the Hebrew. This» among other reasouf, 
may account for the preference which he always gave to 
th^ Arabic literature, and which was so great that he was 
oftea heard to wish that the duties of bis station woujd al« 
low him to devote the whole of his time to it. He, however, 
studied the Greek and Latin classics with the utmost dili- 
gence under Hemst^rhuis, Bhunkenius, and Vaikenaar* 
He alio cultivated an acquaintance with the best modern 
/^friters, among whom he in general gave the preference to 
.^he English ; he was remarkably fond of JPope^ and of 
.Sbakspeare he was an enthusiastic admirer. 

In m2f when only in his twenty-^third year, he pub* 
Jibbed a wprk entitled ^^ Antbolpgia Sententiarum Arabica* 
•TQio,'' with a Latin translation and notes, of which sir Wilr 
liam Jones testified his approbation. Soon after this ScbuU 
^ena went tp England, in order to examine the Arabic MSS. 
in the Bodleian library, and resided for some time at Oz*^ 
ford, as a gentleman commoner of Wadham college. Here 
W less than three months during the short winter days, he 
triauseribed Pocock's ^^ Meidanuis'' with his translation and 
9ates, a work which, took up no Less than 646 folio pages* 
The late professor White, in a letter to the father of ScbuU 
teas, says of him : ** It is impossible for any one to be 
morie geoecally respected in this place, or indeed to be 
mode deserving of it. Hia abilities, his amiable disposition, 
and Us polite behaviour, recomcqeod him strongly to alt 
tbos^ among us who know him only by reputation, and en* 
dear him toallwboare personally acquainted with him.^* 
The university: testified its sense of his extraordinary merit, 
by conferring on him ](in May 1773) the degree of M. A. 
'by diploma. He. also visited Cambridge, where he spent 
a fortmght ; during which time he corrected several errors 
in the' catalogue of Arabic manuscripts, and made several 
additions to it. In London be published a specimen of 
Pocock's *^ Meidanius/' Dr. Morton offered to make him 
Ilia assistant at the 'British Museum, and to secure to him 
the reversion of his own place ; but the ambition of. Scbulr 
tens was to be a professor of Ed^stern languages > and as 
there was no probability of thii appointment in England, 
be determined to return to Holland. Sir William Jones, 
whose friendship he assiduously cultivated, advised him to 
study the Persian, which he did with great diligence ; but 
he complained that this pursuit was often interrupted by 

S C H U. L T ENS. , 26S 

Qtfaer avocations, and that be «vas not able to devote so 
mucb time to it as he wi&bed. 

Soon after bis arrival in tlie United Provinces, he was 
chosen professor of oriental languages in the acadeifiical 
school of Amsterdam, where he resided during five years, 
and enjoyed the esteem and friendship of a numerous ac- 
quaintance. Besides Latin lectures to the students, he de« 
livered some in Dutch, on the Jeyvish antiquities and ori- 
ental history, which were much frequented and greatly ad- 
mired. On the death of jhis father, in 1778, he was cabled 
to Leyden as his successor. In Nov. 1792, he was attack* 
ed by a malignant catarrhal fever that terminated in a con- 
Mmption, of which he died in August 179$. Some time 
before his death, his physician found him reading the latter 
part of St. John's gospel, of which he expressed the warmest 
'admiration, and added, *^It is uo small consolation to me, 
. that, in the vigour of health, I never thought less htgfaty of 
the character and religion of Christ, than I do tioWi, in the 
debility of sickness. Of the truth and esfcellence of Chris- 
tianity I have always been convinced, and have always, f^s 
far as human frailty would allow, endeavoured so to express 
tbia conviction that, in these my last hours, I might with 
confidence look forwards to a blessed immortality." Scbul- 
tens, in his private character, was in every respect an 
amifl^ble and worthy man. 

. As a teacher, professor Schultens had the happy talent 
of rendering the driest subjects plain and interesting to his 
pupils. This was particularly the case with the principles 
of the Hebrew grammar, > an intimate and accurate know- 
ie^dge of which be recommended as indispensably necessary 
to all who wished to understand the Old Testament in the 
original language. In translating and explaining the Bible, 
be preserved a judicious medium between those who 
ithought the Hebrew text too sacred ^o be the subject of 
criticism; and those whO| like Houbigant, without a sufH- 
ioient acquaintance with the genius of the language^ ven- 
tured on needless alterations. « Hence be was much dis- 
pleased with a work by professor Kocberus of Benie, en- 
titled '^ VindicisB sacri textua Hebrsei Esaies vatis, adversus 
R. Lowthi criticam;'' concerning which he said, in a letter 
to Dr. Findlay, of Glasgow, ^' It violates the bounds of 
.moderation and decency by the assertion that the text of 
Isaiah could not gain any thing by Dr. Lowt^i's conjectures. 
I am of a vefy different opinion. When at Oxford and 


London, I was intimately acqaainted with bisbpp Lowtfa^i 
hud an opportunity of knowing fais excellent dispositioHt' 
and am therefore much vexed that Kocherus, from bis fiery 
zeal against innovation, should have been induced to treat 
him with severity, aa if the bishop had been a rash and pe* 
thlant critic," Scbultens^s sentiments on this subject are 
more fqily expressed iti some articles wiiich he wrote for 
the ^' Bibliotheca Critica," published by Wyuenbach, par- 
ticularly in tlie review of Kennicot's Bible. These judi*^ 
cious sentiments, together with bis extensive abilities and 
knowledge of the subject, his ejulogist observes, rendered 
him admirably qualified to have given a new version of the 
Old 1 estameut. This at one time he designed, and nearly 
finished a translation of the book of Job, which was pub- 
lisihed after his deathly Herman Muntinge, 1794, 8vq, bu^ 
bis sentiments of this portion of sacred writ are so much, at 
varianqe with those of the most able. and popular comment 
tatqrs, that we question if it will meet with general appro-» 

Professor Schulteos, though a very industrious student^ 
published little besides the ^^ Antbologia" already meution* 
ed,..and the following, V Pars versionis Arahicse Ubri Co* 
laili Wa Dimnab, sive Fabularum Bilpai;'' a supplement 
, to D'Uerbelot's ^^ Bibliotbeque Orientate;'' a Dutqh trails-* 
lation of Eichorn on the literary merits of Miobaelis ; and 
three Latin orations. He at one time resumed his intended 
editipn of Meidaoius, the care of which he left to.profes- 
sor Schroeder, who published a volume 4to, under the title 
^^ Meidani pvoverbiorum Arabicorj^m piars. Latiiie vertit et 
notis illustravit H.A. Scultens. Opus postbumum," 1795. 
It ought to consist of two more volumes, but we know not 
that they have appeared*' 


SCHURMAN (Akna Maria a), a most learned German 
lady, was the daughter of parents who were both descended 
from noble Protestant families, and was born at Cologne, in 
1607. She discovered from her infancy ah uncommon fa- 
cility in acquiring various accomplishments, as cutting with 
her scissors upan paper all sorts of figures, without any 
model, designing Bowers, embroidery, music vocal and in- 
^rumental, painting, sculpture, and engraving ; and is said 
to have succeeded equally in all these arts. Mr. Evelyn, 

1 Kantelaar'a Euloj^y, Amst. 1794; 8vo, in Montk. Rev. vol. XV, N. S. 

S C H U R M A N. 265 

in hh <* History of Chaleograpby/' has obserred, that ** tbe 
very knomng Anna' Maria a Schurnian is skilled in this art 
witb ionuncierable others, even to a prodigy of her sex.** 
Her hand -writing in all languages was intmitable ; and some 
curious persons have preserved 8f>eoiinens of it in their 
cabinets. M. Joby, in his journey to Munster^ relates, that 
he was an eye<* witness to the beauty of her writing, ia 
French, Greek, Hebre%v, Syriac, and Arabic ; and of her 
skill in drawing in miniature, and making portraits upoft 
glass witb tbe point of a diamond. She painted her own 
picture by means of a looking-glass; and made artificial 
pearls so like natural ones, that they could not be dtstin^ 
guished but by pricking them with a needle. 

The powers of b^ understanding were not inferior ta 
her skill in those arts : for at eleven, when her' brothbi^ 
were examined in Latin^ she often whispered to them what 
they were to answer, though she was only a casual hearef 
of their lessons. Her Either therefore began to instruct 
her more perfectly in that knowledge which made her so 
justly celebrated; and very soon the Latin, Greek, and He* 
hreiML languages became so familiar to her, that she not 
only wrote, but spoke them, in a manner which surprised 
tbe most learned men. She made a great progress also in 
the Syriac, Chaldee, Arabic, and Ethiopic ; and 'of the 
livtDg languages, she understood and spoke readily, tbe 
French, English, and^Italian. She was competently versed 
in geography, astronomy, philosophy, and th^ sciences, 
so, as to be able to judge of them with exakstness : but aM 
these accomplishments yielded at last to divinity, and the 
study of tbe scriptures. • 

Her father, who had settled at Utrecht while she was an 
infant, and afterwards removed to Franeker for the more 
convenient education of his children, died there in 1623. 
His widow then returned to Utrecht, where Anna Matia 
cooftinuedher studies very intensely ; wbi^h pfobabty pre- 
vented her from marrying, as she might have done advan^- 
tageously with Mr. Cats,. pensionary of HoHand, and a 
cdebrated . poet, who wrote verses in her praise when she 
was only fourteen. Her modesty, which was as great as 
hec knowledge, would have kept her in obscurity, if Rive^ 
tiis, Spanheim, and Vossius, had not made her merit known. 
Saluiasius also, Beverovicius, and Huygens, maintaijied a 
literary correspondence with her; and, by shewing her 
letters, spread her fame into foreign countries. This pro- 

36« S C H U HM A Nv 

cured ber a correspondence with Balzac, Gassendi, Mer^ 
sennus^ Bochart, Conrart, and other emkient men ; personsr 
6f the first rank paid her visits^ and cardinal Richeliea 
likewise shewed her marks of his esteem. About 1650, a 
great alteration took place in her religious system. She 
performed her devotions in private, without frequenting 
any church, upon which it was reported that she was in- 
clined to popery ; but she attached herself to the famous 
mystic Labadie, and embracing his principles and practice, 
lived some time with him at Altena, in Holstein, and at-* 
tended him at his death there in 1674. Sh^ afterwards 
retired to Wiewart, in Friseland, where the famous Penn, 
the Quaker, visited her in 1677 ; she died at this place in 
1 678* She took for her device these words of St, Ignatius : 
<* Amor meus crucifixus est" 

She wrote '^De vitsB humanee termino," Ultra}. 1639; 
i* Diasertatio de ingenii muliebris ad dootrinam et meliores 
literasaptitudine,",L. Bat 1641, ,12mo. These two pieces^ 
with letters in French, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, to her 
learned correspondents, were printed in 1643, under the 
title of ** A. M. a Schurman Opnscula • Hebrsesii, Gneca^ 
Latina, Gallica; prosaica & metrica;*' enlarged in a 2d 
edition at Leyden, 1650, ]2mo. She wrote afterwards^ 
^^ Eukleria, seu melioris partis electio.*' This is a defence 
of her attachment to Labadie, and was printed at Altena in 
1673, when she was with him.^ 

SCHURTZFLEI8CH (Conrad Samuei,), a learned 
German, was bora December 1.641, at Corback, in the 
county x>f Waldeck^ Having taken a doctor^s deigree in 
philosophy at Wittemberg, in 1664, he returned to Corbao, 
where he taught during some time instead of his father, 
'and/ then returning to Wittemberg, published a learned 
piece, entitled /'Judicium de novissimis prudenties civilis 
•criptoribus,'' &c^ under the assumed name of ** Eubulus 
Tb^odatus Sarckmasius.^^ In this little work, which con^ 
sifits but of a leaf and half, the author passes judgment very 
freely on fifteen German lawyers, or political writers, whidi 
•raised him many enemies, and engaged him in a literary 
war, which- produced a great number of pieces collected 
lijr Crusius, 8vo, under the title of *' Acta Sarckmasiana,** 
.and even occasioned his being struck out from the list of 

1 Gen. Diet — Niceroa, vol. XXXIIL— Bullart's Academie des Sciences. — 
Bttrman Traject Erudrt. 


doctors by the university of Wittembcrg, He was, faovr- 
evety not only riestor^d to that title two y^ars after, but 
appointed professor of history, then' of poetry, and at 
]ength of Greek. Jn 1 700, Scburtzfleisch succeeded to the 
rhetorical chair, and became counsellor and librarian to the 
duke of Saxe-Weimar, and died July 7, 170S. He left a 
great number of learned works on history, poetry, criticism^ 
hterature, &c. the most celebrated of which are, ** Dispu* 
tationes bistoricsB civiles,*' Leipsic, 1j699, 3 tom.4to. Henry 
Leonard Schurtzfleisch, his brother, Was also author of 
some works, among which is, *^ Historia' Ensiferorum ordi** 
wis Tieutonici," Wittemberg, 1701, l2mo.' 

SCHWARTZ (Bertholet), who passes for being the 
discoverer of that fatal composition so well known by the 
name of gun-powder, was born at Friburg in Germany in 
the thirteenth century, and is said to have discovered this 
dangerous secret in pfison, as he was making some chemi- 
cal experiments. Albertus Magnus speaks of him as a 
Cordelier, and says that he invented stole sorts of fire* 
arms. The discovery of this fatal secret has been attributed 
by^ome to the Chinese, and by others to our countryman, 
Roger Bacon.: however, the use of artillery was introduced 
about the time of the battle of Crecy, 1346, and made an 
absolute change in the whole art of war ; whether a benefit 
eial one, has not yet been decided.' 

SCIOPPIUS (Gaspar), a learned German writer, and 
one of the most arrogant and contentious critics of his time, 
was born about 1576 ; and studied first at Amberg, then at 
Heidelberg, afterwards at AltdoFf, at the charges of the 
elector palatine. Having m^de a considerable stay at In* 
golstadt, he returned to Altdorff, where he began to publish 
some of his works. Ottavia Ferrari, a celebrated professor 
at Padua, says, that he ^^ published books when he was hut 
sixteen, whi^h deserved to be admired by old men ;'* some, 
however, of his early productions do not deserve this en- 
comium. He took a journey into Italy; and, after he had 
beeo some time at Verona, returned into Germany, whence 
he went again into Italy, and published at Ferrara a pane- 
gyric upon the king of Spain and pope Clement Vlll. In 
1599, he embraced the Roman catholic religion, but had 
an extraordinary antipathy to the Jesuits ; against wh6m, 
Baillet tells us, he wrote about thirty treatises under ficti- 

} KiQCfOB, Tol. I,— Moreri. * Bullart*i Acadebile des Sciences.— Moreri. 

aes S C I O P 1? I U S. 

iious Dames. Nor was he more lenient to the Protestant^ 
and solicited the princes to extirpate them by the mo^t 
bloody meansy in a book which he published at Pavia in 
1619, Udder the title of '^(^^sp. Scioppii Consiliarii Regii 
Classicum belli sacri, - sive, Heldus Redivivus." The fol;> 
lowing is the title of another, printed at Mentz in 1612^ 
against Philip Mornay du Plessis; and which, as he telliL 
us in the title-page, he sent to James I. Of England, by 
way of new-year's gift : " Alexipbarmacum Regium felli 
draconum et veueno aspidum sub Philippi Mornaei de Ples- 
sis nuper Papatus historic abdito apposituro, et*sereniss* 
Jalcobo Magnae Britanniae Regi strensB JanuarisD loco mu^ 
neri missum/' He had before attacked the king of England^ 
by publishing in 1611, two books with these titles : '* £c<- 
clesiasticus auctoritati Sereniss. D. Jacobi, &c. oppositus,** 
and " Collyrium Regium Britanhiae Regi graviter ex oculis 
Jaboranti muneri missum :" that is, *^ An Eye-salve for the 
use of his Britannic majesty/' In the first of these pieces 
he ventured to attack Henry IV. of France in a most violent 
manner; which occasioned his book to be burnt s^t Paris, 
He gloried, however, in this disgrace ; and, according to 
bis own account, had the farther honour of being hanged 
in effigy in a farce, which was acted before the king of 
England. He did not, however, always escape with impu- 
nity ; for, in 1614, the servants of the English ambassajdoc 
are said to have beaten him with great severity at Madrid, 
Of the wounds he received in this conflict, he, as usu^l^ 
made his boasts, as he also did of having beeii tne princi- 
pal contriver of the Catholic league, which proved so 
ruinous to the Protestants in Germany. In his way through ' 
Venice in 1607, he had a conference with father Paul, ' 
whom be endeavoured by promises and threats to bring over 
to the pope's party; which, perhaps, with other circum- 
stances, occasioned his being imprisoned there three or four 
d^ys. After he had spent many years in literary contests, 
he applied himself to the prophecies of holy scripture, and 
flattered himself that he had discovered the true key to. 
them. He sent some of these prophetical dispoveries to 
cardinal^iyiazarine, who paid no attention to them. It baa 
been said that he had thoughts at last of going back to tha • 
communion of Protestants ; butithis, resting upon the sin- 
gle testimony of Hornius, has not been generally believed^ 
He died in 1649. 
He was indisputably a very learned man ; and, bad his 



jnoderation and probity been eqaal to his learning, might 
justly have been accounted ah ornament to the republic of 
letters : his application to study, his memory, the multitude 
af his books, and his quickness of parts, are surprising. 
Ferrarius tells us that he studied day and night ; that, dur« 
itig the last fourteen years of his life, he kept himself shut 
Qp in a little room, and that his conversation with those 
who went to visit hiYn ran only upon learning ; that, like 
another Ezra, he might haverestored the holy scripture, if 
it had been lost, for that he could repeat it almost by heart; 
and that the number of his books exceeded the* number of 
his years. He left behind him also several manuscripts, 
which, as Morhoflf tells us, ** remained in the hands of 
Picruecius, professor at Padua, and are not yet published, 
to the no small indignation of the learned world/' He wa« 
nevertheless a man of a malignant and contentious spirit^i 
and lived in continual hostility with the learned of his time, 
nor did he spare the best writers of ancient Rome, even 
Cicero himself,- whose language he censured for impropri- 
eties and barbarisms. Niceron enumerates upwards of an 
hundred different publications by Scioppius, all of which 
are now fallen into oblivion, or only occasionally consulted. 
They are mostly polemical, on subjects of criticism, reli- 
gious opinions, the Jesuits, Protestants, &c. many of them 
under the fictitious names of Nicodemi^s Macer, Oporinus 
Grubinius, Aspasius Crosippus, Holofernes Krigsoederus, 
and other barbarous assumptions/ 

SCOPOLI (John Anthony), an eminent naturalist, was 
born in 1725, at Cavalese, in the bishopric of Trent. He 
studied at Inspruck, and at twenty years old obtained tlie 
degree of licentiate in medicine, and afterwards was in- 
tmsted with the care of the hospitals of Trent, and of his 
native town Cavalese ; but as this stage was too small for hit 
anibition, he requested that his parents would permit. him , 
fo go to Venice^ In that city, under the auspices of Lo- 
taria Lotti, he extended bis knowledge of nredicine, and 
added to it a more intimate acquaintance with pharmacy^ 
botany, and natural history. On his return he traversed 
the mountains of Tirol and Carniola, where he laid the 
foundation of his " Flor^" and •' Entoraologia Camiolica." 
In 1754 be accompanied count de Firmian, prince bishop, 
' and afterwards cardinal^ to Gratz, from whence he went to 

470 s c o p; t I. 


Vienna to obtain a diploma to practice in the Ausfrian do*, 
tninions. His examinatioii ia said to have been rigproos^ 
and bis thesis on a new method of classing plants to havte 
been received with great regard* The friendship of Via^ 
Swieten^ if in this instance it can be called friendships pro-, 
cured him the office of first. physician to the Austrian mioem 
ofTirol* In this banishment he continued more than ten 
years ; for it was only in 1766, after repeated solicitations^ 
that he obtained the post of counsellor in the mining de- 
partment, and professor of mineralogy at Schemnitz ; but 
in this interval he produced his *' Anpi tres Historico-na« 
turales," 1769 to 1771, 8^o. In this new office he was 
indefatigable iiv teaching, exploring new mines, composing 
different works on fossils, and improving the method of 
treating minerals ; but after ten years' labour^ be was not 
able to obtain the newly-established chair of natural bis-* 
tory at Vienna ; yet soon after his attempt, about the end 
of 1776, be was appointed professor of chemistry and bo- 
tany at Payia. In this situation he published some pharma- 
ceutical essays, translated and greatly augmented Macquer's 
dictionary, and explained tbe contents of the cabinet of 
natural history belonging to the university, under the title 
of ^^ Deliqise Florse et Faunae Insubricse/' the last part of 
which he did not live to complete, Tbe president of the 
Linnsean society, who dedicated the Scopolia to his memory^ 
informs us that, after some domestic chagrin, and mucb 
public persecution, he died at Pavia^ May 8, 1788. Ha 
had been concerned with all tbe most eminent men of that 
university, Volta, Fontana, and others, in detecting the 
misconduct of their colleague, the celebrated Spallanzani^ 
who bad robbed the public museum. But the emperor^ 
loth to dismiss sq able a professor, contented himself with 
a personal rebuke at Vienna to the culprit,, and his accusers 
were silenced, in a manner which was supposed to have 
caused the death of Scopoli. The survivors told theif 
story, as explicitly as they durst, in a circular letter to tbe 
learned of Europe.' 

SCOTT (David), was born near Haddington, in East 
Lothian, 1675, and brought up to the law in Edinburgh ^ 
but never made any figure at the bar. Attached to the royal 
family of Stewart, he refused to take the oaths to the revo- 
lution-settlement, which brought bioi into many difficulties^ 

1 Crit. RcT. vol. l^VIt— Reo^s Cyclppttai»Bi<t Scopolis. 

SCOTT- 271 

smd soiD^iaies imprisonmetit. fie had no great knowledge 
o£ bistory ; but an t>pibion of bis own abilities induced him 
to write that of Scotland^ which was published in 1727^ iti 
one volume folio. It is a performance of not much value. 
He died at Haddington, 1742, aged sixty -seven .^ 

SCOTT (Daniel), a dissenting mini&ter, was the son of 
a merchant in London, and was educated with Butler and 
Seeker, afterwards eminent prelates in the church of Eng- 
land, under the learned Mr. Jones, at Tewkesbury, in 
Gloucestershire, from whose seminary' be removed td 
Utrecht, in HoHand, pursued his studies with indefetigable 
«eal, and took his degree of doctor of laws. While he was 
ill this city, be changed his^ opinion concerning the mode 
of baptism, and became a baptist, but occasionally joined 
in communion with other denominations. On his retiirn to 
England, he settled in. London or Colchester, and devoted 
his timeto varions learned and useful treatises. In 172r^ 
appeared his ^^ Essay towards ^ Demonstration of the Scrip- 
ture Trinity,'' without his name, which was for some timci 
ascribed to Mr. James Pierce, of Exeter. - In 1738, a se- 
cond ' edition, with some enlargements, was sent out from 
the press^ and in both editions the author's friends have 
laboured to prove that dishonourable methods were taken to 
prevent the spread of it. A new edition of this Essay,- freed 
from the learned quotations with which it abounded, wa) 
printed, some years back, in 4to, and, without any disho- 
nourable means, added very little to the So<^inian cause. 
In 1741, he appeared to more advantage in f* A New Ver- 
sion of St. Matthew^s Gospel, with Critical Note$; and an 
Examination of Dr. Mill's Various Readings ;" a very learn- 
ed and accurate performance. At the persuasion of his 
dignified friends. Seeker and Birtler, to whom he dedicated 
his work, .be published, in 1745, in two volumes, folio, an 
*^ Appendix to H. Stephen's Greek Lexicon ;" a monument 
9f bis aosazing diligence, critical skill, and precision. He 
l^t sevesal hundred pounds by this publication, and, by 
bis close application to it for many years, broke his health 
and spirits. He was never married, and died suddenly, in 
a retirement near London^ March 2.9, 1759. 

His father,, by his first wife, had a son, Thomas Scott, a 
dissenting minister at Norwich, who published several ocr 
csQidfial Bermons, and died in 1 746, leaving two sons, one 

( Preceding edition of this Diet. 

?72 SCOTT. 

TbonOas Scott, a dissenting minister at tpswichi authoi^ of 
a poetical version of the Book of Job, a ^second editioo of 
which was printed in 1774. This has been thought nnore 
Taluable as a commentary than as a translation. His other 
son was Dr. Joseph Nicol Scott, who was first a dissenting 
minister, and published 2 vols, of sermons *' preached in 
defence of all religion, whether natural or revealed.^' He 
was a strenuous opponent of the doctrine of eternal punish- 
ments. He afterwards pcactised pbjsic in London, and 
died about 1774.' 

SCOTl^ (George Lewis), a learned member of the 
royal society^ and of the board of longitude, was the eldest 
son of Mr. Scott, of Bristow, in Scotland, who married 
Miss Stewart, daughter of sir James Stewart, lord advo- 
cate of Scotland io the reigns of WiiUam UI. and queen 
Anne. That lady was(* also his cousin-german, their mo« 
Ihers being sisters, and both daughters of Mr. Robert 
Trail, one of the ministers of Edinburgh, of the same fa- 
mily as the rev. Dr. William Trail, the learned auibor of 
the ^^ Life of Dr. Robert Simson, professor of mathematics 
at Glasgow/' 

Mr. Scott, the father, with bis family, lived many years 
abroad, in a public character ; and he had three sons born 
while residing at the court of Hanover. The eldest of these 
was our author, George Lewis, named, in both these natnes^ 
after his god*father, the elector, who was afterwards George 
I. George Lewis Scott was a gentleman of considerable 
talents and general learning ; he was well-skilled alsoio .tbe 
mathematical sciences *, for which he manifested at times 
a critical taste, as may be particularly seen in some letters 
which, in 1764, passed between him and and Dr. Simson^ 
of Glasgow, and are inserted in Dr. Trail's account of ^' The 
Life and Writings of Dr^ ^irnsoii.'* Mr. Scott was also the 
author of the ^^ Supplement to Chambers's Dictionary,** in 
2 large folio volumes, which was much esteemed, and for 
which be received 1,500/. from the booksellers, a consi- 
derable price at the time of that publication. Mr. 
Scott was sub-preceptor, for the Latin language, to hia 
present majesty when, prince of Wales. After thia^t he was 

^ From the preface to a new edition of ** An Essay towards a demonstration 
of the Trinity ,»> reprinted in 1775 or 1779. 

* Dr. Bunieyi in tbe Cydopsdia, speaks of- Dr. Scott as an exeellant A«* 
sician, and the autboj' of some valaable articles on that subjecti in th« Suppie« 
meat to Cbambers^s Dictionary. 

S C O T T; 273^ 

appointed a Commissioner of excise ; a situation which Kis 
friends considered as not adequate to bis past deserts, and 
inferior to what he probably would have had, but for the 
freedom of his political of/inions. From some correspond-* 
enoe *with Gibbon, to whom, in particular, he wrote an 
ejLCelient letter of directions for mathematical studies,- we 
may infer that he did not differ much from that gentleman 
in matters of religfous beliet^. Mr. Scott died Dec. 1780.- 
He was elected F, S. A. in 1736, and F. R: S. in 1737. 
. Mrs. Scott, his widow, survived him about fifteen years, 
and (lied at Catton, near Norwich,- in Nov. 1795. She was 
sister to the late celebrated Mrs; Montagu, of Portman- 
square. From the pen of a very intelligent and equally 
candid writer, we have the following account of this lady : 
^^ She was' an excellent historian, -of great acquirements, 
eKtraordinany hiemory, and strong sense; and constantly 
emplbyed in literary labours ; yet careless of faniie, and* 
free from vanity and ostentation. Owing to a disagreement 
of tempers, she soon separated from her husband ; but in 
e%!ery other rellition of life she-was, with some peculiarities,' 
a woman of exemplary conduct, of sound principles, en- 
livened by -the warmest sense of religion, and of a charity 
so unbounded, so totally regardless of herself, as to be 
almost excessive and indiscriminate. Her talents were not 
so. brilliant, nor her genius so predominant, as those of her 
sister, Mrs. Montagu : but in some departments of litera-' 
ture she was by no means her inferior. When she left her 
husband she united her income with that 9f.ber intimate 
friend, lady Bab Montagu, the sister of lord Halifax, and 
they continued to live together to the death of the Matter. 
From that period Mrs. Scott continually changed her ha- 
hitation, for restlesst^ss was one of her foibles. Her in* 
tercoiirse with the world was various and extensive ; and 
there .were few ikerary people of her day with whom she 
had not either an acquaintance or a correspondence. Yet 
when she died, not one of her contemporaries who knew 
her literary habits came forward to preserve the slightest 
memorial of her; and she went to her grave as unnoticed 
as the most obscure of those who have done nothing worthy 
of reniembrance. Under these circumstances, the writer 
of this article trusts to a candid reception of this imperfect 
memoir^ while he laments that Mrs. Scott herself shut out 
some of the^best materials, by ordering all her papers and 
voluminous correspondence, which came into the hands of 
Vol. XXVII. T 

?74 SCOTT. 

ber executrix, to be burnt ; an order fpacb to be lamented^ 
because there is reason to believe, from the fragments 
\i^hich remain in other hands, that her letters abounded with 
literary anecdote, and acute observations on character and 
life. Her style was easy, unaffected, and perspicuous ; 
her remarks sound, and her sagacity striking* Though her 
fancy was not sufficiently powerful to give the highest at-^ 
traction to a novel, she excelled in ethical remarks, and 
the annals of the actual scenes of human nature. In dra* 
naatic effect, in high-wrought passion, and splendid imagery^ 
perhaps she was deficient.*' 

The following is given on the same authority, as an im«. 
perfect list of Mrs. Scott's works, all published at London, 
without her namey and one with a fictitious name, 1. <^The 
History of Cornelia," a novel, 1750, 12mo. 2. "A' Jour- 
ney through ev^ry stage of Life," 1754, 2 vols. ]2mo. 3. 
*^ Agreeable Ugliness ; or, the triumph of the graces," &c. 
1754, }2mo. 4. ^^ The History of Gustavus Ericson, king 
of Sweden, with an introductory history of Sweden, fronn 
the middle of the twelfth century. By Henry Augustus 
Raymond, esq." 1761, 8vo. 5. " The History of Meck-^ 
lenburghj" 176?^ 8vo. 6. " A Description of Milleniun^ 
Hs^li," second edition, 1764, 12mo. 7. "The History of 
sir George Ellison," 1776, 2 vols. 12mo. 8. "The test of 
Filial Duty," 1772, 2 vols. 12mo. 9. " Life of Theodore 
Agrippa D'Aubigne," 1772, 8iV0. ' 

SCOTT (Dr. John), a learned English divine, was son 
of Mr. Thomas Scott, a substantial grazier, and was born 
ip tijie parish of Cbippingham, in Wiltshire, in 1638. Not 
being intended for a literary profession, be served an ap- 
prenticeship in London, much against his will, for about 
tbr^e years i but, having an inclination as well as talents 
for learning, be quitted his trade and went to Oxford. 
He wa^ admitted a commoner of New Inn in 1657, and 
mac^e a. great progress in logic and philosophy ; but left 
the university without taking a degree, and being ordained, 
caod^ to London, where he officiated in the perpetual cu- 
racy of Trinity in the Minories, and as minister of St. 
Thoips^'s in Southwark. In 1677 oe was presented to the- 
rf ctory of St. Peler Le Poor ; and was collated to a prebend 
in St Paul's cathedral in 1684. In 1685 he accumulated 
the degrees of bachelor and doctor in divinity, having be<» 

^ Ilutton's Dictionary, new edit.r— Censura Literaria, vols. I. and XL— Shef- 
aeki's Life of Gibbon.— Geat, Mag« vol, UCVllL and LXXV. whti e are some •f 
Mrs* Scott's Iflten. 

SCOTT. 27* 

fore taken no degree in any otheif faculty. Ih 1^91 6e 
sacceeded Sharp, afterwards archbishop of York, in Che 
rectory of St. Giles in the Fields ; and the satnie year wds 
made canon of Windsor. Wood says that **' he might sot)ri 
have been a bisliop, had not some scruples hinderecl him ;" 
alid Hicfces has told us that he refused the bishopric of 
Chester, because he could not take th^ oath of homage ; 
and afterwards another bishopric, the deanery of Wor- 
cester, and a prebend of the church of Windsor, because 
they were aU places of deprived faen. This, however, _ 
Dr. Isham attributes entirely to his growing infirmities. 
He died in 1694, and was buried in St. Giles's church : his 
funeral sermon was preached by Dr. Isham, and afterwards 
printed in 1695. In this sermon we are told that " he had 
niany Virtues ih Him of no ordinary growth : piety towards 
God; kindness, friendship, affability, sincerity, towards 
men ; zeal and consta/ncy in th6 discharge of the pastoral 
office ; and, in a word, all those graces and virtues which 
matke the good Christian and the good man." When po- 
pery was encroacbihg under Charles II. and JamesII. he was 
one of those champions who opposed it with great warmth 
and courage, particularly in the dedication of a sermoa 
preached at Guildhall chapel, Nov. 5, 1683, to sir Wil- 
liam Hooker, lord-mayor of London, where he declares 
that *' Domitian and Dioclesian w^ere but puny persecu- 
tors and bunglers in cruelty, compared with the infal- 
lible cut-throats of the apostolical chair.'* 

This divine wrote an excellent work, called " The Chris- 
tian Life," vyhich has been often printed, and much read. 
The first part was published 1681, in 8vo, with this title, 
** The Christian Life, from its beginning to its consumma- 
tion in glory, together with the several means and instru- 
ments or Christianity conducing thereunto, with directions 
for private devotion and forms of prayer, fitted to the se- 
veral states of Christians;" in 1635, another part, "whereiri 
the fundamental principles of Christian duty are assigned, 
e'Xplained, and proved ;*' in 1686, another part, "wherein 
th6 doctrine of pur Saviour's mediation is explained and 
proved." To these volunies of the " Christian Life" the 
pfious author intended a continuation, had not long infir- 
mity, and afterwards death, prevented him. This work is 
itot now much read, although the ninth edition was pub- 
lished in 1729* Mr. Orton, in his " Letters to young Mi- 
-fiisters/' seems tq recommend the first volume only, 

T 2 

276 SCOTT* 


Dr. Scott published two pieces against the papists: Ic 
^* Examination of Bellarmine's eighth note concerning sane* 
tity of doctrine." 2. ** The texts examined, which papists 
cite out of the Bible concerning prayer in an unknown 
tongue." Both these pieces were printed together, Oct. 
1688; while king James was upon the throne. He wrote 
also ^^ Certain Cases of Conscience resolved, concerning the 
lawfulnese of joining with forms of prayer in public wor« 
ship," i683, in two parts; which were both reprinted,, and 
inserted in the second volume of a work entitled ^* A col- 
lection of Cases and other Discourses lately written to re- 
cover Dissenters to the Communion of the Church of £ng« 
land," 1685, 4to. His whole works, including sermons, 
&c. were published in 2 vols. fol. 1704. ^ 

SCOTT (John), a poet of considerable genius, and a 
very amiable man, was the youngest son of Samuel and 
Martha Scott, and was born January 9, 1730, in the Grange* 
Walk, in the parish of St. Mary Magdalen, Bermondsey. 
His father was a draper and citizen of London, a man of 
plain and irreproacliable manners^ and one of tlie society 
of the people called quakers, in which persuasion our poet 
was educated, and continued during the whole of his life, 
although not with the strictest attention to all the pecu- 
liarities of that sect. In the seventh year of his age he waa 
put under the tuition of One John Clarke, a native of Sc6t- 
land, who kept a School in Bermondsey-street, attended 
young Scott at his father's house, and instructed him in the 
rudiments of the Latin tongue. In his tenth year his father 
retired with his family, consisting of Mrs. Scott and two 
SODS,, to the village of Amwell in Hertfordshire^ where, for 
some time, he carried on the malting trade. Here our 
poet was sent to a private day-school, in which he is said 
to have had few opportunities of polite literature, and those 
few were decUned by his father From a dread of the small- . 
pox, Which neither be nor his son bad yet caught. This 
terror, perpetually recurring as the disorder made its ap- 
pearance in one quarter or another^ occasioned such fre-, 
quent removals as prevented his son from the advantages 
of regular education. The youth, however, did not neg- 
lect to cultivate his mind by such means as were in bis 
power. About the age of seventeen he discovered an in- 
clination to the study of poetry, with which he combined a 

> B'log. Brit.^Atb. Ox. vol. IL ' 

SCOTT. «77 

'delight in viewing the appearances of rural nature. At 
this time he derived much assistance from the conversation 
and opinions of one Charles Frogley, a person in the hum- 
ble station of a bricklayer, but who had improved a natural 
taste for poetry, and arrived at a considerable degree of 
critical discernment. This Mr. Scott thankfully acknow- 
ledged when he had himself attained a rank among the wri- 
ters of his age, and could return with interest the praise 
by which Fro'gley had cheered his youthful attempts. The 
only other adviser of his studies, in this sequestered spot, 
was a Mr. John Turner, afterwards a dissenting preacher. 
To him he vvas introduced in 1753 or 1754, and, on the 
Temoval of Mr. Turner to London, and afterward^ to Col- 
leton in Devonshire, they carried on a friendly corre- 
spondence on matters of general taste. 

Mr. Scott's first poetical essays were published in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, " the great receptacle for the ebul- 
litions of youthful genius." Mr. Hoole, his biographer, 
has not been able to discover all the pieces inserted by 
him in that work, but has reprinted three of them, whieh 
are added to his works in the la^e edition of the English 
poets. With the taste of the public during his retirement 
at Amwell he could have little acquaintance. He had 
lived here about twenty years, at a distance from, any lite- 
rary society or information. His reading was chiefly con- 
fined to books of taste and criticism; but the latter at that 
time were not many nor very valuable. In the ancient or 
modern languages it does not appear that he made any 
progress. Mr. Hoole thinks he knew very little of Latin, 
and had no knowledge of either French or Italian. Those 
who know of what importance it is to improve genius by 
study, will regret that such a man was left, in the pliable 
days of youth, without any acquaintance , with the noble 
models on which English poets have been formed. They 
will yet more regret, that the cause of this distance frooi 
literary ^society, the source of all generous and useful 
emulation, was a superstitious dread of the small-pox^ 
already mentioned as obstructing his early studies, and 
which continued to prevail with his parents to such a de- 
gree, that although at the distance of only twenty miles^ 
their son had been permitted to visit London but once in 
twenty years. His chief occupation, when not in a humour 
10 study, was in cultivating a garden, for which he had 

a?? SCOTT*. 

a particular fondness^ and at length rendered one of tb^ 
ipost attractive objects tp the visitors of Amwell. 

About the year 1760, be began to make occasional, 
though cautious and short visits to Loudon ; and in tbc 
spring of this year, published his ** Four Elegies, DfBscrip- 
tive and Moral/' epithets which may be applied to almost 
all bis poetry. These were very favourably received, and 
not only praised by the public critics, but received the va- 
Juable commendations of Dr. Young,, Mrs. Talbot, and 
Mrs. Carter, who ]pved poetry, and loved it roost when in 
cpnjqnction vyith piety. But for many years he abstained 
from farther publication, determined to put in np. claiais 
that were not strengthened by the utmost industry and frer 
fjueqt and careful revisal. This, probably, in soipp Cfkse^ 
checked his enthusiasm, ai)d gave to his longer poen^ an 
fipp^^r^nce of labour. ♦, 

In 1761, during the prevalence of the ^mall-pox at 
llYar^y he re^ioved to St. Margaret's, a small hamlet about 
tvvo milos distant from Amwell, where, Mr. Hool^ informs 
V9^ he became first acquainted with him, and s£^w the first 
jsketph of bis poem of Amwell, to which he th^n gave the 
title of ** A Prospect of Ware J^nd the Country a^acent." 
Ip 1 76^, he becamp sensible of (he many disadvantages h^ 
labpured upder by living in continual dread of the spiall- 
pox, and h^(l the courage to submit to the operation of 
inoculation, which was successfully. performed by t^ie lat^ 
^aron Dim^d^le. He now visited London more frequently^ 
and Mr. Hoole had the satisfaction to introduce him, among 
others, tp J)r, Johnson. <^ Notwithstanding the great dif*- 
ferf qce of their political principles, Scott had too much 
)ovp ifor gopdness and genius, npt to be highly gratified ip 
the opportunity of cultivating a friendship with that grei^t^ 
lexemplar of human virtues, and that great veteran of hur 
paan learning ; while the doctor, with a mind sujperior t9 
the distinction of party, delighted with equ^l cprpplacency 
ii^ the amiable qualities pf Scott, of whqm he ^Iwfiys spokf 
with feeling, regard." 

In 1767, he married Sarah Frogley, tfae^'daughter of bi« 
early friend and adviser ^harles Frogley- l^he bride wa% 
previous to her nuptials, admitted a member of the society 
of quakers. For her father he ever preserved the highest 
^respect, and seems to have written bis Eleventh Ode with 
a view to relieve the mind of that worthy man from the 

SCOTT. ft» 

apprehension of being neglected by him. The eonnec-^ 
tton be bad formed in bis family^ bowever, was not of long 
duration. His vrife died in childbed in 1768| and tbe same 
year be lost his father and bis infant-child. For some time 
be was inconsolable^ and removed from Amwell^ where so 
many objects excited the bitter remembrance of all he held 
dear, to the bouse of a friend at: Upton. Here^ when time 
and reflection bad mellowed his grief, be hononred tbe 
memory of his wife by an elegy in which tenderness and 
Jove are expressed in ^he geonine language of nature* As 
he did not wish to make a parade of bis private feelings, a 
few copies only of this elegy were given to his friends, nor 
would be ever suffer it to be published for sale. It pro* 
cured him the praise of Dr. Hiiwkeswortfa, and the friend^ 
ship of Dr. Langborne^ who, about this time^ bad be^ii 
viiifed by a similar calamity. His mother, it ought to bav# 
b^en mentioned, died in 1766; and, in 1769^ be lost bis 
friend and correspondent Mr. Turner. 

In November 1770, be married his second wife, Mary d^ 
HornCy daughter of tbe late Abraham de Home : *' a lady 
whose amiable qualities promised bim many years of un^ 
interrupted happiness.*' During bis visit in London^ fae 
increased his literary circle of friends by an introduction 
io Mrs. Montagu's parties. Among those who principally 
noticed bim with respect, were lord Lyttelton^ sir William 
Jones, Mr. Potter, Mr. Micklcj and Dr. Beattie^ who paid 
bim a cordial visit at Amwell in 1773, and again in 1781, 
and became one of bis correspondents. 

Although we have bitberto contemplated our author as a 
student and occasional poet» be rendered himself more 
conspicuous as one of tbose reflectors on public affiurs 
who employ mocb of their time in endeavouring to be use>- 
ful. Among other subjects, his attention bad often been 
called to that glaring defect in human polity, the state of 
tbe poor; and having revolved the subject in bis mind^ 
vritb the assistance of many personal inquiries, be published 
in 177S ^< Observations on tbe present state of tbe paro^ 
cbial and vagrant Poor." It is needless to add, that bis 
advice in this matter was rather approved than followed. 
Some of his propositions, indeed, were incorporated in 
Mr. Gilbert^s Bill, in 1782 ; but the whole was lost for want 
of parliamentary support 

In 1776 he published bis <' Amwell/' a descriptive poemy 
which be had long been preparing, and in wbicb be fondly 

tM • SCOTT. 

hoped to immortalize his favoarite viHage. Hii bibgrap^ 
pher, however; has amply demonstrated the impossibitity 
df communicating^ local enthusiasm by any attempt of this 
kind. The reflections occasionally introduced, and the 
historical or encomiastic digressions, are generally selected 
as the most pleasing passages in descriptive poetry ; but all 
that '|s really descriptive, all that would reiiK)ve us from 
the closet to the scene, is a hopeless attempt to do that by 
the pen which can only be done by the pencil. 

At such intervals as our author could spare, he wrote 
various anonymous pamphlets and essays, on miscellaneous 
subjects, and is said to have -appeared among the enemies 
of the measures of government who answered Dr. Johnson's 
<* Patriot," " False Alarm," and " Taxation no Tyranny." 
On the commencement of the Rowleian controversy^ he 
tooji the part of Chatterton, and was among the first who 
questioned the authenticity of the poems ascribed to Row- 
ley. This he discussed in some letters inserted in tbe.Gen* 
tleman's Magazine. Of course he was led to admire the 
wonderful powers of the young impostor, and in his XXIst 
ode pays a poetical tribute to his memory^ in which, with 
others of his br^ren at that time, he censures the unfeel- 
ing rich for depriving their country oC a new Sbakspeare 
or Milton. - 

These, however, were his amusements ; the more valu- 
able part of his time was devoted to such public business as 
is ever best conducted hy men of his pure and independent 
character. He gave regular attendance at turnpike-meet- 
ings^ navigation trusts, and commissions of land tax"*, and 
proposed and carried various scheme^of local improvement^ 
.particularly the fine road between Ware and Hertford, and 
some useful alterations ii\ the streets dF Ware. AmK)ng bia 
neighbours he frequently, by a judicious interference or 
.arbitration, ^checked that spirit of litigation which destroys 
the felicity of a country life. During the meritorious em- 
^ployments of his public and political life, it can only be 
imputed to him that in bis zeal for the principles he es*- 
poused, he sometimes betrayed too great warmth ; and in 


* When once asked whether he was that an oath and an affirmatWe are sub- 
in the commission of the peace, he stantialty the same, and that the mode 
answered without hesitation that his of appeal, to the Searcher of hearts is 
principal objection to taking the oath, of little consequence, though he cer- 
was the offence, which it would give to tainly preferred the ktter. Monthly 
ihM Socieiy. His own opinion was, KeTiew, toI. YII. N. S. p. dd*7. 

a. C O T T. £«1 

answering Dr. Johnson's pamphlets, it Jias been altowed 
that he made use of expressions which would better beconae 
those who did not know the worth of that excellent cba- 

In 1778^ he published a work of great labour and oti« 
lity» entitled ^^ A Digest of the Highway and general Turn- 
pike laws." In this compilation, Mr. Hoole informs us, 
all the acts of parliament in force are collected together, 
and placed in one point of view; their contents are ar- 
ranged under distinct heads, with the addition of many 
notes, and an appendix on the construction and preserva- 
tion of public roads, probably the only scientific treatise on 
the subject A part of this work appeared in 1773, ui^der 
the. title of a ^^ Digest of the Highway Laws.'* In the 
fiipring of 1782, be published what he had long projected, a 
volume of poetry, including his elegies, Amwell, and a 
great variety of hitherto unpublished pieces. On this vo« 
lunxe it is evident he had bestowed great pains, and added 
the decorations of some beautiful engravings. A very fa- 
vourable account was given of the whole of its contents in 
the Monthly Review ; but the Critical having taken some 
personal . libertjes with the author, hinting that the orna- . 
jsients were not quite suitable to the plainness and simpli* 
city of a quaker, Mr. Scott thought proper to publish a let- 
ter addressed to the authors of that journal, in which he 
expostulated with them on their conduct, and defended his 
poetry. Every friend, however, must wish he had passed 
over their strictures in silence. .His defence of bis poetry 
betrays him into the error of which he complained, and we 
see far more of the conceited egotist than could have been, 
supposed to belong to his simple and humble character. 

After this contest, he began to prepare a work of the 
critical kind. He had been dissatisfied with some of Dr. 
Johnson's Lives of the Poets, and had aoutssed in the course 
of- bis own reading and reflection, a number of observations 
on Denham, Milton, Pope, Dyer, Goldsmith, andvThoni- 
son,. which he sent to the press, under the. title of "Cri- 
tical' Essays," but did not live to publish them. On the 
25ih of October 1783, he accompanied Mrs. Scott to Lon- 
don for the benefit of medical advice for a complaint under 
which she laboured at that time ; but on the 1st of Decem- 
ber, while at his house at RadclifF, he was attacked by a 
putrid fever, which proved fatal on the 12th of that mouth, 
and he was interred on the 18th in the Quaker burying- 

S82 SCOT T. 

ground at Radcliff. He bad arrived at his fifty-fourth year, 
and left behind a widow and a daughter, their only childi 
then about six years old. His death was the more lament-* 
ed as he was in the vigour of life, and had the prospect of 
many years of usefulness. ^' In his person he was tall and 
ulender,. but his limbs were remarkably strong and museum 
Jar : he was very active, and delighted much in the ezer-* 
cise of walking ; his countenance was cheerful and ani« 
mated.'' The portrait prefixed to bis works is not a very 
correct likeness, nor was .he himself satisfied with it. 
- His public and private character appears to have been ia 
every respect worthy of imitation, but what his religious 
opinions were, except that he cherished a general reve- 
rence for piety, is somewhat doubtful. Professedly, he 
was one of the society called Quakers, but the paper which 
that society, or some of his relations, thought it necessary 
to publish after his death, seems to intimate that in their 
opinion, and finally in his own, bis practice had not in all 
respects heen consistent. 

His <^ Critical Essays" were published in 1795 by Mr. 
Hoole, who prefixed a life written with much affection, yet 
¥ritb impartiality. As a poet, Mr. Scott seems to rank 
fuaiong those who possess genius in a moderate degree, who 
please by short, efforts and limited inspirations, but whose 
taleuts^ are better displayed in moral reflection and pathetie 
sentiment than flights of fancy. His ** Elegies,'* as they 
vrere the first, are among the best of his perforiodniees. 
Simplicity appears to have been his general aim, and he 
was of opinion that it was too little studied by modern 
ifriters« In the *^ Mexican prophecy," however, and in 
. *^ Serim/' there is a fire and spirit worthy of the highest 
•chool. Hifs *^ Amwell" will ever deserve a distinguished 
place among descriptive poems^ but it is liable to all the 
objections attached to descriptive poetry. His feeblest 
effort is the *^ Essay on Painting," a hasty sketch, in which 
be professed himself, and that not in very humble term^, 
to be the rival of Hayley. Upon the whole^ however, the 
vein of pious and moral reflection, and the benevolence 
and pbiknifhropy which pervade all his poems, will con* 
tini»e to make them acceptable to those who read to be im- 
proved, and are of opinion that pleasure b not the sole end. 
«f poetry.* 

> JUC» bf Mr, JBoQl«.-*£D9lii)i Poets, 1810. mw tdiW 31 vsli. Sva. 

s CO T, m 


SCOT {Micju^i), of Balwirie, a learoed Scotch autiior 
of the fifteenth century^ made the tour of France ^nd Ger«> 
jDiany, and was receivi^d with spme diitinction at tho court 
of thq eqf^p^rqr Frederick II. Having travailed enough to 
gratify his curiosity, b^ returned to Scotland, and gave 
himself up to study afid ^jontemplatioo. Ha was ^killed in 
Unguages; and^ considering the age iti which be livedo 
vlfi^ no mean proficient in philosophy, mathenaatics, and 
fnedicine. He transUlod into L^atin from the Arabic^ the 
history of animals by the celebrated physician Avicenna. 
He published the whole works of Aristotle, with notes, and 
aflfected much to reason on the principles of that great phir 
losopber, He wrote a book concerning ^' The Secrets of 
Nature," and a tract on ^^►The nature of the Stm and Moon," 
in \yhich be shews bis belief in tho philosopher's stpne. 
He likewise published what he called *^ Mensa Philosoi- 
phica," a treatise replete with a9trology and chiromancy. 
He was much admired in his day, and was even suspected 
of magic, and had Roger Bacon and Cornelius Agrippa 
for his panegyrists.' 

SCOT (R£ynoldb), a learned English gentleipan, waa 
a younger son of sir John Scot, of Scot's-ball, near Smeeth 
in Kent» where he was probably born ; and, at about seven*^ 
teen, sent to Hart-hall, in Oxford. He retired to his native 
country without taking a degree, and settled at Smeeth ; 
and, marrying soon after, gave himself up solely to read- 
ing, to the perusing of obscure authors, which bad by the 
generality of scholars been neglected, and at times of lei^- 
sure to husbandry and gairdening. In 157^, he published 
a second edition, for we know nothing of the first, of "A 
perfect platform of a Hop* garden,'' &c. iii 4to; and, in 
1584, another work, which shewed the great depth of.hia 
researches, and the uncommon extent of bis learning, en^- 
titled ." The Discoverie of Witchcraft," &c. reprinted in 
1651, 4to, with this title: ** Scot's Discovery of Witch- 
craft ; proving the common opinion of witches contracting 
with devils, spirits, familiars, and their power to kill, tor- 
pient, and consume, the bodies of tnen, women, and chil- 
dren, or other creatures, by diseases or otherwise^ their 
flying in the air, &c* to be but imaginary erroneous concept 
tioos a,nd novelties. Wherein also the practices of witch* 
mongers,, conjurors, inchanters, soothsayers, also the de* 

1 EQcycL 3rltsimica.-»Hac](enzi«'s Lifes* 

284 SCOT. 

Idsions of astrology, alchemy, legerdemain, and many other 
things, are opened, that have long lain hidden, though 
very- necessary to be known for the undeceiving df judges, 
justices, and juries, and for the preservation of poor peo- 
ple, &c. , With a treatise upon the nature of spirits and 
devils," &c/ In the preface to the reader he declares, that 
4iis design' in this undertaking, was " first, that the glory 
of God be not so abridged ana abased, as to be thrust into 
the hand or lip of a lewd old woman, whereby the work^of 
the Creator should be attributed to the power of a crea- 
ture : secondly, that the religion of the gospel may be seen 
to stand Without such peevish trumpery : thirdly, that fa- 
vour and Christian compassion be rather used, towards 
these poor souls, than rigour and extremity,'* &c. 

A doctrine of this nature, advanced in an age when the 
reality of witches was so universally believed, that even 
the great bishop Jewel, touching upon the subject in a 
sermon before queen ' Elizabeth, could "pray God they 
-might never practise farther than upon the subject," ex- 
posed the author to every species of obloquy and persecu- 
tion ; and^ccordingly Voetius, a foreign divine, informs 
lis in his ** Disput. Theolog." vol. III. p. 564, though Wood 
says nothing of it, that his book was actually burnt. It 
'was also opposed, and, as it should seem, by great autho- 
rity too : for, James I. in the preface to his ** Demono- 
iogie," printed first at Edinburgh in 1597, and afterwards 
•at London in 1603, observes, that he " wrote that book 
x'hiefly against the damnable opinions of Wierus and Scott; 
the latter of whom is not ashamed," the king says, ** in 
public print to deny, that there can be* such a thing as 
Witchcraft, and so maintains the old error of the Sadducees 
in the denying of spirits," an inference which by no means 
follows from Scot*s premises. Dr. John Rayiiolds, in his 
*' Prselectiones upon the Apocrypha," animadverts on se- 
veral passages in Scot's " Discovery ;" Meric Casaubon 
treats him as an illiterate person; and Mr. Joseph Glanvil, 
one of the greatest advocates for witchcraft, aflSrms, that 
'< Mr. Stot doth little but tell odd tales and silly legends, 
which he confutes and laughs at, and pretends this to be a 
confutation of the being of witches and apparitions: in all 
which his reasonings are trifling and childish ; and, when 
iie ventures at philosophy, he is little better than absurd." 
Scot did not live to see the full effects of his endeavours to 
abate the prejudices of the times/ nor could this indeed ht 

SCOT. 285 . 

the work of a single hand, contending against the king on * 
the throne, many very learned men, almost the whole body 
of the people, and what was the last to yield, the .statute-* 

' law of the land. His work, however, was reprinted in 16^1, 
4to, and in 1665, folio, with additions, and was translated 
into German. 

Thi9 sensible, learned, upright, and pious man (for we 
know ths^t he possessed the two first of these qualities, and 
be is universally allowed to have had also the two last) died 
in 1599, add was buried among his ancestors in the 
church at Smeeih. ' 

SCOT, alias ROTH&IIAM (Thomas), a munificent, 
benefactor to Lincoln college, .OsCford, was born at Rother* 
am, in Yorkshire^ from whence he took his name, but that- 
of his family appear^ to have been Scot. He rOse by bis 
talents and learning to the highest ranks in church and. 
state, having been successively fellow of King's college, 
Cambridge, master of Pembroke Hall, chancellor of that 
university, prebendary of Sarum, chaplain to kjng Edward. 
ly. provost of Beverley, keeper of the Privy Seal, seqre- 
tary to four kings, bishop of Rochester and Lincoln, arch«. 

. bishop of York, and lord chancellor. His buildings at 
Cambridge, Whitehall, Southwell, and Thorp, are eminent 
proofs of his magnificent taste and spirit. 

He was promoted to the see of Lincoln in 1471, and we 
learn from his preface to his body of statutes, that a visit . 
through his diocese, in which Oxford then was, proved the 
occasion of his liberality to Lincoln college. On his ar- 
rival there, in 1474, John Tristroppe, the third rector of 
that society, preached the visitation sermon from Psalm 
Ixxx. 14, 15. ^^ Behold and visit this vine, and the vine- 
yard which thy right hand hath planted, &c." In this 
discourse, which, as usual,, was delivered in Latin, the 
preacher addressed his particular requests to the bishop, 
exhorting him to complete his college, now imperfect and 
defective both in buildings and government. Rotheram is 
said to have been so well pleased with the application of 
the text and subject, that he stood up and declared that he 
would do what was desireci Accordingly, besides what be 
contributed to the buildings, he increased the number of 
fellows from seven to twelve, and gave them the livings of^ 
of Twyford in Buckinghamshire^ and Long Combe in 

» Ath. Ox. vol. I.— Oldys's Librarian, p. 213.— See his epitaj^h on Sir Thomas 
Scot^ ip Peck^a CronweU ColUctions^ p. 3S.^Q«ii» Diet, 

286 s o o r. 

Ozfordflhire. He formed ako in 1479, a body of statute, 
in which, after noticing with an apparent degree of dts-* 
pleasure, that although Oxford was in the diocese of Lin- 
coln, no college bad yet made provision for the natives of 
that diocese, be enjoined that the rector should be of the 
diocese of Lincoln or York, and the fellows or scholars 
should be persons born in the dioceses of Lincoln and 
York, and one of Wells, with a preference, as to those 
from the diocese of York, to his native parish of Rotheram. 
This prelate died in 1500 at Cawood, and was buried in 
the Chapel of St. Mary, under a marble tomb which he . 
had built. * . • 

SCOUGAL (Hrkry), an eminent Scotch divine, and 
second son of Patrick Scougal, bishop of Aberdeen, was 
born June 1650, at Salton, in East Lothian, where bis 
father, the immediate predecessor of Bishop Burnet, was 
rector. His father, designing bim for the sacred ministry, 
watched over his infant mind with peculiar care, and soon 
bad the satisfaction of perceiving the most amiable dispo- 
.sttions unfold themselves^ and his jinderstanding rise at 
once into the vigour of manhood. Relinquishing the 
amusements of youth, young Scotigal applied to his studies 
with ardour:. and, agreeably to his father's wish, at an 
early period directed his thoughts to sacred literature, 
ile perused the bistorical parts of the bible with peculiar 
.pleasure, and then began to examine its contents more 
minutely. He was struck with the peculiarities of the 
Jewish dispensation, and felt an anxiety to understand why 
its rites and ceremonies were abolished. The nature and 
evidences of the Christian religion also occupied his mind. 
He perused se<*mons with much attention, committed to 
writing those passages which must affected him, and could 
comprehend and remember their whole scope. Nor was he 
inattentive to polite literature. He read the Roman clas- 
sics, and made considerable proficiency in the Greek, 
Hebrew, and other oriental languages. He was also well 
versed in bistory and mathematics. His diversions were of 
a manly kind. Afcer becoming acquainted with Roman 
bistory, he formed, in concert with some of his companion?, 
a little senate, where orations of their own composition were 

At the age of fifteen he entered the university, where 

1 Wood's Colleges and Halls.— -Chalmerses Hist. ofOxfurd. 

S O U G A L. 28T 

he behaved with great modesty, sobriety, and diltgence. 
He disliked the philosophy then taught^ and applied him- 
self to the study of natural philosophy : and in conse* 
quence of this, when he was only about eighteen years of 
age, he wrote the reflections and short essays since pub- 
lished : which, though written in his youth, and some of 
them left unfinished, breathe a devotion, which show» 
that his mind was early impressed with the most important 
ooRcerns of humau life. In all the public meetings of the 
students he was unanimously chosen president, and had a 
lingular deference paid to his judgment. No sooner had 
he finished his courses, than he was promoted to a profes- 
sorship in the university of Aberdeen, where he conscien- 
tiously performed his duty in training up the youth under 
his care in such principles of religion and learning as might 
fender them ornaments to church and state. When any 
divisions and animosities happened in the society, he was 
very instrumental in . reconciling and bringing them to a 
good understanding. He maintained his authority among 
the students in such ^ way as to keep them in awe, and at 
the same time to gain their love and esteem. Sunday 
evedings were spent wkh his scholars in discoursing of, 
am) encouraging religion in principle and practice. He 
allotted a considerable part of bis yearly income for the 
poor ; and many indigent families of different persuasions, 
were relieved in their difficulties by his bounty, although 
so secretly that they knew not whence their supply came. 

Having been aj professor of philosophy for four years^ 
be was at the age of twenty-three admitted into holy orders,* 
and settled at Auchterless, a small village about twenty 
miles from Aberdeen. Here his zeal and ability in his^ 
great Master's service were eminently displayed. He 
catechised with great plainness and affection, and used the 
oiost endearing methods to recommend religion to his 
bearers;. He endeavoured to bring them to a close attend- 
ance on public worship, and joined with them himself at 
the beginning of it He revived the use of lectures, look- 
ing upon it as very edifying to comment upon and expound 
large portions of scripture. In the twenty-fifth year of hisi 
age, he was appointed professor of divinity in the King's 
college^ Aberdeen, which he at first declined, but when 
indcicad to accept it, he applied himself with zeal and dili- 
gence to the exercise of this office. After he had guarded 
bis pupils against th^ common artifices of th^ Roousb mit-^ 

288 . S C O tT G A L. 

sionarles in making proselytes, be proposed two subjects' 
for public exercise :. the one, of the pastoral care, the 
other, of casuistical divinity. 

The inward dispositions of this excellent man are best 
seen in his writings, to which his pioi\s and blameless life 
was wholly conformable. His days, however, were soon 
numbered : in the twenty-seventh year of his age, be fell 
into a^ consumption, which wasted him by slow degrees : 
but during the whole time of his sickness he behaved with, 
the utmost resignation, nor did he ever shew the least im- 
patience. He died June 20, 1678, in the twenty-eighth 
year of his age, and was buried, in King's college church,, 
in Old Aberdeen. His principal work is entitled ''. TUei^ 
Life of God in the Soul of Man," which has undergone 
many editions, and has been thought alike valuable for the, 
sublime spirit of piety which it breathes, and for the purity, 
and elegance of its style. He left his books to tb^, library^ 
of his college, and five thousand marks to the odice of pro- 
fessor of divinity. He composed a form.of morning and 
evening service for the cathedral church of Aberdeen, 
which may be seen in Orem*s *' Description pf the Cha- 
nonry of Old Aberdeen," printed In No. 3 of. the ". Biblio.-: 
theca Topographica Britannica." His treatise on the 
" Life of God," &c. was first printed in his life-time by 
bishop Burnet about 1677, without a name, which the 
author's modesty studiously concealed. It. went through. 
sever*nj subsequent editions, and was patronised by the. 
society for promoting Christian knowledge, and w^ i^e-* 
printed in 1726 with the addition of ^' Nine discourses, ou 
important subjects," by the same author, and bis funer^. 
sermon, by Dr. G. G. * 

SCRIBONIUS (Largus), a Roman physician/, lived in 
the reign of Claudius, and is said to have accompanied this, 
emperor in his campaign in Britain. He wrote a treatise 
" De Compositione Medicamentorum," which is*Very often 
quoted by Galen, but was pillaged by Marcellus the em- 
piric, according to Dr. Freind. At a time when it was the^ 
practice of many physicians to keep their compositions 
secret, Scribonius published bis, find expressed great con- 
fidence in their efficacy ; but many of them are trifling,, 
and founded in superstition, and his language is so inferior^, 
to that of bis age, that some have supposed be wrote bis 

^ Bibl. Topo|p. Britan.-^asd Encyclop. Britannica. 

8 C R t B O K t U 8. « 88t 

^fot\i in Greek, and that it was tfanslated into Latiti bj 
tome later hand : but Freind and others seem of a 
difFereftt opinion^ The treatise of Scribonms has been 
»everal times reprinted, and stands among the *^ Medical 
Artis Principes'* of Henry Stephens, 1567.^ 

SCRIMZ£Oft (H£NRY), one of the most learned caeil 
t>f the sixteenth century^ was born at Dundee in Scotland^ 
in 1506, and after making great progress in the Greek and 
Latin languages at the grammar school of that place, studied 
}>failosopby at St« Andrew's university with equal succes$i 
He afterwards studied civil law at Paris and Bourges. At 
this latter city be became acquainted with the Greek pro^ 
fessot*, James Amiof, who recommended him to be tutor to 
Iwoyoting gentlemen; and this served also to introduce hiok 
to Bernard Bometei, bishop of Rennes, a celebrated poIiti-»> 
cal character) who invited Mr. Scrimzeor to accompanj^ 
him to Italy. There he became acqtiainted with the most 
distinguished scholars of the country. The death of the 
noted Francis Spira * happened during his visit at Padua^ 
and as the charatter and conduct of this remarkable person 
at that time engaged the attention of the worId> Mu 
Scrimzeor is said to have collected memoira of him^ which> 
iM>wev^ does not appear in the catalogue of his works. 

After he had stored his mind with the literature of foreign 
countries^ and satisfied his curiosity as a traveller^ it was 
his intention to have revisited Scotland ; but, on his jour« 
ney horheward, through Geneva, the syndics and other 
naagistrates requested him to set up the professipn of phi* 
losophy in that city ; promising a suitable compensation. 
He accepted the proposal, and established the philosophical 

# Francis ^pira «ra8 a lawyer of g^eat p\ie&% Shoitly after he fell into a 
Irepi^tatton at Cittadella in the Venetian deep iQelancholy, lost bis health, and 
State, at the fateginnifkg pf th« sixteenth was reiQoyed to Padaa for the ad- 
ceotury. He bad imbibed the prin« tice of physicians and divines; but 
eiplet of the Aefbmiation, and was ac» bis disorders augmented. The re- 
cused before iobn de la Cas8> areh- canlation, which he said he had mada 
bisbo^ of BeneventOy the pope*ii nuA- Anom cowardice and' interest, AUed hit 
vio at Venice. He made aome coti- mind with continual horror and remorse^ 
cessionSi and asked fmtdon of the pa^^ and no means being found to restore 
jpal mififilKcfr for Mf crirorsw But the teither his health or peace of mind, ha 
mincio inSHttetfapova public rtfcanta- fell a victim to his miserable situatiou 
tkfa* Spira was exceedingly averse to in 1548.-«^Collier's Diet. art. Spira. 
Ifala meaauris but at the pressing in- There have been many editions of a 
fftancea of hh wife and his friendli, who '*■ Life of Spira^ published in England 
represented to. him, that he must lose and Scotland, as a *^ warning to apos- 
his practice and rtfin bis affairs by tatesv" 
ptfftisting against it, he at last com- 

1 Freiad's Hiftw of Pbysi<!.-^EIoy Diet. Hiil. 

Vol. XXVII. W 

290 S C R I M Z £ O Rr 

chair ; but after he had taught for some time at Genera, a 
fire broke out in his neighbourhood, by which' bis hodse 
was consumed', and he himself, reduced -to great distress. 
At this time flourished at Augsburg that famous mercantiie 
family, the Fuggers. Uiric Fugger, its then represents* 
live, a man possessed of prodigious wealth, and a munifi- 
cent patron of learned men, having heard of the misfor" 
tune which had be/alien Mr. Scrimzeor, immediately sent 
him a pressing accept an asylum beneath his 
roof till his affairs could be re-established.' Mr. Scrinazeor, 
gladly availing himself of such a hospitable kindness, lostnio 
time in going to Germany. 

Whilst residing at Augsburg with -Mr. Fugger, he was 
much employed in augmenting his patron's library by vast 
collections, purchased from every corner of Europe, par- 
ticularly manuscripts of the Greek and Latin authors. He 
also composed many works of great learning and ingenuity, 
whilst he continued in a situation so peculiarly agreeable 
%o the views and habits of a scholar ; and when he was de- 
sirous of returning to Geneva to print them, Fugger re- 
C^ommended him, for this purpose, to the very learned 
flenry Stephens, one of his pensioners. 

Immediately on bis arrival at Geneva, 1563, be was 
earnestly solicited by the magistrates to resume the chair 
of philosophy. With this he complied, and notwithstand- 
ing the dedication of much of his time to the study of phy- 
sics, he, two years afterwards, instituted a course of lectures 
in the civil law, and had the honour of being its first pro- 
fessor at Geneva. Being now settled here, he intended 
to have printed his various works, but a suspicion which 
Henry Stephens entertained, that it was his intention to 
set up a rival press at Geneva, occasioned great dissentions 
between them. The result of the dispute was, that almost 
all Scriinzeor's publications were ppsthumous. Among 
Uiem are critical and explanatory notes upon Athenaeus*; 
>* Deipnosophists," published by Isaac Casaubon at Ley* 
den in 1600, but without distinguishing his own notes from 
those of Scrimzeor; also a commentary and emendations 
of Strabo, which were published in Casaubon's edition of 
that, geographer^ 1620, but likewise without acknowledging 
the assistance he derived from Scrimzeor. Scrimzeor col- 
lated different manuscripts of all the works of Plutarch, 
probably with a view to an edition of that author, and also 
the ten books oti Diogenes Laertius on the lives of the phi- 

S C R I M 2 E O R. . fl9t 

losophers. < His corrected text of this autbor, with t^otei 
full of erudition, came into Casaubon's possession, and is 
supposed to have contributed much to the value. of his 
edition of Laertius, printed at Paris in 1593. The works 
of Phornutus and Palaephatus were also among the collar' 
ttons of Mr. Scrimzeor. To the latter of these authors he 
made such cotlsiderable additions that the work became 
partly his oWn; The manuscripts of both these were for 
some time preserved in the library of sir Peter Young, after 
that of liis uncle Scrimzeor, which was brought into Scot- 
land in 1573, had been added to it. What became of this 
valuable bequest at the death of the former, is not known« 
Our learned philologer left also behind him, in manuscript, 
the orations of Demosthenes, ^schines, and Cicero, and the 
Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius, all carefully collated ; 
and among, his literary remains^ vyas a collection of his' 
Latin epistles. But of the many performances which had 
exercised his pen, 'it does not appear that any were pub- 
lished by himself but his translation of ^^Justinian's Novels'' 
into Greek. This was printed at Paris in 1558, and agaii\^ 
with Holoahder's Latin version at Antwerp in 1575. This 
work has been highly extolled both for the purity of its 
language and the accuracy of its execution. He wrote 
also a Latin translation of *' The Basilica," or Basilics, a 
collection of Roman Laws, which the Eastern emperors 
Basil and Leo, who reigned in the fifth century,- com- 
manded to be translated into Grefek, and which preserved 
their authority till the dissolution of the Eastern empire. 

Almost the whole of his life, although he arrived at old 
age/ was spent in his library. The time of his death is 
uncertain ; but it appears most likely, from a comparison 
of different accounts, that it happened very near the ex- 
piration of 1571, or at the beginning of the succeeding 
year, about the sixty-sixth year of his age. He died^ 
city of Geneva/ 

• SCRIVERIUS, or SCHRYVER (Peter), a consider- 
able philologer and poet, was born at Harlem in 1576. 
He was educated at Harlem and at Leyden, where he read 
law in his early days, but devoted himself* afterwards to a 
private and studious life^ which ended April 30, 1660, in 
the .eight}'-fourtb year of his age. His works are : ^* Ba- 

I Mackenzie's Scatck Writers, vol. lI.^Life by Mr. Lettice, in Euroyu Mef. 
Ar 1795. 

U 3 

t»9 S C R I Y E R I U S. 

tavia illustrata.'' ^* Batarise comitiimq;. ooiDiuti Historia*^ 
** M iscellafiea Philobgica.'* <^ GarmFina Latb»a & Belgioai'^ 
^< Poputare HoliandisB Ghronicoo." <f CoUecfcanea Yete* 
rum Tragicoruou^* He likewise corrected the copy 0l 
*< Yegetius," and enlarged and wrote itetet ujpw AqitiUu^a 
** Chronicoii Grddricum ;*' and was the author or editor of 
various other works,* clastical and historical. ' 
' SGUDERI (George db), a French writer of eminfeiice 
in his day, was descended from an aacieot audi nobli^ 
fiftniily ,of Apt in Provence, and born at- Havre-de-Gmce 
in 1603*.* He spent part of his youth at Apt^ and. after- 
wards came and settled at Paris, where at first be subsisted 
by the efforts of his pen, particularly in poetry^ and dm* 
matic pieces, none of which are now isi any estimatioui^ 
and we may, therfefore^ be spared the trouble of giving 
tbeir titles* In 1627 be published observations upon the 
** Cid'* of Comeille, with a vieir of making bis court to 
cardinal Richelieu, whe was absurdly enTious of- that great 
]}oet, and did every thing he could to oppMe the vast re« 
putation and success of the *^ Gid :*' and by his influence 
alone enabled even such a man as Scuderi ^^ to balance^** 
aa Ypltaire says, '< for some time, the reputation of Cor«» 
iieille;'* Scuderi was received a member of the acadeasy 
is 1650, He had before been made governor of the castle 
of Notre- Dame de la Garde, in Proveuc^; and although 
this was a situation of very little profit, Scuxler^ who was 
still more vain than indigent, gave a pompous description 
of it in a poem, which drew upon him the raillery of Gha- 
pelle and Bachaumont. Scuderi died at Paris, May 14, 
1667, leaving a name now better known than his works.* 

SCUDERI (Magdeleine de), sister of the precedmg, 
Itnd his superior in talents, was born at Havre^de-Graee in 
1607, and became very eminent for her wit and her wri« 
tings. She went early to Paris, where she gained admit* 
sion into the assemblies of learning and fasbioot. Having 
recourse, like her brother, to the pen, she gratified the taste 
of the age for romances, by various productions- of that 
kind, which were very eagerly read, and even procured 
her literary honours. The celebrated academy of the 
Ricovrati at Padua complimented her with a place in their 
spcicfty; and some great personages showed their regard 

^ Foppen Bibl. Belg.'—Saxii OnomMt. 
3 'Mpr«ii— Diet. Bift-^Niceree, tqI. XV.— Voltaire's SiccU d« Uuit XiV . 

C U D E R L aw 

^'hf pretentSi and other marks of esteenii.. The prince of 
Paderbom, bishop of Mtinster, sent her his works and a 
tnedal ; and Christina of Sweden often wrote to her, set- 
tied ofi her a pension, aad sent her her picture. Cardinal 
MazariTi left her an annuity by his will : and Lewis XIV. 
in 1663, at the solicitation of M. de Matntenon, settled 
a good pension upon her, which was punctually paid. 
His majesty also appointed her a special audience to receire 
^ faer acknowledgments, and paid her some %'ery flattering 
' compliments, She had an extensive correspondence with 
tnen of learning and wit i and her bouse at Paris was the 
rendewous of all who would be thought to patronize gc- 
niusw She died in 1701, aged 94; and two churches con- 
tended for the honour of possessing her remains, which 
was thought a point of so much consequence, that nothing 
less than the autfa'ority of the cardinal de Noailles, to whom 
the affair was referred, was suflBcient to decide it. She 
was a very voluminous writer as well as her brother, but of 
snore merit ; and it is remarkable of this lady^ that she ob- 
tained the first prize of eloquence founded by the acade- 
my. There is much common-^place panegyric upon her 
in the ^^ Menagiana,'* from the personal regard Menage 
had for her : but her merits su*e better settled by Boileau, 
in the '* Disoours^' prefixed to his dialogue entitled ^^Les 
Hero des Roman.V Her principal works ane, ^^ Artamene, 
on le Grand Cyras," 1650, 10 vols. «vo; " Clelie," 1660, 
1 vols. 8vo; " Celanire, ou la Promenade de Versailles^'* 
1698, 12nio ; << Ibrahim, ou Tlllustre Bassa,'' 1^41, 4 vols. 
Svo ; " Almahide, ou I'Esclave Reine," : 1660, 8 vols. Bvo ; 
^* Celine," 1661, Svo; " Mathilde d'Aguilar," 1667, Bvo; 
** Conversations et Entretiens," 10 vols. &c. These last 
conversations are thought the heat of Mad. Scuderi^s works, 
but there was a time when English translations of her prolii^ 
romances were read. What recommended them to the 
Flinch public was the traits of living characters which she 
occasionally introduced. ^ 

SCULTETUS (Ab^ham), an eminent protestant di* 
vine^ was born at Grumberg in Silesia, Aug. 24, 1556, and 
after having studied there till 15Bt2, was sent to Bresiaw to 
continue his progress in the sciences. He was recalled 
•oon after, his father, who had lost all his fortune in the 
fire of Grif Qb|»Fg, being no longer able to maintain him fit 

294 S C U L T E T U S. 

the college, and therefore intending to bring him iip to 
«ome trade. The young man was not at all pleased with 
snch a proposal ; and looked put for the place of a tutor, 
which he found in the family of a burgomaster of Freistad, 
^nd this gave liim an opportunity of hearing the sermons of 
Melancthon and of Abraham Bucholtzer. In 1584 he 
took a journey into Poland, and went to Gorlitz in Lusatia 
the year following, and resided there above two years, 
constantly attending the public lectures, and reacling pri- 
vate lectures to others. He employed himself in the same 
manner in the university ofWittemberg in 1588 and 1589, 
and afterwards in that of Heidelberg till he was admitted 
into the church in 1594. He officiated in a village of the 
palatinate for some months ; after which he was sent for 
by the elector palatine to be one of his preachers. In 
1598 be was appointed pastor of the church of St. Francis 
at Heidelberg, and two years after was made a member of 
the ecclesiastical senate. He was employed several times 
in visiting the churches and schools of the palatinate, 
and among these avocations wrote some works, which re- 
quired great labour. He attended Uie prince of Anbalt to 
the war at Juliers in 1610, and applied himself with great 
prudence and vigilance to the re-settlement of the affairs of 
the reformed church in those parts. He attended Fre- 
deric V. prince palatine into England in 1612, and con- 
tracted an acquaintance with the most learned men of that 
kingdom, bu! Wood speaks of his having resided some 
time at Oxford in 1598. He took a journey to Branden- 
burg in 1614, the elector John Sigismond, who was about 
renouncing Lutheranism, being desirous of concerting 
measures with him with respect to that change ; and on his 
return to Heidelberg he accepted the place of court- 
preacher, which he relinquished when appointed prOf 
fessor of divinity in 1618. He was deputed soon after to 
the synod of Dort, where he endeavoured at first to pro- 
cure a reconciliation of the contending parties ; but finding 
nothing of that kind was to be expected, he opposed vi- 
gorously the doctrines of the Arminians. He preached at 
Francfort the year following during the electoral diet held 
there, his master having appointed him preacher to the 
deputies whom he sent thither. He also attended that 
prince in his journey into Bohemia; and retiring. into Sile- 
sia after the fatal battle of Prague, resolved to return to 
Heidelberg in order to discharge the functions of his pro- 

S C U L T E T U ». 2d5 

faisorship there ; but the fury of the war having dispersed 
tlie K^dentS) he went to Bretten, and afterwards to Schorn- 
dorf in the country of Wirtemberg, whence he removed t6 
Eoibden in August 1622. ' The king of Bohemia his mas- 
ter had consented that the city of Embden should offer 
SQultetus the place of preacher, but he did not enjoy it 
very long; for he died October the 24th, 1625. 

The principal works of this learned divine, who, as Fre- 
faer says, was reckoned another Chrysostom, are, 1. ^^ Con- 
futatio disputationis Baronii de baptismo Constantini,^* ' 
Neost. 1607, 4to. 2. " Annales Evangelii per Europam 
15 Seculi renovati, Decad. I et 2," Heidelberg, 1618, 8vo. 
In these annals of the reformation he has shown himself a 
very candid and credible historian. 3. ^^ Axiomata con- 
cionandi," Han. 1619, Bvo. 4. " Obseryationes in Pauli 
£pistolas ad Timotheum, Titum, etPhilemonem." 5. " Me- 
dulla Patrum,'' 1634, 4to. So indefatigable was his ap- « 
plication, that be wrote the following lines over his study 
door : 

Anuce: quisquis hue venis> 

Aut agito paucis^ aut abi : 

Aut me laborantem adjuva.^ 

SCULTETUS, or SCULTZ (John), a distinguished 
surgeon, .was born in 1595, at Ulm, and studied medicine 
at Padua, where he took his degrees in that faculty in 1621. 
On his return to his native city, he practised with great 
reputation for twenty years, until being* called to Stutgard 
to a patient, he was there attacked with a fit of apoplexy^ 
which terminated his life December 1, 1645. He appears 
to have practised surgery extensively, and with great bold- 
ness in the operations of bronchotomy, of the trephine, and 
for empyema. His principal work is entitled ^* Armamen- 
tarium Chirurgicum, 43 labuiis spre incisis ornatum ;'' and 
was published after bis death, at Ulm, in 1653, It subse- 
quently passed through many editions, and was translated 
into most of the European languages.^ 

SGYLAX, an ancient mathematician and geographer^ 
was a native of Caryanda, in Caria, and is noticed by He- 
rodotus, and by Suidas, who, however, has evidently con* 
founded different persons of the same name. There is a 
Periplus which still remains, bearing the name of Scylax, 
and which is a brief survey of the countries along the shores 

1 Freberi Theatrum.— Gto* Diet. ^ £loy Diet. Hiii. d« M«dicJa(i. 

f^f « C Y L A X; ; 


pf thp Aj[edUerraQean apd .£uxine s^^p^ . tpgf tibt^r witb P9fl 
pf^the vHe3tern coasi of Afriqa surveyed by HannQ;<butii 
fi€eti)$ doubtful to what Scylax it belongs. Tbis Periplua 
hs^ coaie dowo to us in a corrupted state : it ws^^ first pub^r 
)isfaed from a palatine MS by Hoeticbelius and others in 
;i,600. It was afterwards e^it^d by Isaac Vossius in 163£>; 
by Hudson in 1698, and by Gronovius in 170Q.' 
\ SCyUTZA, or SCYWTZES (John), called also Cu- 
£OPALAT£S| from an office be held in tbe ho^isehold of tbe 
emperor . of that name, was a Greel^ historian, knowa fof 
|)is abridgment of history from tbe death of Nicepboruf 
Logptbetes,. in SUs tp the deposition of Nicepborus 9oto^ 
liiates, in 1081. This history, from 1067) is the same as 
that of Cedrenus, which has raised a doubt whether Cedre^ 
pu^ or Scylitssa was the original autbpr* Scylitya is thought 
to have beeii a native of l^esser A^ia»^ and a prefect of tbe 
guards before he attained the dignity of curopalatea. K 
]|^ajtiQ tran9lation.of his history entire, was published ait Ve^t 
liice in 157Q; and tbe part concerning which there is no 
dispute was printed in Greek and Latin conjointly with that 
futbor, at Paris, in 1647.* 

8EBA (Albert), an apothecary of Amsterdam, who died 
in 1736, prepared a splendid description) with plates, of 
bis own pipseum, in four l^rge folio volumes, whiph cam^ 
qut between 1734 and 1765. Histhre^ latter volumes wer^ 
posthumous publication^. Many Cape plapts ar^ b^re eq-r 
graved} and aquongst them one of tbe gienMs Seb^a^ so calle4 
in honoA^r of bim^ Yi^t Seba does not deserve to rank asa 
^i^ntific botanist. ; nor did }J\nn^w^ who Jifiew him, and 
by. wbo^e repoipmendat^on he employed A^xteAi to arraoge 
^ .fisbes^ ever think him worthy to be commemorated in % 
g;^ni4S. If, . however, we compare him w|th numbers who 
ba^e been so cpmm€Q9orated, be wi)l not appear to so mucb 
^^sadvantage ; for $ts a collector he ^stai^ds rather big^*'* 

SECKENDORF (Vitus l.ouis d»), a very learned Gert 
p^n^ vpasd^spPHd^cJ from ancient and noble families; and 
born 2iX Aj|^raq)ji9 , ft town of f ranconia» Pec. 20, 1626. Ho 
inade good yse of ft liberal education, and wfis not Qply ^ 
QEi^er of the French^ Latin, Greek, and Hebrew Iaqgiiagps» 
buj; had also some skill in inatb§rna(ics $^nd tb^ s<?(pfiQes» 

^ Mr.' I>ewhurat in Atheosenm, vol. IV. 

* Vossius de Hist, Gr«c.--CsTe, Tol. Il.-rrrFal^ric. {libL Gnpc. 

s Rcet*i Cyc|op»diav 

8 E C K E N D O R p. SM 

Vh^ f^r^ut progress he made in his youth coming to the eara 
of Erneit ihe pious, dukeof Saxe>Gotha, this prince sent 
4br htm from Cobourg, where he then wa^, to be educateit 
with his children. After remaining two years at Gotha, he 
wenty in 1642, to Strasburg; but returned to Gotha in 
•1646, and was made honorary librarian to the duke. Iq 
1651, be was made auHc and ecclesiastical counsellor; 
atid, in 1663, a counsellor of state, first minister, and 
Sovereign director of the consistory. The year after, he 
vpent into the service of Maurice, duke of Saxe«Zeist, as 
counsellor of state and chancellor ; and was no less regarded 
by this new master than he had been by the duke of Saxe- 
i^otha. He continued with htm till his deuth, which hap» 
pened in 16dl ; and then preferred a life of retirement^ 
fduring which he composed a great many works ; but Fre« 
deric illr elector of Brandenburg, again brought him into 
public lite,'and made him a counsellor of state and chancellor 
of the university of Halle, dignities which he did not enjoy 
long, for he died at Halle Dec. 18, 1692, in the sixty-sixth 
year of his age. He was twice married, but had only one 
son, who survived him. Besides his knowledge' of languages^ 
he was learned in law, history, divinity; and is also said to 
have been a tolerable painter and engraver. Of bis liume* 
rous writings, that in most estimation for its utility, was 
published at Francfort, 1692, 2 vols, folio, usually bound^ 
mp in one, with the title, ** Commentarius Historicus & 
j^poiogeticus de Lutberanismo, sive de Reformatione RelLn 
gionis ductu D. ]V(artini Lutberi in magna Germania, aliis* 
que regionibtis, & speciatim in Saxonia, recepta & stabi* 
lita,^' 8f,c, This work, which is very valuable on many ac^ 
counts, and particular^y curious for several singular piecei 
and extracts that are to be found in it, still holds its repu^ 
tation, and is referred to by all' writers on the reformation.' 
SECKER (Thomas), an eminent English prelate, waa 
born in 1693, at a small village called Sibthorpe, in the 
yale of Belvoir, Nottinghamshire. His father was a Protes- 
tant dissenter, a pious, virtuous, and sensible man, who^ 
having a small paternal fortune, followed no profession* 
His mother was the daughter of Mr. George Brought of 
8helton, in the county of Nottingham, a substantial gen- 
tleman farmer. He received his education at several pri« 
vate schopls in the country, being obliged by various acci« 


tB$ S E C K E R. 

dents to change bis masters' frequently ; yet at the. age <^ 
nineteen he had not only made a considerable progress i^ 
Greek and Latin, and read the best and most di65cult 
writers in both languages, but had acquired a knowledge 
of French, Hebrew, Chaldee, and Syriac, had learned 
geography, logic, algebra, geometry, conic sections, and 
gone through a course of leGt;ures on Jewish antiquities, 
and other points preparatory to the study of tlie Bible. At 
the same time, in one or other of these academies, he had 
an .opportunity of forming an acquaintance with several 
persons of great abilities. Among the rest, in the academy 
pf Mr. Jones at Tewkesbury, he laid the foundation of. a 
Atrict friendship with Mr. Joseph Butler, afterwards bishop 
of Durham. ^ 

Mr. Seeker bad been designed by his father for orders 
among the dissenters. With this view, his studies were 
directed chiefly, and very assiduously, to divinity, but not 
being able to decide upon certain doctrines, or determine 
absolutely what communion he should embrace, he resolved 
to pursue some profession, which should leave him at liberty 
to weigh these things more maturely in his thoughts, and 
therefore, about the end of 1716, he applied himself to 
the study of physic, both at London and Paris. During 
bis stay^ at Paris, he kept up a constant correspondence 
with Mr. Butler, who was now preacher at the Rolls, Mr. 
Butter took occasion to mention his friend Mr, Seeker, 
lyithout his knowledge, to Mr. Edward Talbot, who pro- 
mised, in case he chose to take orders in the church of 
England, to engage the bishop, his father, to provide for 
him. This was communicated to Mr. Seeker, in a letter, 
about the beginning of May 1720. He had not at that 
time come to any resolution of quitting the study of physic, 
but he began to foresee many obstacles to his pursuing that 
profession: and having never discontinued his application 
t.Q theology, his former difficulties, both with regard to con- 
formity, and some other doubtful points, had gradually 
lessened, as his judgment became stronger, and his reading 
and knowledge more extensive. It appears also from two 
of his letters from Paris, both of them prior to the date of 
Mr. Butler's communication above mentioned, that he was 
greatjy dissatisfied with the divisions and disturbances which . 
at that particular period prevailed among the, dissenters, 
In this state of mind Mr. Butler's unexpected proposal 
found him, a^nd after deliberating carefully on the subject' 

S E C K E R. 2^9 

of such a change for upwards of two month*;, he resolved 
to embrace the offer, and for that purpose quitted France 
about July 1720. 

Mr Talbot died a few months after his arrival in England, 
but not without recommending Mr. Seeker, Mr. Benson, 
and Mr. Butler, to his father's notice. Mr. Seeker having, 
notwithstanding this loss, determined to persevere in his 
new plan, and it being judged necessary by his friends that 
he should have a decree at Oxford, and he being informed 
that if he should previously take the degree of doctor in 
physic at Leyden, it would probably help him in obtaining 
the other, he went thither for that purpose, and took his 
degree at Leyden, March 7, 1721, and as a thesis wrote 
and printed a dissertation de viedicina statica. On Jiis re- 
turn, he entered himself, April 1, a gentleman commoner 
of Exeter college, Oxford, about a year after which be 
obtained the degree of B. A. without any difficulty, in con« 
sequence of a recommendatory letter from the chancellor. 
In Dec. 1722, bishop Talbot ordained him deacon, -and pot 
long after priest In St. James's church, where he preached 
his first sefmon, March 28, 1723. In 1724, the bishop 
gave him the rectory of Houghton le Spring, and this va- 
luable living enabling him to settle in the world, in a man- 
ner agreeably to his inclinations, he married Oct. 2S, 1725, 
Miss Catherine Benson, sister to bishop Benson. At the 
earnest desire of both, Mrs. Talbot, widow to his friend 
Mr. Edward Talbot, and her daughter, consented to live 
with them, and the two families from that time became 

At Houghton Mr. Seeker applierl himself with alacrity to 
all the duties of a country clergyman, omitting nothing 
which be thought could be of use to his flock. He brought 
down his conversation and his sermons to the level of their 
understandings; visited them in private, catechised the 
young and ignorantj received his country neighbours and 
tenants Jcindly and hospitably, and was of great service to 
the poorer sort by his skill in physic, which was the only 
use he ever made of it Though this place was in a very 
remote part of the world, yet the solitude of it perfectly 
suited his studious disposition, and the income arising frona 
it bounded his ambition. Here he would have been con- 
tent to live and die : here, as he has often been heard to 
declare, he spent some of the happiest hours of his life»: 
and it was no thought or choice of his own that remove4 

too « E C K E H. 

, bkn to a higher and more public sphere. But Mn. SedcerS 

. betUby which was thought to have been injured by the 
dampness of the situation^ obliged him to think of exchange 

. ing it for a more healthy one. On this account he prbcured 

. an exchange of Houghton for a prebend of Durham, and 
the rectory of Ryton, in 1727 ; and for the two following 

r years be lived chiefly at Durham^ going over ei^ery week 
to officiate at Ryton, and spending there two or three 

. months together in the summer. In July 1732> the duke 
ofGrafton, then lord chamberlain, appointed him chap* 
lain to the king. For this favour be was indebted to bishop 

. Sherlock, who having heard him preach at Bath, thought 
his abilities worthy of being brought forward into public 

• notice. From that time an intimacy commenced betwixt 
ihem, and he received from that prelate many solid proofs 
of esteem and friendship. This preferinent produced, him 
also the honour of a conversation with queen Caroline. Mr. 
Seeker's character was now so well establi^ed, that on the 
resignation of Dr. Tyrwhit, he was instituted to the rectory 

. of St. James's, May 18, 1732, and in the beginning of July 
wenn to Oxford to take his degree of doctor'of law9, not 

-being of sufficient standing for that of divinity. On this 
occasion he preached his celebrated Act sermon, on the 
advantages and duties of academical education, which was 
printed at the desire of the heads of houses, and quickly 
passed through several editions. The queen, in a subse? 
quent interview,* expressed her high opinion of this sermon, 
which was also thought to have contributed not a little to 
his promotion to the bishopric of Bristol, to which he was 
ffonftecrated Jan. 1 9, 1735. 

Dr. I^ecker immediately set about the visitation of his dio- 
cese, confirmed in a great many places, preached in several 
churches^ sometimes twice a day, and from the information 
received in his progress, laid the foundation of a parochial 
lioccFunt of his diocese, for the benefit of his successors. 
Finding at the same time, the affairs of his parish of St. 
James's io great disorder, he took the trouble, in concert 
With a few others, to put the accounts of the several officeiH 
into a regular method. He also drew up for the use of bis 
parishioners that course of *' Lectures on the Church Cate^ 
efaism,'' which have since been so often reprinted. ^^Tbe 
Bermona,'* says bishop Porteus, *< which he set himself to 
compose were truly excellent and original. His faculties 
were now in their full vigour, und he had Un audience tp 

9 E C K £ It Sot 

l]le»k Vefqre that rendered the utmosl^ eYeriioa of thcsi ne^ 
9e888ury. He did DQt, however* 9eek to gratify: the higher 
part by amusing them with refined specuUtionsvor ingenio 
^,us essays, unintelligible to the lower part, and unprofitft*^ 
hie to both ; but he laid before them all, with equal freedom 
and plainness, the great Christian duties belonging to th«ir 
respective stations, and reproved the follies and vieea of 
every rank amongst them without distinction or palliation/* 
He was certainly one of the most popular preachers of hit 
time* and though, as his biographer observe, hia teniions 
may not now afford the same pleasure, , or produce the Muno 
effects in the closet, as they did from tfae.pul|>it, aeeompO'^* 
nied as they then were with all the advahtagies of his deUk 
very, yet it will plainly appear that the applause they met 
with was founded no less on the matter they eontaioed^ 
than the manner in which they were spoken* 

On {he translajtion of Dr. Potter to the archbisboprie of 
Canterbury, Dr. S.ecker was translated to the bisboprie of 
Oxford,' in May 1737* When the unfortuante breach hap*^ 

Eened between the late king and the prince of Walesy Ui 
ighness having removed to Norfolk-house, ki .tbeiparisb 
of St. Jame^^s, attended divine service consliantly at that 
chureh. Two stories are told of this> matter, ^htch, al^ 
though without much foundation, served to amuse the-pisb^* 
lie for a while. The one was, that the first tim^ the prinoe* 
made bis appearance at churchy the clerk in orders^ Mr4' 
Bonney, began the service with -the sentence^ ^^I wiUariw 
and go to my father," &c.— The other, that Dr^ Seeker 
preaehed from the text, ^^ Honour thy father and thy mo*' 
ther,'' &c.— Dr. Seeker had the honoor of baptizing all hir 
4ugbness*s children except two, and though be did not at« 
tend his cour^ which was forbidden to those who went to 
the kit)gfs, yet on every proper occasion he behaved with- 
all the submission and respect due to his illustrious rank* 
In consequence of this, his influ^snce with the prince beings 
supposed much greater than it really was, he was sent, by^ 
the king's direction, with a message to his royal highness $ 
iKhieh not producing the effects expected from it, he bad 
the oiisfortujie to inc^r his majesty's displeasure, who had' 
been uuhappily persuaded to tbink that be might harve dona- 
more with the prince than he did^ .though indeed he could 
not. For this reason, and because he sometimes acted' 
with those who opposed the court, the king did not speak 
tp kim fot a great number of years. Tba whole of Dr« 

ifoe 8 E C K E R. 

Secker^s parliamentary conduct appears to have been loytL]^ 
manly, and independent. His circular letter to his clergy, 
and bis sermon on the subject of the rebellion in 1745, rank 
among the best and most efficacious documents of the kind 
which that melancholy event produced. In the spring of 
1748 his wife died, to whom he had now been married up- 
wards of twenty years. 

' In December 1750, he was promoted to the deanery of 
St. Paul's,, in exchange for the rectory of St. James's and 
the prebend of Durham. Having now more leisure both to 
prosecute his own studies, and to encourage those of others, 
he g^ve Dr. Church considerable assistance in his <* first 
and second Vindication of the Miraculous powers," against 
Dr. Middleton, and in his *^ Analysis of Lord Bolingbroke's 
Works," which appeared a few years afterwards. He like- 
wise assisted archdeacon Sharpe in his controversy with the 
Hatchinsonians, which was carried on to the end of the 
year 1755. 

. During the whole time that be was dean of St. Paul's, he 
' attended divine service constantly in that cathedral twice 
every day, whether in residence or not; and in concert 
with the three other residentiaries, established the custom 
of alwHys preaching their /own turns in the afternoon, or 
exchanging with each other only, which, excepting the case 
•of illness, or extraordinary accidents, was very punctually 
observed. He also introduced many salutary regulations in 
the financial concerns of^he church, the keeping of the re- 
gisters, &c. &c. In the summer months he resided con- 
stantly at his episcopal house at Cuddesden, the vicinity of 
which to Oxford rendered it very pleasing to a man of his 
literary turn. His house was the resort of those who were ' 
most distinguished for academical merit, and his cdnversa* 
tion such as was worthy of his guests, who always left him 
with a high esteem of his understandmg and learning. And 
though in the warm contest in 1754, for representatives of 
the county (in which it was sci^rce possible fur any person 
of eminence to remain neuter), he openly espoused that side 
which, was thought most favourable to the principles of the"^ 
revolution ; yet it was without bitterness or vehemence, 
without ever. departing from the decency of his profession, 
the dignity of his station, or the charity prescribed by his 

His conduct as a prelate was in the strictest sense of the 
word, exemplary. In his chargels, he enjoined no <luty9 


^nd imposed no burthen, on those under his jurisdiction^^ 
which he had not formerly undergone, or was not still ready, 
as far as became him, to undergo. He preached constant- 
ly in his church at Cuddesden every Sunday morning, and 
read a lecture on the catechism in the evening ;^both which 
be continued to do in Lambeth chapel after he became 
archbishop) and in every other respect, within his own pro« 
per department, was himself that devout, discreet, disin- 
terested, laborious, conscientious pastor, which he wished 
and exhorted every clergyman in his diocese to become. 
At length such distinguished merit prevailed over all the 
political obstacles to his advancement ; and on the death of 
archbishop Hutton, he was appointed by'the king to suc- 
ceed him in the diocese of Canterbury, and was accordingly 
confirmed at Bow-church on April 21, 1758. The use he 
made of this dignity very clearjy shewed that rank, and 
wealth, and power, had in no other light any charms for 
him, than as they enlarged the sphere of his active, and 
industrious' benevolence. 

In little more than two years after his grace's promotion 
to the see df Canterbury, died the late George IL Of 
what passed on that occasion, and of the form observed in 
proclaiming our present sovereign .(in which the archbishop 
of course took the lead), his grace has left an account ia 
writing. He did the same with regard to the subsequent cere- 
monials of marrying and crowning their present majesties, 
which in consequence of his station he-bad the honour ta 
solemnize, and in which he found a great want of proper 
precedents and directions. He had before, when rector of 
St. Jameses, baptized the new king (who was bom in Nor-* 
fblk-boqse, in that parish) and he was afterwards called 
upon to perform the same office for the greatest part of his 
iQajesty*s children ; a remarkable, and perhaps unexampled 
concurrence of such incidents in the life of one man. 

As archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Seeker considered 
himself as the- natural guardian, not only of that church 
over which he presided, but of learning, virtue, and reli-» 
gion at large; and, from the eminence on which he. was. 
placed, looked round with a watchful eye on every thing 
that concerned them, embracing readily all opportunities 
to promote their interests, and opposing, as far as he was 
able, all attempts to injure them. Men of real genius or 
extensive, knowledge, he sought out and encouraged. Even 
those of humbler talents, pjx)vided their industry was great. 

S04 ,S £ C tC £ R. 

and tbeir ititehtions good^ be treated with kitidtiess atid 
condescension. Both sorts be would frequently employ in 
undertakings suited to tbeir respective abilities, and re^ 
warded them in ways suited to tbeir respective wants* He 
assisted tbem with books, promoted subscriptions to tbeir 
works, contributed largely to them himself, talked with 
them on tbeir private concerns, entered warmly into tbeir 
interests, used his credit for tbem with the great^ and gave 
them preferments of bk own» He expended upwards of 
300/. in arranging and improving the MS library at Lam-« 
betb. And having observed vtriib concern, that the library 
of printed books in that palace bad received no accessions 
aince the time of archbishop Tenison, he made it bis bu^ 
siness to collect books in ail languages from most parts of 
Europe, at a very gr^at expence, wi»b a view of supplying 
that chasm ; which be- accordingly did, by leaving thecn to 
the library at bis death. 

All designs and institupons that tended to advance good 
morals and true religion he patronized with seal and 
generosity. He contributed largely to the maintenance o^ 
schools for the poor, to rebuilding or repairing parsonage^ 
houses and places of worship, and gave at one lime do less 
than 500/. towards erecting a chapel in the.parishof Lattibetb^ 
to which he afterwards added near 100/. more. To the so-» 
ciety for promoting Christian knowledge be was a liberal 
benefactor ; and to that for propagating the gOspel in fo* 
reign parts, of which be was the president, he paid mttcb 
attention, was constant at the meetings of its members^ and 
•nperintended tbeir deliberations with consummate pru^* 
dence and tempen He was sincerely desirous to improve 
to the utmost that excellent institution, atkl to diffuse the 
Ifinowledge and belief of Christianity as wide as tberevenues 
of the society, and the extreme difficulty of establishing 
schools and missions amongst the Indians, and of making 
any effectual and durable impressions of religion on ibeit 
uncivilized minds, would admit. But Dr. Mayhew, of 
Boston in New England, having in an angry pamphlet ae^ 
cused the society of not suflBciently answering these good 
purposes, and of departing widely from the spirit of their 
charter, with many injurious reflections interspersed on the 
church of England, and the design of appointing bishops 
in America, bis grace on all these accounts thought himself 
called upon to confute biss invectives, wbicl| be did in a 
short ananyoiotts piece, entitled '^An Answer to Dr. May^ 


iS E C k E 1(. .30^ 

fiew's Observations ou the charter and conduct of the So« 
ciety.for propagating the Gospel," London, 1 764-, reprinted 
in America. The strength of argument, as well as fairnesd 
and good temper, with which this answer was written, had 
aconsiderable effect dti all impartial men ; and even on th^ 
dpctor himself, who plainly perceived that he had no com- 
moB adversary to deal with ; and could not help acknow-^ 
ledgi-ng him to be ^* a person of excellent sense, and of a 
happy talent at writing; apparently free from the sordid 
illiberal spirit of bigotry; one of a cool temper, who oftea 
shewed much candour, was well acquainted^ with the affairs 
of the society, and in general a fair reasoner." He was 
therefore so far. wrought upon by his " worthy answerer,'* 
as to abate much in his reply of his former warmth ,a.nd 
acrimony. But as he still would not allow himself^ to b6 
V wrong in any material point,'^ nor forbear giving way too 
much to reproachful language and ludicrous misrepresenta- 

-tioDS, be was again animadverted upon by the late Mr: 
'Apthorpe, in a sensible trpt, entitled, " A. Review of.Dr. 
Jklayjiievv's K^/BU^arjss," &c. 1765. This put an end to the 
di^^te.; The dogtor, on reading it, declared he should not 
an$wqr it(|.and tba following year he died. 
.< U appeared evidently in the course of this controversy 
that Dr, Mayb«?w, and probably many other worthy men 

^anu>i}gst thp Dissenters, both at home and abroad, had 
can geixed^i very; unreasonable and groundless jealousies of 
tl|^, chuVfrh of Eogland, and its governors; and had, in 
paftipuiar^ greatly misunderstood the proposal for appoint- 
ing .bishops in some of the colonies. The nature of that 
fhh is;. fully explained in bishop Porteus's life of our 
4^rchbi$ho3^, to. which we refer^ The question is now of 
J^ss. importance, for notwithstanding the violent opposition 
to lulie measure, when Dr. Seeker espoused it, no sooner 
di,d.. the American provinces become independent stateSj< 
|:ban application was. made to the English bishops by some 

' of those states to consecrate bishops for them according to 

• the rites of the church of England, and three bishops were 
'actually consecrated in London some years ago: one for 

• Pennsylvania^ another for New York, and a third for Vir- 
ginia. . 

Whenever any publications came to the archbishop^s 
knowledge that were manifestly calculated to corrupt good 
morals, or subvert the foundations of Christianity, he did 
bis utmost to stop the circulation of them ; yet the wretched 

Vol. XXVII. X 


9.atibors rbemselves he was so far frovs^ wasting to trefit wU& 
any undue rigour, that he ba« more than once extende4 
)i}is bounty to them in distress. And when their writing$^ 
l^ould not properly be suppressed (99 was too often the 
case) by lawful authority, he engaged men of abilities tQ 
answer them, and rewarded them for their trouble. His 
attention was everywhere. Even the falsehoods and mis^ 
representations of writers in the newapapera, on religious 
or ecclesiastical subjects, he generally took care to have 
eo&tradicted : and when they seenied likely to injure, ia 
^ny npaterial degree, the <;ause of virtue and religion, or 
jtbe reputation of eminent and worthy men, he would 
sametiiaes tak<e the trouble of answeriug them himself^ 
fOi>e insti^nce of this kind, which does him lionour, and 
4eserves memtiou, 'was his defence of Bishop Builer, wliQi 
in a pamphlet, published in 1767, was accused pf haying 
jdiied a papist. 

The conduct which hie observed towards the several dir 
visiions and denominations of Christians in this kingdom^, 
was such as shewed his way of thinking to be truly liberal 
mid catholic. The dangerous spirit of popery, indeed, he 
thought should always be ikept under proper legal rer 
•straipts, on account of its natural opposition, not only to 
the religious, but the civil rights of mankind. He there-- 
foiie observed its movements with care, and exhorted his 
.cJe^gy to do the same, especially those who were aituated 
<ifi the mid»t of Roman catholic families : against whose 
influence they were charged to be upoo U>eir guard, and 
were furnished with proper books or instructions for the 
purpose. He took all opportunities of combating th^ er- 
;]K>fs.ofthe church of Rome, in his own wrutings; and tlii^ 
, best answers that were published to son^e bold apologies* 
{or popery yirere written at his iustance, and under bi^ 'di- 

With the dissenters his grace was sincerely desirous oi 
. cultiyajting a good understanding. He considered them,, 
in general, as a conscientious and valuable class of men. 
With some of the most eminent of them, Wf^tts, Dod- 
dridge ^> Lel9ind, Chandler, and Lard^er, be maintained ^xk 

^ The biographers of eminent dts- dridge's Letters," in bis zeal, has pii»- 

^ Mnters, with all ikieir prgudiees against docetl two letters from archbishop Seek- 

the i)ieroFchy, seem aever to exult er to that dirinc, forgetting ibat he ii|is 

wore thap when * tbey can produce not archbish<^ until several years after 

the correspondence of a distinfuished Doddridge^s death. 

: |ii«Urt«, But the ^^il^r of ** Dr. Dod- 

8 E C K E R. ^7 

lAtercotSfse of friendship or civility. By the most capdid 
and considerate part of them he was highly reverenced and 
esteemed : and to such among theni as needed help hQ 
shewed no less kindness and liberality than to those of Jbis 
own communion. 

Nor was his concern for the Protestant cause confined to- 
his own country ; be was well known as the great patroa 
and protector of it in various parts of Europe : from 
whence he had frequent applications for assistance^ which 
never failed of being favourably received. To several 
foreign Protestants he allowed pensions, to others he gav^ 
occasional relief, and to some of their universities was an 
annual benefactor. 

In public affairs, his grace acted the part of an honest 
cttizen» and a worthy member of the British legislature* 
From bis entrance into the House of Peers, his parlia- 
mentary conduct was uniformly upright and noble. Ha 
kept equally clear from the extremes of factious petulance 
and servile dependence : never wantonly thwarting admi- 
nistration from motives of party zeal or private pique^ or 
personal attachment, or a passion for popularity : nor yet 
going every length with every minister, from views of 
interest or ambition. He seldom, however, spoke ia 
parliament, except where the interests of religion and vir^- 
)t;ue seemed to require it : but whenever he did, he spoke 
with propriety and strength, and was heard with attentiom 
and deference. Though he never attached himself blindly 
to any set of men, yet his chief political connebtions were 
yf\\\i. the late duke of Newcastle, and lord chancellor 
Hardwicke. To these he owed principally his advahce- 
xnent : and he lived long enough to shew bis gratitude to 
them or their descendants. 

. Puring more than ten years that Dr. Seclser enjoyed 
the see of Canterbury, he resided constantly at bis archie*- 
piscopal house at Lambeth. A few months before bis 
death, the dreadful pains he felt had compelled him to 
thiok of trying the Bath waters : but that design was 
;itoj>.ped by the fatal accident which put an end to his life* 
JSxs grace had hee.n for many years subject to the gou^ 
mbicbj in the latter part of his life, returned with mor^ . 
frequency and violence, and did not go off in a regular 
inanner, but left thp parts affected for a long time veiy 
Weak, and was succeeded by pains in different parts of the« 
*body. About a year and a half before be died^ after ^ fit 

Z 2 

J0« S E C K: E R. 

of the gout, he was attacked with a pain in the artn, near* 
the shoulder, which having continued about twelve months^ 
a similar pain seized the upper and outer part of the oppo- 
site thighy and the arm soon became easier. This was 
much more grievous than the former, as it quickly disabled* 
him from walking, and kept him in almost continual tor- 
ment, except when he was ip a reclining position. During 
this time he had two or three fits of the gout : but neither 
tli^ gout nor the medicines alleviated these pains, which, 
with the want of exercise, brought him into a general bad 
habit of bt)dy. 

On Saturday July 30, 17fi8, he was seized, as he sat at 
dinner, with a sickness at his stomach. He recovered be- 
fore night : but thfe next evening, while his physicians were 
attending, his servants raising him on his couch, he sud- 
denly cried out that his thigh-bone was broken. He lay 
for some time in great agonies, but when the surgeons 
lirrived, and discovered with certainty that the bone was 
broken, he was perfectly resigned, and never afterwards 
asked a question about the event. A fever soon ensued : 
on Tuesdaj^ he became lethargic, and continued so tilt 
about five o'clock on Wednesday afternoon, when he ex- 
pired with great calmness, in the seventy- fifth year of his 
age. On examination, the thigh-bone was found to be 
carious about four inches in length, and at nearly the same 
distance from its head. He was buried, pursuant to his 
own directions, in a covered passage, leading from a pri- 
vate door of the palace to the north door of Lambeth 
church : and he forbade any monument or epitaph to be 
placed over him. 

In person, Dr. Seeker was tall and comely : in the early 
part of his life slender, and rathei; consumptive : but as he 
advanced in years, his size increased, yet never to a degree 
of corpulency that was disproportionate or troublesome. 
'His countenance was open, ingenuous, and expressive. 

By his will, he appointed D^. Daniel Burton, and Mrs. 
'Catherine Talbot (daughter of the Rev. Mr. Edward Tal- 
bot), his ex'ecntors ; arid left thirteen thousand pounds in 
the three per cent, annuities to Dr. Portens and Dr. Stinton 
his chaplains, in trust, to pay the interest thereof to Mrs. 
'Talbot and her daughter during their joint lives, or the life 
of the survivor; and, after the decease of both those 
ladies, eleven thousand to be transferred to the following 
charitable purposes: ^ ■ • 

SEC K E R. aod. 

• • • 

To the society for propagation of the gospel in foreigpn- 
parts, for the general uses of the society, lOOO/. ; to the 
same society, towards the establishment of a bishop or 
bishops in the king^s dominions in America, 1000/.; to the 
society for promoting Christian knowledge, 600/. ; to the 
Irish protestant working schools, 500/. ; to the corporation 
af the widows and children of the poor clergy, 500/.; to 
the society of the stewards of the said charity, 200/. ; 
to Bromley college in Kent, 500/. ; to the hospitals of the 
archbishop of Canterbury, at Croydon, St. John at Canter- 
bury, and St. Nicholas Harbledown^ 500/. each; to St. 
George's and London hospitals, and the lying-iti-hospital 
in Brownlow-street;, 500/. each; to the Asylum in the 
parish of Lambeth, 400/. ; to the Magdalen-hospital, the 
Lock-hospital, the ScpalUpo^ and Inocnlation-Ji )spital, to 
each of which bis grace was a subscriber, 300/. each ; 
to. the incurabi^es at St. Luke^s hospital, 500/. ; t.owards tlie 
repairing or rebuilding of houses belonging to poor livings 
in the diocese of Canterbury, 2^000,/. 

Besides these donations, he left 1000/. to be distributed 
amongst his senvi)nts ; 200/. to such poor persons as he 
assisted in bis life-time; 5000/. to the two daughters 
of his nephew Mr. Frost ; 500/. to Mrs. Seeker, the 
widow of his nephew Dr. George Seeker, and 200/. to Dr. 
Daniel Burton. After the payment of those and some other 
smaller legacies, he left his real and the residue of his 
personal estate to Mr. Thomas Frost of Nottinj^ham. The. 
greatest part of his very noble collection of books he be- 
queathed to the Archiepiscopal library at Lambeth, the 
i;est betwixt his two chaplains and two other friends. To 
the manuscript library in the same palace, he left a large 
i;iuml>er of very learned and valuable MSS. written by him- 
self on a great variety of subjects, critical and theological. 
His well-known catechetical lectures, and his MS sermons 
he left to be revised by his two chaplains, Dr. Stinton and. 
Dr. Porteus, by' whom they were published in 1770. His. 
options he gave to the archbishop of Canterbury, the 
bishop of London, and the bishop of Winchester for the 
time being, in trust, to be disposed of by them (as they 
became vacant) to such persons as they should in their, 
consciences think it would have been most reasonable for, 
him to have given them, had he been living. 

The life prefixed to his works was written by Dr. Por- 
teiis/ the late very amiable and much admired bishop of 

gia 8 E C K E R. 

London, and reprinted separately by his lordship in 1797, 
in consequence of bishop Hurd's having, in his life of 
Warburton, ** judged it expedient to introduce into his Kfe 
of bishop Watburton, such observations on the talents^ 
learning, and writings of archbishop Seeker, as appeared, 
both to Dr. Porteus and to many other of bis grace'ar 
friends extremely injurious to his literary character, and 
the credit of his numerous and useful publications; and 
therefore highly deserving of some notice from those wbor 
loved him in life, and revered him after death." These 
observations are indeed fully refuted in this excellent piece' 
of biography, as well as the other slanders which the steady 
and upright conduct of archbishop Seeker drew upon him. 
from persons notoriously disaffected to religion and the 
church ; and time, which never fails to do ample justice to 
such characters as his, has almost effaced the remembrance 
of them. Yet, as some have lately attempted to revive the 
dalumny, and suppress the refutation, we have given some 
references in the note on this subject, not without confi-^ 
dence that archbishop Secker*s character will suffer little 
while he has a Porteus for his defender^ and a Hollis, a 
Walpole, a Blackburn, and a Wakefield for his accusers. ^ 

SECOUSSE (Denis Francis), a French historian, waa 
liorn January 8, 1691, at Paris. He began to study the 
law in obedience to his father's desire, who was an able ad- 
vocate ; but losing both his parents shortly after^ hie quitted 
the bar, for which he had not the least taste, and devoted 
himself wholly to the belles lettres, and French history. 
His unwearied application to books, which no other passion 
interrupted, soon made him known among the learned ; and 
he was' admitted into the academy of inscriptions in 1723^ 
and chosen by chancellor d'Aguesseau five years after, tcy 
continue the great collection of statutes, made by the 
French kings, which M. de Laurier had begun. As Se- 
cousse possessed every talent necessary for such an impor- 
tant undertaking, the volumes which he published were 
received with universal approbation. He died at Paris, 
March 15, 1754, aged sixty-three, leaving a librarj^ the 
largest and most curious, in French history, that any pri- 
vate person had hitherto possessed. His works are, the 
continuation of the collection of statutes before mentioned, 

1 Life by PorteuL—Gent. Meg. volt; LVIII. LXVIII.— See alio Index.—. 
Many of bit LeUert are in Kippit*! Life of Lardner, Batler'i life of 
HUdeiley, Doddridge's LeCCera, Ibe. ftc. 

$ £ c o s s e. zn 

|0 the ninth volume inclusively, wbieh was printed iMidet 
the inspection of M. de Villevault, counsellor to the court 
of aids^ who succeeded M. Secousse, and published a table', 
ferining a tenth volume, and since, an eleventh svpd twelfth. 
Secousse also wrote many dissertations in the inemoii^ of 
the academy of inscriptions ; edition* of several works, and 
of several curious pieces ; '^ Memoirs for the History of 
Charles the Bad,*' 2 vols. 4to.* 

' SEDAINE (M^OHAEL John), a French dramatic writer, 
was born at Paris, June 4, 1719. Abandoned by his friends, 
he was^ at the age of thirteen, obliged to quit his studies^ 
in which he was little advanced, and to practise a trade for 
bis subsistence. He was first a journeyoian, and then a 
master mason, and architect ; which businesses he con- 
du<tted with nncdmmon probity. Natural inclination led 
bfm to cultivate literature, and particularly the dniiiia, for 
which he wrote various small pieces and comic operas, the 
most popular of which were, '* LeD^erteur ;'' and '* Richard 
CcBur de Lion.'' All of them met with great success, add 
still continue to he performed, but the French critics think 
that his poetry is not written in the purest and most eorroct 
style, and that his pieces appear to, more advantage on th^ 
atage than in the closet. He possessed, however, a quality 
of greater consequence to a dramatic writer-— ^the talent of 
producing stage eiiect. He was elected into the French 
academy, in consequence of the success of his ** Richard 
Codur de Lion,^ and was intimately connected with all the 
men of letters, and all the artists of his time. He died in 
May 1797, aged seventy-eight.' 

SEDGWICK (Obadiah), a nonconformist divine, was 
born at Marlborough in Wiltshire, in 1600, and educated 
Urst aC Queen's college, and then at Magdalen-ball, Ox- 
(otd. After taking his degrees in arts, he was ordained, 
and became chaplain to lord Horatio Vere, whom he ac« 
<ioaipanied into the Netherlands. After bis return, he 
went again to Oxford, and was admitted to the reading of 
the sentences in 16:29: Going then to Londoii he preached 
at St. Mildred's, Bread-'Street, until interrupted by the 
bishop,' and in 1639 became vicar of Goggeshall in Essex, 
where he continued three or four years. The commence* 
ment of the rebellion allowing men of his sentiments un- 

^ Diet. Hist. 

fin S E D G W I e K. 



ponstrained liberty, he returned to London, ^d preadlie4 
jre<}uently before the parliament, inveighing with extreme 
violeiice against the church and state : to the overthrow of 
both, bis biographers cannot deny that he contributed his 
full share, in the various characters of one of the assembly 
of divines, a chaplain in the army, one of the triers,, and 
pne of the ejectors of those who were called *' ignorant and 
scandalous ministers/' — In 1^46 be became preacher at 
St. Paul's, Coventrgarden, where he appears to have con- 
tinued until the decay of. his health, when he retired to 
Marlborough, and died there in January 1658. As a dir 
vine, he was much admired in his day, and his printed 
)vorks bad considerable popularity. The principal of tbeai 
are> *^ The Fountain opened,'- 1657; ^* An exposition of 
Psalm xxiii." 1658, 4to ; "The Anatomy of Secret Sins," 
1660 ; " The Parable of the Prodigal," 166Q ; " Synopsis 
of Christianity,'? &c. &c. — He had a brother, John, an ad-r 
herent to the parliamentary cause, and a preacher, but of 
less note; and another brother Joseph, who became batler 
in Magdalen college in 1634, and B.A. in 1637, and then 
went to Cambridge, where he took his master's- degree, and 
was elected fellow of Christ's college. After the restora-; 
tion he conformed, and was beneficed in the church ; in 
1675 he was made prebendary of Lincoln, and was also 
rector of Fisherton, where he died Sept, 22, 1702, in the 
^ year of his age, leaving a son John Sedg- 
wick, who succeeded him in the prebend, and was vicar of 
Burton Pedwardine in Lincolnshire, where he died in 1717.* 
SEDLEY, or SIDLEY (SiR Charles), a dramatic and 
miscellaneous writer, was the son of sir John Sedley, of 
Aylesford in Kent, by a d?iughter of sir Henry Savile, and 
was born about 1639. At seventeen, he became a/fellow- 
commoner of Wadham college in Oxford; but, taking no 
4iegree, retired to his own country, withoiit either travell- 
ing, or. going to the inns of court. . At the restoration he 
came to London, and commenced wit, courtier, poet, and 
man of gallantry. As a critic, he was so much admired, 
that he became a' kind of oracle among the poets ; and no- 
performance was approved or condemned, till sir Charles. 
Sedley had given judgment. This made ki«g Charles jest*- 
ingiy say to him, that Nature had given him a pateot to be 

} Ath. Ox. vol. II. — Brooks's Puritans,— Wood's MS papers in Bibl. Ashmol.' 
—Willis's Catbtdrals. 

: S E D L E Y. SIS 

ApoIlo^s viceroy; and lord Rochester placed him in.tbc^ 
j[irst rank of poetical critics. With these accomplishments, 
be impaired his estate by profligate pleasures, and was one 
pf that party of debauchees whom we have already men- 
tioned in our account of Sackville lord Buckhurst, who 
having insulted public decency, were indicted for a riot^ 
and all severely fined ; sir Charles in 500/. The day foe 
payment being appointed, sir Charles desired Mr. Henry 
JCilligrew and another gentleman, both his/riends, to apply, 
to the king to get it remitted ; which they undertook to do; 
but at the same time varied the application so far as to beg 
it for themselves, and they made Sedley pay the full sum. 

After this affair, his mind took a more serious turn ; and 
)ie began to apply himself to politics. He bad been chosen 
to serve for Romney in Kent, in the parliament which be* 
gun May 8, }661, and continued to sit for several parlia* 
ments after. He was extremely active for the revoljution, 
ivhich was at first thought extiraordinary, as he had receiv- 
ed favours from James II. but those were cancelled by that 
prince's having taken his daughter into keeping, whom be 
i:reated countess of Dorchester. This ^honour by nov 
means satisfied sir Charles, who^ libertine as he had 
been, considered his daughter's disgrace as being thereby 
made more conspicuous. Still his wit prevailed over his 
resentment, at least in speaking on the subject; for, being 
asked, why he appeared so warm for the revolution, he is. 
$aid to have answered, '^ From a principle of gratitude;, 
for, since his majesty has made my daughter, a countess,^ 
it is fit I should do all I can to make his daughter a queen." 
He died Aug. 20, 1701. 

His works were printed in 1719, 2 vols. 8vo ; and consist, 
of plays, translations, songs, prologues, epilogues, and smaU. 
occasional pieces. His poems are generally of the licen- 
tious kind, and do not afford great marks of genius, and. 
his dramas are quite forgotten. Pope, according to Spence, 
thought him very insipid, except in some of his little love- 
verses. Malone thinks 'he was the Lisideius of Dryden's 
^^ Essay on dramatic poetry," and Dryden certainly shewed 
his respect for him by dedicating to him his "Assignation."* 

SEDULIUS (Cifiuus, or C«cilius)j a priest and poet,, 
either Irish or Scotch, of the fifth century,, is recorded as 

1 Atb. Ox. vol. II. — Biog. Brit.'-^alone's.DrydeOj roL I. p. 64; II. p. 34» 
p*}!. — Spenoe's Anecdtftea, MS. 

514 S E D U L I U S. 

the writer of an heroic poem, called "Carmen Paschale,* 
divided into five books. The first begins with the creatiort 

- of the world, and comprehend? the more remarkable pas- 
sages of the Old Testament. The next three describe th^ 
Mfe of Jesus Christ. This performance has been highly 
eommended by Cassiodorus, Gregorius Turrinensis, and 
Others. Sedulius afterwards wrote a piece on the same 
subjects in prose. The poem was printed by Aldus in th(i 
collection of sacred poets, in 1502. It is also in Maittaire's 
^ Corp. Poet." and has since been published by itself, with 
teamed notes, by Arntzenius, 1761, 8vo, and by Arevale 
at Rome, 1794, 4to'.* 

SEED (jEREivirAH), an English divine, who was borh a^ 
Clifton, near Penrith, in Cumberland, of which place hi^ 
father was rector, had his school- education at Lowther, and 
his academical at Queen's college, in Oxford. Of this so- 
ciety he was chosen fellow in 1732. The greatest part of 
bis life was spent at Twickenham, where he was assistant or 
curate to Dr. Wateriand. In 1741, he was presented by 
his college to the living of Enham in Hampshire, at which 
j5lace he died in 1747, without ever having obtained any 
higher preferment, which he amply deserved. He was 
exemplary in his morals, orthodox in his opinions, had an 
afble head, and a most amiable heart. A late romantic 
writer against the Athanasian doctrines, whose testipiony 
we choose to give, as it is truth extorted fi'om an adversary, 
speaks of him in the following terms: << Notwithstanding 
this gentleman's being a contender for the Trinity, yet he 
was a benevolent man, an upright Christian, and a beauti- 
ful writer ; exclusive of his zesd for the Trinity, he was in 
every thing else an excellent clergyman, and an admirable 
^holar. 1 knew him well, and on account of his aftiiable 
qualities very highly honour his memory ; though no two 

' ever diflfered more in religious sentiments.^' He published 
in his lifb-time, *^ Discourses on several important Sub- 
jects,'* 2 vols. 8vo ; and his ** Posthumous Works, consist* 
itig of sermons, letters, essays, &c.'* in 2 vols. 8vo, were 
published from bis original manuscripts by Jos. Hall, M. A. 

^fellow of Queen's college, Oxford, 1750. They are all 
very ingenious, and filll of good matter, but abound too 
much in antithesis and point.* ' 

1 Voiilus de Poet. Lat.<^CaTe, vol. I.-««Mackeiizie'8 Sc6tbh writerf« tol. I^ 
• SuppUnitiit to tht first edition of tbii Diet published iH ltS7. 

S E G £ R d« M 

' 9EGERS, or SE6HERS (G^rAr^), m eminfent pgin* 
€er, was born at Antwerp rn 1*589. Under the infllrttCtioMi 
of Henry van Balen, and Abrabsm Jsnssens, he had naNihe 
considerable progress in the art before bef went to Icaiy^ On 
bts arrival at Rome, he became th« discipte of Battoiomaieo 
Manfred! ; and from him adopted n taste for the vigorooa 
style of Michael AngeK> Caravagg^o, to which bfe added 
somewhat of the tone and colour he had brought with hini 
from his native country ; producing the p^werfal effect of 
candle-light, though often faisety applied in subjecta whick 
appertain to the milder illumination of the day. He at 
length accepted tbe invitatiofn of cardinal Zapara, tlM 
Spanish ambassador at Rom^, to accompany hii» to Ma- 
drid, wlrere he wa[s presented to^the king, and was engaged 
in his service, with a considerable pension^ After some 
jrears he retbrned to Flanders, and his fellow-citfzens weM 
impatient to possess some of bis productions ; but they who 
had been accustomed to the style of Rubens and Vandyke^ 
were tinabie to yield him that praise to which be had been 
accustomed, and he was obliged to change bis manner^ 
^bich he appears to have done with facility and advantage, 
as many of his latter pictures bear evident testimony, Hisr 
fnost esteemed productions are, the principal altar-piece \x» 
the church of the Carmelites at Antwerp, the subject of 
which is the marriage of the virgin ; and the adoration of 
the magi, the altar-piece in the cathedral of Bruges. Th^ 
former is much after the manner of Rubens. Vandyke 
painted his portrait among the eminent artists of his coun** 
try, which is engraved by Pontius. He died in 1651, aged 
aixty-two. — Ris son Daniel, who was born at Antwerp^in* 
1590, was a painter of fruit and flowers, which he, being 
a Jesuit, executed at his convent at Rome. He appearsi 
indeed, to have painted more for the benefit of the society 
to which he had attached himself, than for his private ad- 
vantage : and when he had produced bis most celebrated 
picture, at the command of the prince of Orange, it was 
presented to that monarch in the name of the society, 
which was munificently recompensed in return. He fre^ 
quently painted garlands of flowers, as borders for pictures, 
which were filled up with historical subjects by the fiiTst 
painters. He died at Antwerp in 1660, aged seventy.^ 

t ArgeiiTiUe» vol. IIL— PilkiDgtoii.-^r J. Reyotlds't Worki.^Recs'f Cy. 

Sl$ 8 £ G N I. 

. SEGNI (Bernard),, an early Italian writer, was born 
at .Florence about the close of the fifteenth century. He 
was educated at Padua, where he became an accomplished 
classical scholar, but appears afterwards to have gone into 
public life,. and was employed in various embassies and 
negociations by duke Cosmo, of Florence. He wrote an 
excellent history of Florence from 1527 to 1555, which, 
however, remained. in MS. until 1723, wben it appeared, 
together with a life of Niccolo Capponi, gonfalonier of 
Florence, Segni*s uncle. He likewise translated Aristotle^s 
JXhics. " L'Etica d*Aristotele, tradotta in volga Fioren- 
tioo," Florence, 1550, 4to, a very elegant book ; and 
^^ Deir Anima d'Aristotele," 1583, also the Rhetoric and 
Poetics 6f the same author, &c. He died in 1559.' 

SEGRAIS (JoijN Renaud de), a French poet, was born 
at Caen in 1624, and first studied in the college of the 
Jesuits there. As he grew up, be applied himself to 
French poetry, and was so successful as to be enabled to 
rescue himself, four brothers, and two sisters, from the 
unhappy circumstances in which the extravagance of a 
father bad left them. In his twentieth year he met with a 
patron who introduced him to Mad. de Montpensier, and 
this lady appointed him her gentleman in ordinary, in 
which station he remained many years, until obliged to 
quit her service, for opposing her marriage with count de 
Lauzun. He. immediately found a new patroness in Mad. 
de la Fayette, who admitted him into her house, and as- 
signed him apartments. Her he assisted in her two ro- 
mances, " The princess of Cleves" and " Zaida." After 
seyen years, he retired to his own country, with a resolur 
lion to spend the rest of his days in solitude ; and there 
married his cousin, a rich heiress, aboiit 16711. 
Maintenon invited him to court, as tutor to the duke of 
Maine: buthedid not choose to exchange theindependenceof 
a retired life for the precarious favours of a court, and there- 
fore continued where he was. He was admitted of the 
French academy in 1662; and was the means of re>esta- 
blishing.tbat of Caen. He died at this place, of a dropsy, 
in 1701. Me was very deaf in the last years of his Ufe, bu( 
was much courted for the sake of his conversation, which 
was replete with such anecdotes as the polite world had 
furnished him with. A great number of these are to be 

i Tiraboscbi.— Haym Bibl. d'Ua!. 

S E G R A I S. Sl'f 

found in the '' Segraisiana ;*' which was published many 
years after his deaib^ with a preface by Mr. de la Mon- 
noye; the best edition of it is tliat of Amstefdam, 1723, 

The prose writings of Segrais, though for the most part 
frivolous enough, yet have great merit as to their style, 
which may be considered as a standard. Of this kind are 
bis " Nouvelles Francoises ;" but he was chiefly admired 
for his poems, which consist of " Diverses Poesies," printed 
at Paris in 1658, 4to; '^ Athis," a pastoral ; and a transla- 
tion of Virgil's Georgics and iEneid. Of his eclogues, 
and particularly of his translation of Virgil, Boileau and 
D'Alembert speak very highly, but his Virgil is no longer 
read . ' 


SELDEN (John), one of the most learned men of th« 
seventeenth century, was the son of John Selden, a yeo- 
man, by Margaret his wife, only daughter of Mr. Thomas 
Baker of Rusbington, descended from the family of the 
Bakers in Kent. He was born Dec. 16, 1584, at a house 
called the Lacies at Salvinton, near Terring in Sussex, and 
educated at the free-school at Chichester, where he made a 
very early progress in learning. In 1598, at fourteen years 
of age, as some say, but according to Wood, jn 1600, he 
was enter^ed of Hart-hall, Oxford, where under the tuition 
of Mr. Anthony Barker (brother to his schoolmaster at Chi-« 
Chester) and Mr, John Young, both of that hall, he studied 
about three years, and then removed to CliflFord's Inn, 
London, for the study of the law, and about two yearg 
afterwards exchanged that situation for the Inner Temple. 
Here he soon attained a great reputation for learning, and 
acquired the friendship of sir Robert Cotto», sir Henry 
Spelman, Camden, and Usher. In 1606, when only twenty- 
two years of age, he wrote a treatise on the civil govern- 
ment of Britain, before the coming in of the Normans, 
which was esteemed a very extraordinary performance for 
bi^ years. It was not printed, however, until 1615, and 
then very incorrectly, at Francfort, under the title ** Ana- 
lecttuy Anglo-Britaniiictfv libri duo, de civile administratione 
Britanniss Magnae usque ad Normanni adventum,'* 4ta, 
Micolson is of opinion that these ^* Analecta^* do not so 

1 Nic^ron, ▼ol. XVL—Segraisiftna.— D'Alcmbart's Hiit. pf iht Members, af 
Jtkt Fi-eoch Aca<leiDj« 

^S 5 E L D £ N. 

cjearly actoant for the religiao, government, and revotu* 
tioiis of state among our Saxoo aacestors, as th^j^re re- 
ported to do. It was ao eX;CeIlent spec^inen, however^ of 
what might be expected from a youth of such talents and 

In 1610 he printed at London, his ^' Jani Anglorum fa- 
cies altera,'* 8vo, reprinted in 16S1, and likewise trans* 
)ated into English by Dr. Adam Littleton, under his family 
name of Redman Westcot, 1683, fol. It consists of all - 
that is met with in history concerning the common and 
statute law of English Britany to the death of Henry IL 
Selden had laid the foundation in a discourse which he 
published the same year and in the same form, entitled 
^^ England's Epinomis ;" and this is also in Dr. Littfetoa's 
volume, along with two other tracts^ "The Original of Ec- 
clesiastical Jurisdiction of Testaments,'' and " The Dispo- 
sition or ad^ministration of Intestate goods^" both afterwards 
the production of Selden's pen. In the same year, 1610, 
be published his "Duello, or single combat;^' and in 1612^ 
notes and illustrations on Drayton's " Poly-Olbiop," folio. 
He seems to have been esteemed for his learning by the 
poets of that time ; and although he had no great poetical 
t4jrn himself, yet in 1613 he wrote Greek, Latin, and Eur 
glish verses on Browne's " Britannia's Pastorals," and con- 
tributed other efforts of the kind to the works of several 
authors, which appear to have induced Suckling to intro- 
duce him in his ^^ Sessioh of the Poets," as sitting " close 
|>y the chair of Apollo." 

In 1^14 he published a work which has always been 
pi;aised for utility, his " Titles of Honour," Lond. 4tOj with 
an encomiastic poem by his friend Ben Jonson. It was re- 
printed with, additions in 1631, fol. and again in 1671, and 
trasH^lated into Latin by Simon John Arnold, Francfort, 
1.696. Nicolson remarks that " as to what concerns our 
nobility and gentry, all that come within either of those 
lists will allow, that Mr. Selden's Titles of Honour ought 
first to be perused, for the gaining of a general notion of 
the distinction of a ^legree from an emperor down to a 
country ^lentleman." In 1616 appe^ired his notes on si^ 
John Fortescue's work " De laudibus legum Angliae," and 
w Ralph's Hengbam's " Sums," Lond. 8vo. In 1617 he 
drew up a dissertation upon the state of the Jews formerly 
liWng in England, f<yt the use of Purchas, wlio printed it, 
although, as Selden complained, very defectively, in fail 

S £ L D E N. 2iP 

^* Pilgrimage.** In the same year be published bis Ttery 
learned work, " De Diis Syriis syntagmata duo/* This is 
not only a treatise on the idolatry of the ancient Syrians, 
but affords a commentary on all the passages in the Old 
Testament, wh6re mention is made of any of the heathen 
deities^ This first edition (Lond. 8vo.) being out of print, 
Ludovicus de Dieu printed an edition at Leydeo in 1629^ 
which was revised and enlarged by Selden. Andrew Beyer 
afterwards publisbed two editions at Leipsic, in 1668 and 
1672, with some additions, but, according to Le Clerc, 4>f 
little importance. Le Clerc ofiTers aisp some objections io 
the work itself, which, if just, imply that Selden had not 
always been judicious |n bis chdice of his authorities, nor 
in the mode of treating the subject. It contributed, how«- 
/ever, to enlaige the reputation which he already enjoyed 
both at home and abroad. 

In bis next, and one of his most memorable perforon- 
»nces, he did not earn the fame of it without some dan^ 
jger. This was his " Treatise of Tythes," the object of 
which was to pi:ove that tithes were not due by divine 
right under Christianity, although the clergy are entitled 
to them by the laws of the land. ^This book was attacked 
^y sir James Sempili in the Appendix to his treatise en« 
.titled '* Sacrilege sacredly handled/' London, 1619, and 
by Dr. Richard Tillesley, archdeacon of Rochester, in his 
"Animadversions upon Mr. Selden's History, of Tithes/' 
London, 1621, 4to. Selden wrote an ajiswer to Dr. Til- 
lesley, which being dispersed in manuscript, the doctor 
publL^ed it with remarks in the second edition of his 
*^ Animadversions,** London, 1621, 4to, under this title, 
<^ Animadversions upon Mr. Selden'^ History of Tithes, jand 
his Review thereof. Before which (in lieu of the two first 
chaptiers purposely prs&termitted) is premised a catalogue of 
72 authors' before the yeare 1215, maintaining the Jus di- 
vinum of Ty thes, or more, to be paid to the Priesthood 
^noder the Gospell.'* Selden's book was likewise answered 
by Dr. Richard Montague in his ^^ Diatribe,'* London, 
1621, 4to; by Stephen Nettles, B. D. in bis '^Answer to 
^he Jewish Part of Mr. Selden's History of Tythes," Ox- 
ford, '1625; and by William Sclater in bis ^^ Arguments 
about Tithes," London, 1623, in 4to. Selden's work hav- 
ing been reprinted in 1680, 4to, with the eld date put to 
it. Dr. Thomas Comber answered it in a treatise entitled^ 
<^ An Historical Vindication of the Divine Right {& Tith^^ 
&c." London, 1681, in 4to* 

820 S E L D E I^. 

This work also excited the displeasure of the coiirt, and 
the author was called before some of the lords of the high 
commission, Jan. 28, 1618, and obliged to make a public 
submission, which he did in these words : " My good Lord^, 
I most humbly acknowledge my errour, which 1 have com^ 
mittedin publishing the * History of Tithes,' and especially 
in that I have at all, by shewing any interpretation of Holy 
Scriptures, by meddling with Councils, Fathers, (ir Canons, 
or by what else soever occures in it, offered any occasion 
of argument against any right of maintenance * Jure divino' 
of the Ministers of the Gospell ; beseeching ygur Lord- 
ships to^eceive this ingenuous and humble acknowledg- 
ment, together with the unfeined protestation of my griefe, 
for that through it I have so incurred both his M^jestie^s 
a!nd your Lordships' displeasure conceived against mee in 
behalfe of the Church of England." We give this literally^ 
because some of Mr. Selden's admirers have asserted that 
he never recanted any thing in his book. The above is at 
least the language of recantation; yet he says himself in 
his answer to Dr. Tillesley, " I confesse, that I did most 
willingly acknowledge, not only before some Lords of the 
High Commission (not in the High Commission Court) but 
also to the Lords of his Majesty's Privy Council, that I 
was most sorry for the publishing of that History, because 
it had offended. And his Majesty's most gracious favour 
towards me received that satisfaction of the fault in so un- 
timely printing it; and L profess still to all the world, that 
I am sorry for it. And so should I have been, if I had 
published a most orthodox Catechisnfi, that had offended. 
But what is that to the doctrinal consequences of it, which 
the Doctor talks of? Is there a syllable of it of less truth, 
because I was sorry for the JDublishing of it? Indeed, 
perhaps by the Doctor's logic there is; and just so might 
lie prove, that there is the more truth in his animadversions, 
because he was so glad of the printing them. And be- 
cause he hopes, as he says, that my submission hath cleared 

•my judgment touching the right of tithes: what dream 
made him hope so? There is not a word of tithes in that 
submission more than in mentioning the title; neither was 
my judgment at all in question, but my publishing it; and 
this the Doctor knows too, as I am assured." Seiden, 

' therefore, if this means any thing, was not sorry for what 
he had written, but because he had published it, and be 
wa,s sorry he had published it^ because it gave offence to 
the court and to the clergy. > 

S E L D E N. 


I td 1621) kiog James having, in bis speech to the par-^ 
^iaoient, asserted that their privileges were originally gi^antt 
from the .crown, Selden was consulted by the Hoiise of 
JLords on that question^ and gave bis opinion in favour of 
parliament; which being dissolved soon after, he was com- 
knitted to the custody of the sheriff of London^ as a princi- 
.pal proilioter of .the famous protest of the House of |C0m<i' 
4QOII8, previojUs to its dissolution* From this confinement^ 
jwbich .lasted only five weeks, be was released by the in- 
terest of Dr. Andrews, bhhop of Winchester, and returned 
to his studies, the first fruits of which were, a learned epis* 
tie prefixed to Vincent's ^' Discovery of errorf in two edi« 
.tioQS ,Qjf the Catalogue of Nobility by Ralph Brooke,'' 
Lond. 1622, and the year following his <^ Spicilegium ift 
.£ad;)(ieri sex libros Historiarum,*' fol. 

Altbough he had already been consulted by parliameti^t 
x>n account of bis knowledge of constitutional antiquities^ 
he bad not yet obtained a seat in that assembly; but in 
,1628 he was chosen a member for Lancaster, and in the 
parliament called in 1625, on the accession of Charles I* 
be was chosen for Great Bedwin in Wiltshire, and now 
took an active part in opposition to the measures, of th« 
court ^» In 16<26 he was chosen of the committee fg^r 

♦ In I'rinitjr term, 16^4, he was 
)?hoseii reader of Lyoh's-Inn, but re- 
.feted to perform that office. Id the 
register of the Inner Temple Is the fol- 
lowing passage: ** Whereas an order 
was made at the Bench-Table this term, 
•ince the last |>arl lament, and entered 
into the buttery-book in these words ; 
Jovis ti die OeUAm 1624. Memoran" 
'duM^ that whereas John Selden, esq. 
906 of the utter barristers of this house, 
'Was ill Trinity term last, chosen reader 
■ of LyonVIttii by the gentlemen of the 
^aame house, according to the order of 
their house, which he then refused to 
'take upon'hfdi, and perform the same, 
'Without tome su^cieut cause or good 
reason, notwithstandhig many courte- 
cms and fair persuasions And isdmoni- 
tions by the masters of the bench made 
to him i for which cause he having been 
twice convented before the masters of 
the Vedoh, it was then ordered, that 
there should be a ne rttipiatur entered 
upon his name, which was done accord- 
Jngly; and in respect the beneb was 
'fK>t then full, the farther piroceediiigt 


conderning him were respited until thia 
term. Now this day being called again 
to the table, he doth absolutely refuse 
to read. The masters of the . bench, 
taking into cbhstderation his cbntiempt 
and offence, and for that it is wiihoQt 
precedent, that any man elected to 
read in chancery has been discharg^ 
in like case, much less has with such 
wilfulness refused kb^ same, have or* 
dered, that he shall pr^ntly pay to 
the US6 of this house the sunt of 201. 
for his fine, and that he stand add be 
disabled ever to be called to the bench, 
or to be a reader of this house, ^ow 
at this parliament the said order Is con* 
firmed; and it is further ordered, that 
if any of this house, which hereafter 
shall be chosen to reiul in chancery, 
shall refuse to read, every such offender 
shall be fined, and be disabled to be 
called to the bench, or to' be a reader 
of this hoiise.** However, in Michael- 
mas term 1632, it was ordered^ that 
Mr. Selden « shall stand enabled and 
be capable of any preferment in .the 
House, in such a manner as other 


Y - - - 


S E L Di E N. 

drawing up articles of impeachment against the doke of 
Buckingham, and was afterwards appointed one of the ma^ 
nagers for the House of Commons on his trial. ' In 1627 
he opposed the loan which the king endeavoured to raiset^ 
and although he seldom made his appearance at the bar, 

r leaded in the court of King's Bench for Hampden, who 
ad been imprisoned for revising to pay his quota of that 
loan. After the third parliament of Charles I. in which be 
aat for Lancaster, had been prorogued, he retired to Wrest 
in Bedfordshire, a seat belohginglto the earl of Kent, where 
lie finished his edition of the *' Marmora Arundelliana,** 
-Lend. 1629,' 4to, reprinted by PrideauK, with additions at 
Oxford, in 1676, folio, and by Maittaire, at London, 1732, 
«n folio. 

In the next session of parliament he continued his ac^ 
livity against the measures of the court, to which he had 
made himself so obnoxious, that after that parliament wa^ 
dissolved, he was committed to the Tower by an order ctf 
the Privy-council, where he remained about eight months, 
«nd as he then refused to give security for his good be«* 
haviour, he was removed to the King's Bench prison, hot 
was allowed the rules. It was about this time that he wrote 
his piece <* De successionibus in bona defuncti^ secundunh 
leges Hebrseorum,^* Lond. 1634, 4to; and another, *' De 
auccessipne in pontificatum Hebrasorum libri duo,'' re- 
printed at Leyden, 1638, 8vo, and Francfort, by Beckmanr^ 
1673, 4to, with some additions by the author. In May 
1630 he was removed to the Gate-house at Westminster ; 
9ind in consequence of this removal, he found means to 
pbtain so much iuddlgenqe, as to pass the long vacation iq 
Bedfordshire; but when his habeas corpus was brought, as 
usual, in "Michaelmas term ensuing, it was refused by the 
court, and the judges complaining of the illegality of hk^ 
removal to the Gate-house, he was remanded to the KingV-* 
bench, where he continued till May 1631, when be was 
fbdmitted to bail, and bailed from term to term, until he 

Setitioned the king, in July 1634, and was finally released 
y the favour of archbishop Laud and the lord treasurer. 
During his confinement, having been always much attached 
^ the study of Jewish antiquities, he wrote bis treatises, *^De 
Julrenaturali et gentium, juxta disci plinam Hebrs^orum,'* 

ptter bamristers of tfait House are to «ll itanding^ and acoordiogly he wa$ calldl 
Intents 'and purposes, any rortner act to tiht beach Michaelnai foUowiag." ' 
•f parliaacnt to tht coatrary notwUh- 

^ . 

6 fi L 13 fe K. S2t 

Md his'^ tJxbr tliebraica,^^ on %he marriages, dtvbrces, Sco^ 
of the ancient Hebrews* In 1633 he was one of the com** 
mittee appointed for preparing the mask exhibited by the 
gentlemen of the Inns of Court, before the king and queea 
on Candlemas night, in order to show their disapprobation 
of Prynne's bGiok against stage-plays, called *^ Histriomas* 
tix:^* so various were Selden^s pursuits, that he could even 
auperintend mummery of this kind, while apparently Undef 
the displeasure of the court. His next publication^ how^ 
ever» effectually reconcii'ed the court and ministers. 

During king Jaa)es^» i^ign, Selden had been or* 
defed by his majesty to make such collections at 
knight shew the right of the crawn of England to the 
dominion of the sea, and he had undertaken the work^ 
buty in resentment for being imprisoned by Janaes^ de** 
clined the publication^ J^n occasion ofFered now in whick 
it might appear to advantage. In 1634, a dispute having 
ttrisen between the English and Dutch concerning the 
herring-fi^ibery upon the British coast, to which the Dutch, 
laid claim, and had their claims supported by Grotius^ 
who, in his ** Mare liberum^' contended that fishing off the 
seas was a matter of common fight, Selden now published 
his celebrated treatise of ^^ Mare Clausum>'^ Lond» 1635^ foL 
In this he effectually demonstrated, from the law of nature 
and nations, that a dominion over the sea may be ac-^ 
quired : and from the most authentic hbtories^ that such a 
dominion has been claimed and enjoyed by several nations^ 
and submitted to by others^ for their common benefit: 
that this in facj: was the case of the inhabitants of this 
island, who, at all times, and under every kind of govern* 
ment, had claimed, exercised, and constantly enjoyed such 
a daminion) which had been confessed by their neighbours 
frequently, and in the most solemn mannen This treatise^ 
in the publication of which Selden is said to have been en- 
couraged by ai^chbishop Laud, greatly recommended him 
to the court, and was considered as so decisive on tb^ 
qQestion> that a copy of it was placed among the records of 
the crown, in the exchequer, and in the court of admiralty. 
This work was reprinted in 1636, 8vo. An edition also 
appeared in Holland, 12mo, with the title of London, but 
was prohibited by the king, because of some additions, 
and a preface by Boxhornius. It was translated into 
English, by the noted Marchamont Needham, 1652, foL 
with some additional evidence and discourses^ by special 

Y 2 

i2i S E L D E N. 

command^ and a dedication of eighteen j)agesy addreisetl 
to ^^ The supreme authoritie of the nation and parliament 
of the Cc^inonwealth of England,'^ which is of course hot 
prefixed to the translation by J. H. Gent published after 
.the restoration in 1663. Nicolson observes, that whea 
Selden wrote this book, he was not such an inveterate 
enemy to the prerogative doctrine of ship-money, as after-a- 
wards : for he professedly asserts, that in the defence of 
their sovereignty at sea^ our kings constantly practised the 
levying great sums on their subjects without the concur- 
rence of their parliaments. The work having been attacked 
by Peter Baptista Burgus, Selden published in 1653, 4to> 
a treatise in its defence^ with rather a harsh title, *^ Vin- 
dicisB secundum ihtegritatem existimationis suie per con* 
vitium de scriptione Maris clausi petulantissimum et 
mendaclssimuixi Maris liberi, &c." 

In 1640, Seldett published another of those works 
which were the fruit of bis researches into Jewish antiqui- 
ties, already noticed under the title *^ De Jure Naturali et 
Qentium juxta disciplinam Hebrsorum,'* folio. PufFendorfF 
applauds this work highly ; but his translator Barbeyrac ob- 
serves, that ^* besi'des the extreme disorder and obscurity 
which are justly to be censured in his manner of writing, he 
does not derive his principles of nature from the pure light of 
reason, but merely from the seven precepts giv^n to Noah ; 
and frequently contents himself with citing the decisions 
of the Rabbinsi without giving himself the trouble to 
examine whether they be just or not.** Le Clerc says, 
that in this book Selden ^^has only copied the Rabbins, 
and scarcely ever reasons at all. His rabbinical principles 
are founded upon an uncertain Jewish tradition, namely, 
that God gave to Noah seven precepts,, to be observed bj 
all mankind; which, if it should be denied, the Jews 
would find a difficulty to prove : besides, his ideas are 
very imperfect and embarrassed.** There is certainly some 
foundation for this ; and what is said of his style may be 
more or less applied to all he wrote. He had a vast 
memory and prodigious learning ;'*which impeded the use 
of his reasoning faculty, perplexed and embarrassed his 
ideas, and crowded his writings with citations and authori- 
ties, to supply the place of argument. 

In this same year, 1640, Selden was chosen member for 
the university of Oxford, and that year and the following 
continued. to oppose the measures of the court; but bis coh^ 

8 E L D E N. W# 

4iu9t may to some appear unsteady. In truth, he attempted 
what in those days was impossible, to steer a middle Qourse; > 
He supported the republican party in the measures pre<- 
paratory to the sacrifice of the ear) of Strafford, but was not 
one of their Committee for managing the impeachment^ 
and his name was even inserted in a list of members^ posted 
up in Old Palace Yard by some party zealots, and branded^ 
wit|i the appellation of ** enemies of justice/' On the 
subject of church-goveroment, although he seems to have 
entiertained some predilection for the establishment, yet 
he made no effort to prevent its fall^ at all commensurate 
to his knowledge and credit In the debates on the 
question whether bishops sat in parliament as barons and 
peers of the realm, or as prelates, he gave it as his opinioi^ 
that they sat as neither, but as representatives of the clergy ; 
and this led to the expulsion of them from parliament* 
Afterwards we find him concurring with other members of 
the House of Commons in a protestation that they would 
xnaint^ain the protestant religion according to the doctrine 
pf the church of England, and would defend the person and 
authority of the king, the privileges of parliament, and 
the rights of the subject. In the prosecution of arch- 
bishop Laud, Selden was among those who were appointed 
to draw up articles of impeachment against bim^ an olGce . 
yi^hicb must have produced a severe cQUtest between his 
private feelings and his public duties. 

Notwithstanding all this^ the royalists were unwilling to 
believe that 41 man so learned and 90 well informed as 
Selden could be seriously hostile, and there .were ,evea 
^ome thoughts of taking the great seal from the lord 
keeper Littleton, a^d giving it to him. Clarendon tells us^ 
that lord Falkland and hiqisel^ to whooi his majesty re- 
ferred the consideration of this measure, ^^ did not doubt 
^f Mr. Selden's affection to the king; but withal they 
knew him so well, that they concluded he would absolutely 
refuse the place, if it were offered to him. H^ yras in 
years, and of a tender constitution : he bad for many 
^ years enjoyed his ea^e, which he loved ; was rich, and 
would not have made a journey to York, or have lajn out 
of bis own bed, for any preferment, which he had never 
affected.*' But in all probability bis majesty's advisers saw 
jtjtiat hJLs want of firmness, and bis love of safety, yvere the 
real imped^inaents. When the king .found bimopposing ia 
parliamept the comimidsioo of array, be desijred lord Falk« 

S26 S E L D E 1^, 

Iftnd to wiite to Selden on the subject, who Tindicated' 
bis conduct on that point, but declared his intention to be 
equally hostile to the ordinance for the militia, which was 
idioyed by the factious party, and which he justly declarec) 
to be without any shadow of law, or pretence of precedent, 
and most destructive to the governoienc of the kingdom. 
Accordingly he performed his promise, but this remarkable 
difference attended his efforts, that his opposition to the 
Commission of array did the king great injury among 
many of his subjects, while the ordinance which armed the 
parliamentary leaders against the crown was carried : and, 
according to Whitelocke, Selden himself was made s^ 
deputy-lieutenant under it. There was an equally re-r 
markable difference in the treatment he received for this 
double opposition. The king and his friends, convinced 
that be acted honestly, bore no resentment against him ; 
but the popular leaders, roost characteristically, infeirred 
from this, that he must be hostile to their cause, and made 
tain endeavours to induce Waller to implicate him in the 
plot which he disclosed in 1 643. Nor was his exculpation 
sufficient : for he was obliged, by an oath, to testify his 
hostility against the traitorous and horrible plot for the sub-* 
fersion of the parlian^ent and state. 

In 1643, he was appointed one of the lay-members tq 
sit in the assembly of divines at Westminster, in which, his 
admirers tell us, he frequently -perplexed those divines 
ivith '!ii?f ' vast learning ; and, as Whitelocke relates^ 
'* sometimes when they had cited a text of scripture to 

{>rove their assertidn, he would tell them, * perhaps in your 
ittle pocket-bibles with gilt leaves,' which they would 
often pull out and read, < the translation may be thus ;' but 
the QreeH sind the Hebrew signify thus and thus ; and sci 
would totally silence th^m'^ This anecdote, which has 
often been repeated to Selden's praise, may afford a proof 
of his wit, such as it was ; but as a reflection on the divines 
bf that assembly, it can do him no credit, many of theoi 
certainly understanding the originaf languages of the Bible 
Its well as himself. It was in truth, as an able critic ha^ 
pbserved, a piece of wanton insolence. 

It is now necessary to revert to his publications, whicti 
were seldom long interrupted by bis pplitical engagements. 
In 164^, he published << A brief discoui^e concerning the 
power of peers and commons in parliament in point of 
^udicaturfe;^" 4to, whici; sQm^ tiave, faQw^^r^ i^scril^ed t«r 

S E L D E N. J2T 

mr Btmonds D'Ewes. It wat followed by ** A discoarte 
concerning the rights and privileges of the subjects, in a 
conference desired by the lords in 1G28/' Lond. 1642, 4to: 
*' Privileges of the Baronage of England, when they sit it» 
parliament," ibid. 1642, and 1681, 8vo; and an edition of 
Eutycbius^s ** Origines," with a translation and notes, 
Lond. 4to, under this title, " Eutychii iEgyptii, Patriarcbsr 
orthodoxorum Alexandrini, EcclesioB suss origines ex ejas-^ 
dem Arabico, nunc primum edidit ac versione et commen- 
tario auxit Joannes Seldenus." Pocock (see Pocock^' 
Vol. XXV. p. 91) inserted this work in bi« edition of the 
annals of Entycbius, which he translated at the desire of 
Mr. Selden, at whose expence they were printed at Oxford, 
in 1656, 4to. Mr, Selden^s book has been aninkadverted 
upon by several writers, particularly Abraham Ecchellensis, 
John Morin, and Eusebius Kenaudot, 

In 1643, he ^0brded every proof of his adherence to the 
republican party, by taking the covenant ;; and the same 
year, vi^s by the. parliament appointed keeper of the re^- 
^ords in the Tower, In 1644, he was elected one of the 
twelve eoftimissioners of the admiralty ; and nominated to 
the maste^hip of Trinity •college, in Cambridge, which he 
did not think proper to accept. In this year, be published 
his treatise^ ^ De Anno civili et Calendario Judaico,** 4to. 
In 1 646, tbe parliament was so sensible of his seryices tba( 
they voted him the sum of 5000/. in consideration of his 
sufferings. What these were we have already reWltedi. Iil 
1647, he published his learned *' Dissertation annexed to 
(a book called) Fleta,'' which he discovered in the Cot* 
V>nian library. A second edition was published in 1685^ 
but in both are said to be many typographical errors. In 
1^71, R. Kelham Esq. published a translation tt^ith notes; 
^k virork contains many curious particulars relating to 
those ancient authors on the laws of England, Bracton, 
i^ritton, Fleta, and Thornton, and shews what use was 
ifiadeof the imperial law in England, whilst the Romans, 
governed here, at what time it was introduced into this 
nation,, vvbat use our ancestors made of it, how long it con- 
tinued,* and when the use of it totally ceased in the king*s 
eourts at Westminster, 

Selden continued to sit in Parliament after the mur- 
der of the king, and was the means of doing some good to 
learning, by his own reputation and influence in that re- 
spectt {le preserved archbishop Usher's library from 

S28 S E L D E N. 

being soldi and rendered considerable services to ^bemiiirerW: 
sity of Oxford) taking all occasions, as in the cases of Pocockk 
asd Greaves, to moderate the tyranny of the parliamentary- 
visitors, and often affording a generous protection .to* 
dtber eminent men who were about to be ejected for their 
adherence to the king. He also was instrumenul in pre- 
serving the books and medals at .St James's, -by persuad-^ 
ifig bis friend Whitelocke to accept the charge of them.> 
Of his conduct while the death of the king was peoding^ 
we have no account ; at that critical period, he retired, it ia 
said, as far as be could : and it is certain that he refused 
to gratify Cromwell by writing an answer to the Eikon: 
IQasilike. In 1650, he published bis iirst book, '< De 
Syoedriis et prsefecturis Hebrasorum,'* 4to; the second ap«^ 
peared in 1653, and the third after his death, in 1655,r 
Many passages in this work have been animadverted upoa 
by several eminent writers, especially what relates to ^x- 
€<Miimantcatioo. Dr. Hammond, in pacticMlar, bas ex^ 
amined Selden's notion concerning the power of binding 
and loosing, in bis treatise concerning *^ The.powei: of tb€^ 
Keys.'* In 1652, be contributed a preface to the ^^ De«^ 
cem Scriptores Histories Anglicaoaei,'' printed H lMOndo» 
that year, in folia . 

. In the beginning of 1654 his health began to decline^ 
and he began to see the emptiness of all human learning ; 
and .owned, that out of the numberless volumes be bad 
r^d andiiligested, nothing stuck so cIosq to his hearty w 
gtve him such solid satisfaction as a single passage out of 
St. Paul's Epistle to Titus,, ii. U, 12, 13, 14. On Nov^ 
XOof:that year, be sent to his friend Bulst^rode Whitelocke^ 
in order to make some alterations in bis will, but when hft 
camethe found Selden*s weakness to be sq much jncresise^ 
that he was not able to perform bis intention ^». He iti^ 
Nov. 3Q, in the seventieth year of his age, in White Friara^ 
at tlie Elizabeth, countess of Kent, ^ith: whom b^ 
bad lived some years in such intimacy, that tbeywere r^ 

P Hia lelter m^y be aubjoined, «s '< Most bumble S^anl^ 

fbe last memoriat of this great man. '* J. Seldeo^ 

"My Lord. • «« Whire Friers, Nov. 10, lS54.»' 

*' I am a most humble suitor to your *' I went to lifi«»" «ay» Mr. Whilft* 

Lordsbip. tbat you will be pleased, locke, " anU was advised with about 

that I might have your presence for a settling his estate, and altering his m\\\^ 

KUle time lo«iniOrrow or next day. and to be one of his eveculora ; boiht# 

Th«s much wearies the most weak; hand weakness ao increased, that bU V#%) 

Md body of Your Lprdship^s tious were preyenled.** 

. S E L D E N. S9» 

ported to be man and wife*, and Dr. Wilkint; sopposeS) that 
the weaUby which be left at his death, was chieHy owing to. 
the generosity of that countess : but there is no good reasoa 
for either of these surmises. He was buried in tne Temple 
church, where a monument was erected to him ; and abp. 
Usher preached his funeral sermon. He left a most valua^ 
ble and curious library to his executors, Matthew Hale, 
John Vaughan, and Rowland Jewks, esqs. which they gene* 
rously would have bestowed on the society of the Inner 
Temple, if a proper place should be provided to receive it: 
but, this being neglected, they gave it to the university of 
Oxford. Selden^ himself, had originally intended it for 
Oxford, and had left it so in his willf, but was offended, 
because when he applied for a manuscript in the Bodleian 
Kbrary, they asked, according to usual custom, a bond of 
lOOO/. for its restitution. This made him dedlare, with some 
passion, that they should never have his collection. The 
executors, however, considered that they were executors 
of his will and not of his passion, and therefore destined 
the books, amounting to 8000 volumes, for Oxford, where, 
a noble room was added to the library for their reception.' 
Burnet says, this collection was valued at some thousands 
of pounds, and was believed to be one of the most curious 
in Europe. It is supposed that sir Matthew Hale gave some 
of Selden*8 MSS respecting law to L«incolnVInn library, as 
there is nothing of that kind among what were sent to the 
Bodleian ; and a few Mr. Selden gave to the lihrLB^ of the 
college of physicians. 

Selden was a man of extensive learning, and had as much 

skill in the Hebrew and Oriental languages as perhaps any 

:>man of his time, Pocock excepted. Grotius, over whom 

Jh^ triumphed in his ^^ Mare clausum,^* styles him ^* the glor j 

* Aobrey My t be married the coun- whole to Oxford." We know not on 

tess when a wid<)w, but we know of no what authority this report t» ^iven, but 

•ther authority for this. Aubrey says it is contradictory t# etery other eti* 

nlso that he never would own the mar- dence. The aqeount in the text ap« 

riage until after her death, and then pears to be the true one. See the terms ' 

Vpon some law account. on which Selden's library, was sent to 

f In Mr. Nichols's ** Literafy Anec- Oxford in a note on A, Wood's Life, 

4otet/> it is said that "Selden had sent 1773, p. 131. Wood and Barlow as- 

bis library to Oxford in his life-time, sisted in ranging the books, in opening 

but hearing that they bad lent out. a seme of which. Wood tells at, they: 

book without a sufficient caution, he found several pairs of spectacles, ** an4 

sent for it back again. After his death, Mr. Thomas Barlow gave A. W. a pairj' 

it continued some time at the Temple, which he kept in memorie of 3elde|| t^ 

vhere it suffered some diminution : at his last day." 
Jast tb» ezecatorty &c. Ice,- tent the 

330 S E L D E N* 

of the' English nation." He was knowing in all lavrs^ buman 
and divine, yet did not greatly trouble himself with tbd 
practice of law : be seldom appeared at the bar, but some* 
times gave counsel in his chamber. ^* His mind also,*' saya 
Whitelocke, ^^ was as great as bis learning ; he was as hos- 
pitable and generous as any man, and as good company to 
those be liked.^' Wilkins relates, that he was a man of 
iHioommon gravity and greatness of soul, averse to flattery, 
liberal to scholars, charitable to the poor ; and that, though 
he bad a great latitude in his principles with regard to eccle- 
siastical power, yet he had a sincere regard for the cburcb 
of England. Baxter remarks, that ^* he was a resolved se- 
rious Christian, a great adversary, particularly, to Hobbes*s 
errors ;'' and that sir Matthew Hale affirmed, ^ how he had 
seen Selden openly oppose Hobbes so earnestly, as either 
to depart from ^im, or drive him out of the room.'' But 
the noblest testimony in his favour is that of his intimate 
friend the earl of Clarendon, who thus describes him in all 
parts of his character : ^< Mr. Selden was a person,'' says 
be, *^ whom no character can flatter, or transmit in any 
expressions equal to his merit and virtue. He was of socb 
stupendous learning in all kinds and in all languages, as 
may appear from his excellent and transcendsnt writings, 
that a Hian would have thought he had been entirely con*- 
versant among books, and bad never spent an hour but ia 
reading or writing ; yet his humanity, courtesy, and aflfa** 
bility, was such, that he would have been thought to have 
been bred in the best courts, but that his good*nature, cha- 
rity, and delight in doing good, and in communicating all 
he knew, exceeded that breeding. His style in all his 
writings seems harsh, and sometimes obscure ; which is not 
wholly to be imputed to the abstruse subjects of which be 
commonly treated, out of the paths trod by other men, bu| 
to a little undervaluing the beauty of a style *, and too much 
propensity to the language of antiquity: but in his conver-* 
sation he was the most clear discourser, and had the best 
faculty in making hard things easy, and present to the un^ 
derstanding, of any man that hath been known.'' His 
lordship also used to say, that ^'he valued himself upon 
nothing more than upon having had Mr. Selden's acquaint-t 
ance, from the time be was very young ; and held it with 

* Selden's style is particularly la- and made many alteratioBS and tnh 
boil red and uncouth, and from his tares ^cfora Jut could |ilesM ]iiillMl& 
sVSS it appears tbat be wf s fasiidioas» 

S E L D E N. $81 

great delight as long as they were suffered to continue to«* 
gether in London : and be was very much troubled always 
when he heard him blamed, censured, and reproached for 
staying in i«ondon, and in the parliament, after they were 
in rebellion, and in the worst times, which his age obliged 
him to do ; and how wicked soever the actions were, which 
were every day done, he was conliJent he had not given his 
consent to them, but would have hindered them if he could 
with bis own safety, to which he was always enough induU 
gent. If he had some infirmities with other men, they 
were weighed down with wonderful and prodigious abilities 
and excellences . in the other scale." The political part of 
Selden^s life, is that which the majority of readers will con* 
template with least pleasure ; but on this it is unnecessary 
to dwell. The same flexibility of spirit, which made him 
crouch before the reprehension of James I. disfigured the 
rest of his life, and deprived him of that dignity and im- 
portance which would have resulted from his standing erect 
in any place he might have chosen. Clarendon seems to 
have hit the true cause of all, in that anxiety for his own 
fiafety to which, as he says, ^^ he was always indulgent 

Several other works of his were printed after his death, 
or left in manuscript, K ** God made man. A Tract prov- 
ing the nativity of our Saviour to be on the 25th of Decem- 
ber,*' Lond. 1661, 8vo, with his portrait. This was an- 
swered in the first postscript to a treatise entitled *^ A 
brief (but true) account of the certain Year, Month, Day, 
and Minute of the birth of Jesus Christ/' Lond. 1671, 8vo, 
by John Butler, B. D. chaplain to James duke of Qrmonde, 
and rector of Litchborow, in the diocese of Peterborough. 
2. " Discourse of the office of Lord Chancellor of England,'^ 
London, 1671, in fol. printed Vith Dugdale's catalogue of 
lord chancellors and lord keepers of England from the Nor- 
man conquest. 3. Several treatises, viz. ** England's Epi- 
nomis;" already mentioned, published 1683, in fol. by 
Jledman Westcot, alias Littleton, with the English. transla- 
tion of Selden's ** Jani Anglorum Facies altera." 4. " Ta- 
ble talk : being the discourses or his sense of various mat-^ 
ters of weight and high consequence, relating especially to 
Jleiigion and State," London, 1689, 4to, published by 
Bichard Milward, amanuensis to our author. Dr. Wilkins 
pbserveSy that there are many things in this book inconsist- 
m% yf\t\i Seldiea's gresi^ learning, principl^s^ and cbaracten 


S E L D E N. 

It has, bo wever, acquired popularity, and jsttll continues t^ 
be printed, as an anausing and edifying manuaL 5. ^^ Let- 
ters to learned men;'' among which several to archbi3bQp 
Usher are printed in the^ collection of letter^ at the end of 
Parr's life of that prelate ; and two letters of his to Mr* 
Thomas Greaves were first published from the originals by- 
Thomas Birch, M. A. and F. R. S. ir> the life prefixed to 
Birch's edition of the ^' Miscellaneous works of Mr. Joha 
Greaves," Lond. 1737, in two volumes, 8vo. 6. " Speechesi, 
ArguD^ents, Debates, &c. in Parliament.*'' 7, He h?Kl a 
considerable hand in, and gave directions and advice tOr. 
wards, the edition of ** Plutarch's Lives," printed in 1657, 
with an addition of the year of the world, and the year of 
our Lord, together with many chronological notes and ex-* 
plications. His works were collected by Djr. David WiU 
kins,, and printed at Loudon in three volumes fol. 1726. 
The two first volumes contain his Latin works, and thei 
tiiird his English. The editor, has prefixed a long life of 
the author, and added several pieces never published be^- 
fore, particularly letters, poems, 3cc. In 1675 (here was 
printed at London in 4to, ** Joannis Seldeni Angli Lib«r 
de Nummis, &c. Huic accedit Bibliotheca Nummaria.". 
Put this superficial tract was not written by our author, but 
by Alexander Sardo of ferrara, and written before Seldeo 
was born, being published at Mentss, 1575, in 4tQ. The 
** fiiibliotheca Niimmaria".subjoined to it was written by fa^ 
ther Labbe the Jesuit' 

SELKIRK (Alexander), whose adventures have given 
rise tp the popular romance of Robinson Crusoe,' was born 
at Largo, in Fifeshire, in Scotland, about 167^, and was 
bred a seannan. He left England in 1703, in the capacity 
of sailing-master of a small vessel, called the Cinque- Ports* 
Galley, Charles Pickering captain ; and in the month of 
September, the same year, he sailed from Cork, in com- 
pany with another ship of 26 guns and 1^0 men, called the 
St. George, commanded by captain William Dampier, in- 
tended to cruise against the Spaniards in the South sea. Oil 
the coast of Brasil, Pickering died, and was succeeded in 
the command by lieutenant Stradling. They proceeded 
round Cape Horn to the island of Juan Fernandez, whence 
they were driven by the appearance of two French ships of 

* Biog'. Brit. — Gen. Diet.— Life by Vtrilkinf.— Usher's Life and Lettere. — Let- 
ten of emaineiit Periont, 1&13, 3 vols. St*.— Twells'* Li^ of Pocgck, p. 4$-aai 
j^.— Aikia'i I#im dC Sel4«B %ni Vtlmr.^-'JBrit. C^it, vol. X^»^ 


-96 guns, each, and left five of Stradling^s men on tthore^ 
who were taken off by the French. Hence they sailed to 
the coast of America, where Dampier and Stradling qnar*- 
reliedy and separated by agreement. This was in the month 
^f May 1704; and in the following September, Stradling 
came to the island of Juan Fernandez, where Selkirk and 
bis captain having a quarrel^ he determined to remain there 
alone. But when the ship was ready to sail^ his resolution 
was shaken, and he desiiPed to be taken On board ; but now 
the captain refused his request, and he was left with \ki% 
clothes, bedding, a gun, and a small quantity of powder 
end ball, some trifling implements, and a few books, with 
certain mathematical and nautical instruments. Thus left 
sole monarch of the island, with plenty of the necessariea 
of life, he found himself at first in a situation scarcely sup« 
pbruble ; and such was his melancholy, that he frequently 
determined to put an end to his existehce. It was full 
eighteen months, according to his own account, before he 
could reconcile himself to his lot. At length his mind be^ 
came calm, and fully reconciled to his situation : he grew 
happy, employed his time in building and decorating his 
huts, chasing the goats, whom he soon equalled in speedn 
and scarcely ever failed of catching them. He also tamed 
young kids, and other animals^ to be his companions. Whea 
his garments were worn out, he made others from the skins 
of the goats, whose flesh served him as food. His only 
liquor was water. He computed that he had caught, dur^ 
ing his abode in the island, about 1000 goats, half of which 
he had suffered to go at large, having first inarked them 
with a slit in the ear. Commodore Anson, who went there 
30 years after, found the first goat which they shot, had 
been thus marked ; and hence they concluded that it had 
been under the power of Selkirk. Though he constant! j^ 
performed his devotions at stated hours, and read aloud, 
yefwfaen he was taken from the island, his language, from 
disuse of conversation, had become scarcely intelligible. 
In this solitude he remained four years and four months, 
<)uring which only two incidents occurred which he thought 
worthy of record. The first was, that pursuing a goat ea- 
gerly, hie caught at the edge of a precipice, of which he 
was not aware, and he fell over to the bottom, where he 
lay some time senseless ; but of the exact space of time 
in which he was bereaved of bis active powers he could not 
form ati accurate estimate. When, however, be came to 

854 S £ L It 1 R a. 

fciAiseKy be found thef goat lying under him dead, tt wif 
with difficulty that be cojild crawl to his habitation, and it 
was not till after a considerable time that be entirely recch* 
yered from his brAiises* The other event was the arrival 
of a ship, which he at first supposed to be French^ but^ 
upon the crew^s lauding, he found them to be Spaniards, 
of whom he hadtoo great a dread to trust himself in their 
]iand#« They, however, had seen him, and he found it, 
extremely difficult to make his escape. In this solitude 
Selkirk remained until the 2d of February^ 1709, when he 
•aw two ships come to the bay, and knew them to be Eng«* 
lish* He immediately lighted a fire as a signal, and he 
founds upon the landing of the men, that they were two 
|>rivateerB from Bristol, commanded by captains Rogers and 
Courtney. These^ after a fortnight^s stay at Juan Fernan- 
dez, embarked, taking Selkirk with them, and returned by 
way of the East Indies to England, where they arrived on 
the 1st of October, 1711; Selkirk having been absent eight 
years. The public curiosity being much excited, he, after 
his return, di'ew up some account of what had occurred 
during his solitary exile, which he put into the hands of 
Defoe, who made it the foundation of his welUkoow« 
work^ entitled ** Robinson Crusoe.^' The time and place 
•f SelkirkV death are not on record. It is said, that so 
late as 179S, the chest and «Qusket, which Selkirk had with 
bim on the island, were in possession of a grand nephew^ 
John Selkirk, a weaver in Largo, North Britain. Such are 
the particulars of this man's history as recorded in "Theh 
Englishman,'' No. 26, and elsewhere^ but what credit is 
due to ity we do not pretend to say.' 

SENAC (John), a distinguished French physician, wa# 
born in Gasco»y about the close of the seTenteenth. cen* 
turj% and is said to have been a^doctorof the faculty of 
physic of Rheims, and a bachelor of that of Paris ; which 
last degree he obtained in 1724 or 1725« He was a mai^ 
of profound erudition, united with great modesty, and be* 
came possessed, by his industry in the practice of his pro* 
fessjon, of much sound medical knowledge. His merits 
obtained for him the favour of the court, and he was ap-^ 
pointed consulting physician to Louis XV. and subse-* 
quently succeeded Chicoyneau in the office of first pbytt'* 
cian to that monarch. He was also a member of tha^yal^ 

^ Sinclair's SUtistkal Reports of Scotia nd.^^Cbalfflers^t Life af Defoe, Ibc*. 

S £ N A a SU 

tkcadbmy of sciences at Paris, atid of th« royal society of 
Nancy. He died in December 1770, at the age of about 
ieventy-seven years. 

This able physician left some works of great reputation, 
|>articularly his '< Trait6 de la Structure du Cceur, de sofi 
iAction, etde^es Maiadies^'^ Paris, 1749, in two volumes, 
4to. An essay '* De recondite febrium intermittentium et 
remittentium naturft,'^ Amst. 1759, is generally ascrilfed fo 
Senac. He also published an edition of Heister^s Anatomy, 
Paris, 1724, and afterwards '< Discours sur la M€thode de 
Franco, et sur celle de M. Rau toQchant ^Operation de In 
Taille,^^ 1727^ <*Trait£ des Causes, des Accidens, et de 
la Cure de la Peste," 1744. A work under the assumed 
tiame of Julien Morison, entitled ** Letjtres sur la Choix det 
Saign^eS)*' 1730, was from his pen; but the ^'^Nouveaii 
Cours de Cbymie suivant les Principes de Newton et de 
Stahl,^' Paris, 1722 and 1737, has been attributed by mis- 
take-to Senac ; it was in fact a compilation of notes takefi 
«it the lectures of GeofFroy by some students, and is un* 
worthy of his pen. 

His son Gabriel Senac de Meilhan possessed political 
talents which promoted him in the reigns of Louis XV. and 
XVL to the places of master of the requests, and intendant 
/or several provinces* On the breaking out of the revolu*- 
tion, he left France, and was received at some of the Ger« 
fiian courts with distinction. He , afterwards went to Sc 
Petersburgh, where Catherine IL gave him a pension of 
€000 roubles, and wished him to write the aoinals of her 
ceign. On her death he removed to Vienna, where he 
died Aug. 16, 1603. He published, << Memoires d^Ann^ 
de Gonzague,'' '^ Consideration sur les Richesses et le 
Luxe;'* a translation of Tacitus ; and some political works 
on the revolution, with two volumes 8vo, of ** Oeuvres phi- 
losophiques et litteraires.^' ' 

SENAULT (John Francis), an eloquent French divinoi 
was bom in 1601, at Paris, and was the son of Peter Sen- 
ault, secretary to the council of the League. He entered 
young into the congregation of the oratory, then newly 
established by cardinal de BeruUe, and was one of the 
most celebrated preachers and best directors of his time. 
He preached with uncommon reputation during forty years, 
^^iTiris, and in the principal cities of France, and wrote 

. * I SlQy, Diet Bist, 4o llsaime.-»Reeft*t Cyclop8idia.-^2)ict Hiit. 

tie S E N A U L T. 


several books on pious and moral subjects^ which wer9 
much esteemed by pious catholics^ He appears to have 
been a disinterested man, for be refused some considerable 
pensions, and two bishoprics, but was elected general of 
the oratory in 1662. He died August 3, 1672, at Paris, 
aged seventy-one. His priiicipal works are^ ^^ A Para- 
phrase on the Book of Job,*' 8vo; " L' Usage des Passions,*' 
i2fn>9; "L'Hbmme Chretien," 4to; ** L'Homme criminel,** 
4tp ; *^ Le Monarque, ou les Devoirs du Souverain,*'.12mo; 
** Panegyrics on the Saints/' 3 vols. 8vo ; and the Lives of 
several persons illustrious for their piety, &c. It was this 
•father, says UAvocat, who banished from the pulpit that 
empty parade of profane learning, and that false taste, by 
which it was degraded; and who introduced a strong, sub* 
lime, and majestic eloquence, suited to the solemnity of 
our mysteries, and to the truths of our holy religion.' 

SENECA (Lucius Anmaub), an eminent JStoic phtioso^ 
pher, was born at Cordoba in Spain, the year before the 
.beginning of the Christian sera, of an equestrian family, 
which had probably been transplanted thither in a colony 
from Rotne. He was the second son of Marcos Annseus 
Seneca, commonly called the rhetorician, whos^ remains 
^re printed ui^der the title of " Suasoriie & Controversise, 
cum Declamationum Excerptis;" and his youngest brother 
J^nnesus Mela (for there were three of them) was memora- 
ble for being the father of the poet Lucan. He was re- 
moved to Rome, while be was yet in his infancy, by his^ 
aunt, who accompanied him on account of the delicacy of 
his healths There be was educated in thei most liberal 
manner, alid under the best masters. . He learned his elo- 
«quence from bis father ; but preferring philosophy to the 
declamations of the rhetoricians, he put himself under the 
stoics Attalus) Sotion, and Papirius Fabian us, of whom he 
^has made honourable mention in his writings. It is pro^ 
bable too, that be travelled when he was young, since we 
£nd in several parts of his works, particularly in his 
•* Quoestiones Natnrales,*' some correct and curious obser^ 
vations on Egypt and the Nile. But these pursuits did not 
at all cQrrespoud with that scheme of life which his father 
designed ; and to please him, Seneca engaged in the busi* 
ness of the courts, with considerable success, although be 
was rather an argumentative than an eloquent pleadfer. . A« 

*o t-orsica, whsri. »: . "^ff® and th*. «. . ''''«a» Seneca wa* 
^'» mother i„ I® '**' ^'"ed eiVh!, ^ """'"Bent, and ^;l!i 

J*«. for we find ^°''*"**''«nJhaT„^""*J''>e qui! 
,^'«'^« on account '?!> '"^^ber 1 " '""^ «''*^« '" 2l 
r'""" '■" « straTn of '''' "'''fortune a^'/^P"**^"? «»"cli 

'^««mperorVrXf^*'''ofMessfffP'''* '^'^ ""ried to 
wa"*' procured J«^' Seneca froa, ijjj/^ Prevailed with 

«'«s Burrhu,, a Z? ^ '"^r to her 2in ^^"^ ' and after. 
tb»»icSporta„tchf/ ^;:i*» Prefect 1 " .^^°' *nd Afra- 

?^'i B«rrhn, !f L^^'^ony, and S*P^" executed theit 
'ng him with fJ^o °'^'°'ne discinHn J *''* ""''itwy "t, and 

^*»«tin C *' *<>"«*» and wf.tP***'- «'tb honour* a 
<>«« inS^!'.""*'*ehadi„al^^^ ^^--e the most i«ag, 

^c^x. XXn,!''^''-^-., ^o^^Lr with the luxury 

338 SENECA. 

.effeminacy of a court, are said not to have produced any 
improper effect upon the temper and di9positiQn of Seneca.^ 
He continued abstemiousi correct in bis \ niaQners, and» 
above ail, free from flattery and ambition* ^^ I had rather,^' 
.said he to Nero, ** offend you by speaking the truth, than 
pleasre you by lying and flattery/* It is certain that while 
he bad any influence, that is, during the first five years of 
Nero^s reign, that period had always been considered as a 
pattern of good government. But when Poppaea and Tigelli* 
Dus had insinuated themselves into the confidence of the 
etpperor^ and hurried him into the most extravagant and 
abominable vices, he naturally grew weary of his master, 
whose life ipust indeed have been a constant rebuke to 
hiii^. When Seneca perceived that his favour declined at 
•courts and that he had many accusers about the prince, 
tivho were perpetually whispering in his ears his great riches; 
his magnificent houses, his fine gardens, and his dangerous 
popularity, h^ offered to return all his opulence and favours 
to the tyrant, who, however, refused to accept them, and 
assured bint of the continuance of his esteem ; but the phi- 
losopher knew his disposition too well to rely on his pro-* 
mises, and as Tacitus relates, '' kept no more levees, de- 
elined the usual civilities which had been paid to him, and, 
under a pretence of indisposition or engagement, avoided 
as much as possible to appear in pubUc«" It was not long 
before Seneca was convinced that he bad made a just>esti* 
;mate of the sincerity of Nero, who now attempted, by 
means of Cleonicus, a freedman of Seneca, to take him off 
by poison ; but this did not succeed. In the mean time 
Antonius Natalis, who had been concerned in the conspi* 
racy of Piso, upon his examination, in order to court the 
favour of Nero, or perhaps even at his instigation, men- 
tioned Seneca among the number of the conspirators, and 
to give some colour to the accusation, pretended, that he 
had been sent by Piso to visit Seneca whilst he was sick, 
and to complain of his having refused to see Piso, who as a 
friend might have expected free access to him upon all oc- 
casions ; and that Seneca, in reply, had said, that frequent 
conversations could be of no service to either party, but 
that he considered his own safety as involved in that of 
Piso. Granius Sylvanus, tribune of the praetorian cohort, 
was sent to ask Seneca, whether he recollected what had 
passed between himself and Natalis. Seneca, whether by 
accident or design is* uncertain, had that day left Campa- 

i^ £ N £ A« 33f 

nia, and Wa& at his country-seat^ about four miles from tbe 
eity. In the evening, while he was at supper with his wife 
I'aullina and two friends, the tribune, with a military band| 
came to the house, and delivered the emperor*s message. 
Seneca's answer was, that he had received no complaint 
from Piso, of his having refused to see him ; and that the 
state of bis healthy which required repose^ had been bis 
apology^ He added, that he saw no reason why he should 
prefer the safety of any other individual to his own ; and 
that no one was better acquainted than Nero, with bis in* 
dependent spirit. 

This reply Icindled the emperor^s indignation, and learn- 
ing from the messenger that Seneca betrayed no symptoms 
of terror or distress, sent him a peremptory command im- 
mediately to put himself to death. This too Seneca receiv<^ 
ed with perfect composure, and asked permission of the 
officer who brought the command, to alter his will ; but that 
being refused, he requested of his friends, that since he was 
not allowed to leave them any other legacy, they would 
preserve the example of his life, and exhorted them to ex- 
ercise that fortitude, which philosophy taught. After some 
farther conversation with these friends, be embraced his 
wife^ and intreated her to console herself with the recol* 
lection of his virtues : but Paullina refused every consola-^ 
tion, except that of dying with her husband, and earnestly 
solicited the friendly band of the executioner. ^Seneca, 
after expressing his admiration of his wife's fortitude, pro- 
ceeded to obey the emperor's fatal mandate, by opening a 
vein in each arm : but, through his advanced age, the vital 
stream flowed so reluctantly, that it was necessary also to 
open the veins of his legs. Still finding his strength ex^ 
hausted without any prospect of a speedy release ; in' order 
to alleviate, if possible, the anguish of his wife, who was 
a spectator of the scene, and to save himself the torture of 
witnessing her distress, he persuaded her to withdraw to 
another chamber. In this situation, Seneca, with wonder- 
ful recollection and self-command, dictated many philoso- 
phical reflections to his secretary* After a loQg interval, 
his friend Statins Anneus, to whom be complained of the 
tedious delay of death, gave him a strong dose of poison ; 
bi^t even this, through the feeble state of his vital powers^ 
produced little eflect. At last, he ordered the attendanu 
to convey him into a warm baib; and, as he entered, be 
sprinkled those who stood near, saying, <^ ( offer this liba^ 

340 S'E- N E C A. 

tioti to Jtipitei' the delirerer.*' Then, plunging inlf6 th^ 
bath, be was soon suffdcated. His body was consumed,* 
according to his own Express order, in a will which he had 
made in the height of his prosperity, without any funeral 

The character, the system, and the writings of this phi- 
losopher have been subjects of much dispute among the 
learned. Concerning his character, a candid judge, who 
considers the virtuous sentiments with which his writings 
abound, the temperate and abstemious plan of Kfe whicti 

\ be pursued in the midst of a luxurious court, and the for«« 
titude with which he met his fate, will not hastily pro- 
DODnce him to have been guilty of adultery, upon the evi- 
<ience of the infamous Messalina ; or conclude his wealths 
to have been the reward of a servile compliance with the 
base passions of his pritice. It has been questioned whe- 
ther Seneca ought to be ranked among the stoic or the 
eclectic philosophers ; and the freedom of judgment which 
he expressly claims, together with the respect which he 
pays to philosophers of different sects, clearly prove, that 
be did not implicitly addict himself to the system of Zeno ; 
nor can the contrary be inferred from his speakiug of our 
Chrjsippus, atid our Cleanthes ; for he speaks also of our 
Demetrius, and oftr Epicurus. It i^ evident, however, 
from the general tenor and spirit of his writings, that be 
adhered, in the main, to the stoic system. With respect to 
his Writings^ be is justly censured by Quintilian, and other 
critics, as among the Romans the first corrupter of style; 
yet his works are exceedingly valuable, on account of the 
great number of just and beautiful moral sentiments which 
they contain, the extensive erudition which they discover, 
and the happy mixture of freedom and urbanity, with 
which they cetisure vice, and inculcate good morals. The 
writings of Seneca, except his books of ^' Physical Ques.- 

\ fions," are ebiefly of the moral kind : they consist of one 

hundred and twenty •'four ^^ Epistles,^* and distinct treatises, 

■** On Anger; Consolation; Providence; Tranquillity of 

Mind; Cpnstancy; Clemency;* the Shortness of Life; 

a Happy Life ; Retirement ; Benefits." 

From the excellence of many of his precepts, some barci 
imagined, tliat be was a Cbriatian, and it has been reported 
that he held a correspondence with St. Paul by letters ; but 
although he must have heard of Christ and his doctrine, 
tjid his curiosity might tea4 him U> make som^ io^uity 

$ E N E C A. S4l 

ahottt tbem, the Ijetters published under tbe names of the 
Philosopher and Apostle, have long been declared spurious 
by the critics, and perfectly unworthy of either of tfaem. 
A number of tragedies are extant under the name of Se- 
neca, written in a bad style, but it is uncertain whether 
the whole or any of them were by this Seneca. Of his ;a6* 
know^ledged works Justus Lipsius published the first good 
edition, which was succeeded by the Variorum, 1672,-3 vols. 
8vo, and others. Of the tragedies, the best are those of 
Scriverius, 1621, the Variorum, 1651, &c. and Schroeder'Sf 
1728, 4to.* 

SENNERTUS (Daniel), an eminent pbysiciati of Ger- 
many, was born at Breslaw, where his father was a shoe- 
maker, Nov. 25, IS72. He was sent ip the university of 
Wittemberg. in 1593, and there made a great progress in 
philosophy and physic, after which he visited the univer^ 
pities of Leipsic, Jena, and Francfort upon the Oder ;. ^nd 
went to Berlin in 1601, whence he returned to- Wittem- 
berg the same year, and , was promoted to the degree of 
doctor in physic, apd soon after to a professorship in the 
same faculty. He was the first who introduced the study of 
chemistry into that university. He gained great reputa- 
tion by his writings and practice ; patients came to him 
from all parts, among whom were persons of the first 
r^nk ; bis custom Was to take what was offered >him for his 
advice, but demanded iiothing^ and restored to the iEKX>r 
what they gavie him. The plague, was about neren times 
at Wittemberg while he was professor tb^re ; but he never 
retired^ nor refused to assist the sick : and tbe elector of 
Saxony^ whom he had /cured of a dangerous illness. in 1638, 
thaugii be bad appoi^nted him one of bis pbysiciatis in ordi- 
n^ry^ yst gave him leave to continue at Witteaiberg. He 
probably feUa^ sacrifice to his hutpanity, JEbrhe died of the 
plague at Wittemberg, July 21, 1637. 

Seonertus was. » vx)lttmio<HiA< writer, and has been cha« 
racterized, by souve critics, as a mere comfMler from tbe 
wor^s of tbe ancients. It is true that his writings contain 
an epitome, but, it must be addod^ a most comprehensive, 
(^lear, and judicious epitome, of the learning of tbe Greeks 
K^ Arabians, wbiQh renders them, even at this day, of 
cpii^tderable value as books of reference, ' and is highly, 
creditable* considering tbe age in which they were com-** 

842 S E N N E K T U S. 

posed, to bis learning and discrimination. It must not be^ 
forgot that he 'also attained some fame as a philosopher, 
• and was the first restorer of the Epicurean system among 
the moderns. In a distinct chapter of his ^< Hypomnemata 
Physica," or " I)eads of Physics," treating of atoms and 
mixture, he embraces the atomic system, which he derives 
from Mocbus the Phoenician. He supposes that the pri- 
mary corpuscles not only unite in the formation of bodies, 
but that in their mutual action and passion they undergo 
such modifications, that they cease to be what they were 
before their union ; and maintains, that by their combina- 
tbn all material forms are produced. Sennertus, however, 
confounded thie corpuscles of the more ancient philoso- 
phers with the atoms of Pemocritus and Epictetus, and 
held that each element has primary particles peculiar to 
itself. His works have often been printed in France and 
Italy. The last edition is that of Lyons, 1676, in 6 vols, 
folio, to which bis life is prefixed.' 

SEPTALIUS, or SETTALA (Louis), an Italian phy- 
sician of celebrity, was born at Milan, in February 1552, 
lie evinced great talents from his early childhood, and at 
the age of sixteen defended some theses on the subject of 
liatural philosophy with much acnteness. His inclination 
leading him to the medical profession^ he repaired to Pavia, 
for the study of it, and obtained the degree of doctor in 
his twenty-first year, and was even appointed to a chair in 
^is celebrated university two years after. At the end of 
four more years he resigned bis professorship to devote 
bimself entirely to practice at Milan, and while here Phi- 
lip III. king of Spain, selected him for bis historiographer ; 
but neither this, nor many other honours, that were offered 
to him, could induce him to quit his native city, to which 
h^ was ardently attached. The only honour which he ac* 
cepted was the appointment of chief physician to the stat^ 
of Milan, which Philip IV. conferred upon him in 1627, as 
a reward for his virtues and talents. Ir\ 1698,* daring the 
plague at Milan, Septalius, While attending the infected, 
was himself seized with the disei^se, and although he re- 
covered, be had afterwards a paralytic attack, which greatly 
impaired his health. He died in September 16S3, at the 
age of eighty-one. Septalius Was a man of acute powers^ 
f^nd solid judgment, and was reputed extremely successfifl 

> NiceroD, toL XIV.— Elo)r.--Brucker, 

S E P T A L I US. 343 


in his practice. He was warmly attached to the doctrines 
of Hippocratesi whose works be never ceased to study. 
He was author of various works, auioug which are : ** In 
Librum Hippooratis Coi, de Aeribus, .Aquis, et LociS) 
Cooimentarii quiuque/' 1 590 ; '* In Aristoteiis JProblemata' 
Commentaria Latina/' torn. I. 1602, II. i607 ; ^^ Animaci- 
versionum et Cautioiium Medicarum Libri duo, septem aliis 
additi^*' 1629; the result of 40 years of practice, and equal 
to any of its contemporaries of the seventeenth century. 
'< De Margaritis Judicium,'' 1618; << De Peste et Pes* 
tiferis Affectibus Libri V.'' 1622; ^* Analyticarum et Ani- 
masticarum Dissertationum Libri II.'' 1626, &c. &c* * 

SEPULVEDA (John Genes, de), a Spanish writer of 
no good fame, was born at Cordova in 1491, and became 
historiographer to the Emperor Charles V« He is memor- 
able for writing a ^f Vindication of the Cruelties of the 
Spaniards against the Indians,'' in opposition to Ihe bene*- - 
volent pen of Barthelemi de laCasas. Sepulveda affirmed, 
that such cruelties were justifiable .both by hiiman and di- 
vine laws, as well as by the rights of war. It is an act of 
justice to Charles V. to mention that he suppressed the 
publication of Sepalveda's book in his dominions ; but it 
was published at Rome* This advocate for the greatest 
barbarities that ever disgraced human nature, died at 
fialaqaanca in 1572. He was author of various works be- 
sides that above mentioned ; in particular, of some Latin 
letters, a translation from Aristotle, with notes, a life of 
Charles V. &;c. printed together at Madrid in 1760, 4 vols. 
4to« under the care of the royal academy of history, a 
proof that .he stUl holds his rank among Spanish authors.' 

SERAPION (John), or John the son of Serapion, a A 
Arabian physician, lived between the time of Mesne and 
Bhazes, and was probably the first writer on physic in the 
Arabic language, Ilaly Abbas, when giving an account of 
the wdnks-of his countryn^en,. describes the writings of Se- 
rapion, as containing only an account of the cure of dis- 
eases, widiout any precepts concerning the'preservation of 
beaith, or relating to surgery; and be makes many critical 
observations, wbichy' Dr. Freind observes, are sufficient 
proofs of the geniiine existence of the works ascribed to 
Serapion, from their tri^th and cocrectness. Rhazes also 

t Elov, Diet. Hist, de Medecine^-^Kees's Cyclopaedia, 

8 Niceioo, vol. XXHI.— AntOM. B.b|. H. p. ., . , . ' 

34* S E R A P I O N. 

quotes them frequently in bis ^^ Continent,^* Serajtiott 
iDUst have lived towards the middle of the ninth t;entury/ 
and not in the reign of Leo Isaurus, about the year 730, asr 
some have stated. One circamstance remarkable in Sera*^ 
pion. Dr. Freind observes, is| that he often transcribes the 
writings of Alexander Trallian, an author with whom few of 
the other Arabians appear to be much acquainted. This 
work of Serapion has been published, in translations, by 
Gerard of Cremona, under the title of '^ Practical Dicta 
Breviarum;^' and by Torinus, under that of ^^ Therapeu- 
tics Methodus." There is another Sebapign, whom 
Sprengel calb the younger^ and places* 180 years later than 
the former, and who was probably the author of a work on 
the materia medica, entitled <^ De Medicamentis tarn sim*- 
pUcibuSy quam . compositis.'* This work bears intrinsic 
evidence of being produced at a much later* period, since 
authors are quoted who lived much posterior to Rhazes. ^ 

SERARIUS (Nicholas), a learned Jesuit and commen- 
tator on the Scriptures, was bom in 1555, at Ramberwiiler 
in Lorrain. After studying the languages, he taught ethics^ 
philosophy, and theology at Wurtzberg and Mentz, in 
which last city he died, May 20, 1610, leaving many 
works, of which the following are the principal : ^^ Com- 
inentaries on several Books of the Bible,*' Mogunt. 1611; 
>' Opuscula Theologica," 3 torn* foL; and others which 
are qfllected in 16 vols. fol. Dupin gives this author 
some praise, but. objects to him as dealing too much in 
^ligreSsion, and as frequently being a trifling and incon- 
elusive reasoner. ^ 

. SERASSI (P£T£K Anthokv), an Italian biographer, 
was born at Bergamo in 1721,. and at the age of twenty had 
ao distinguished himself as to be elected a member of the 
academy- of Transformati at Milan, andv on his return to 
Sergmnoy was appointed professor of the belles lettres. In 
1741?, he published his ^^ Opinion concerning the country 
of .Bernardo and of Tprquato Tasso,*' a. tract in which he 
vindicated, to the district of Bergamo, the honour of being 
the native country of these poets, which bad been dented 
by Seghezzi, the author of a very elegant life of Bernardo ; 
but Seghezzi now candidly confesiBed that bis opponeift 
was right, and that he^should treat .the subject, differently, 
were he again to write on it. In the succeeding yearsj^ 

\ 7rein4'( UwU of Pbysic^Reef's Cyctop«94ia, ^ Puptii,^|>ict Qiit, 

S £ R A S S I. 3^5 


Serassi publi^ed editions of several of the best f taliaa 
writers, with their lives, particularly Maffei, Molza, Poli^ 
thn, Capella, Dante> Petrarch, &c. The most distin- 
guished of bis biographical productions, however, was his 
lifeofTasso, .1785, 2 vols. 4to, on which be had been 
employed during twenty years. Mr.. Black, in his life of 
that eminent poet, has availed himself of Serassi*s work, 
but not without discovering its defects. Serassi also pub« 
lished a life of <' Jacopo Mazzoni, patrician of Cesse^na,** 
a parsonage little known, but whose history he has rendered 
interesting. Serassi was employed in some offices under 
the papal governpneotj and in the college of Propaganda. 
He died Feb. 19, 1791, at Rome, in the seventieth year of 
his age. A monuarent was erected to his memory in the 
church of St. Maria, in Via lata, where he was interred ; 
and the city of Bergamo ordered a medal to be struck to bis 
honour, with the inscription ^^ Propagatori patriae laudis.*' ' 

SERGARDI (Louis), ah eminent satirist, was born at 
Sienna in the seventeenth century, and going to Rom^, 
became so distinguis.hed for his talents that he was made a 
bishop. His Latin <^ Satires^' were published under the 
name of Quintus Sectanus, and ai*e said to rank among the 
purest imitations of Horace's style and manner. He 
would have deserved to have been considered as the first of 
moral satirists, bad he confined himself to the vices and 
follies of his time, but much of his ridicule is bestowed on 
the celebrated Gravioa^ who, with all his failings, ought to 
liave been exempted from an attack of this kind. Sergardi 
died in 1727. The editions of his satires are : 1. *^ Sectani 
Satyrae jcix. in.Phylodemum, cum notis variorum.^' Colon. 
1698, 8vo. 2. ^* SatyrsB numero aucts, mendis purgatae^ 
&c. cum notis anonymi: concinnante P. Antoniauo.'* Amst. 
Elzevir (Naples), 1700, 2 vols, 8vo. 3. " Sergardii Lud. 
ailtehax; Q. Sectani, Satyra;, et alia opera»'* Luc. 1783, 4 
vols. 8vo.^^ 

SERRANUS (Joannes), or John de Serres, a learned 
Frenchman, was born in the sixteenth century, and wa« of 
jthe reformed religion. His parents sent him to Lausanne, 
where he was taught Latin and Greek, and attached him- 
self o^uch to the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle; but,^ 
on his return to France, he studied divinity, in order to 
qualify himself for the ministry. He began to distinguisil 

* Life by DamiaDi in AtbenaBum, toI. V, — Black's Preface to his Life of Tasso, 

• f abroni Viic ItaIoruai> vol. X. — Laodi Hist, de la Luuratuie d^iiaUe, vol. V, 

S46 S £ R R A N U S. 

himself by his writings in 1570; and, in 1593, was pbligecl 
to take refuge in ILausanne, after the dreadful massacre oq 
St. Bartholpm^w^s day. Returning soon to France, he 
published a piece in French, called *< A Remonstrance to 
the king upon some pernicious principles in Bodin*s book 
de Republica :^' in which he was thought to treat Bodin so 
injuriously, that Henry III. ordered him to prison. Ob- 
taining bis liberty, he became a minister of Nismes in 
158S, but never was looked upon as a very zealous pro* 
testant; and some have gone so far as to say, but without 
sufficient foundation, that he actually abjured it. He is, 
however, supposed to have beep one of those four minis* 
ters, who declared tq Henry IV. that a man might be 
saved in the popish as well as the protestant religion ; a 
concession which certainly did not please his brethren^ 
He published, in 1597, with a view to reconcile the two 
religions, ^^ De Fide Catholica, sive de principiis religionis 
Christianas, communi omnium consensu semper et ubique 
ratis ;" a work as little relished by the catholics, as by the 
protestants. He died suddenly in 1598, when he was not 
more than fifty, and the popbb party circulated a report 
that his brethren of Geneva had poisoned him. 

He published several works in Latin and in French, 
relating to the history of France; among the rest, in 
French : ^^ M^moires de la troisieoae Guerre Civile, et der« 
niers troubles de France sous Charles IX., &c. ;^' *^ Inven* 
taire g^n^rsil de PHistoire de France, illustre par la con- 
f^renc^ de TEglise et de TEmpire, ^c. ;*' '* Recueil de^ 
choses m6morables avenues en France sous Henri IL 
l^rangois IL Charles IX. ^t Henri III.*' &c. These have 
been many times reprinted, with continuations and im- 
provements ; but it is objected that Serranus b not always 
impartial. Besides his theological works, he is pertiaps 
best known for his ^^ Latin version of Plato,'* which was 
printed with Henry Stephens's magnificent edition of that 
author's works, 1578, 3 vols. fol. This translation, although 
more elegant, is not thought so faithful as that of Ficinus. 
Stephens had a very high opinion of Serranus, and printed 
in 1573, twenty-four of the Psalms, translated by Serranus 
into Greek verse, with two ** Idyllia" from Daniel and 
Isaiah. Of this very rare volume, Francis Okely published 
anew edition at London in 1772, 12mo. * 

> Nicerooi vol, IV.— Morer'u 


8ERVANDONI (John Nicholas), an ingenious iwf«fc^ 
tect and machinist, was born at Florence in i%95. He 
rendered himself famous by his exquisite taste in architec- 
ture, and by his genius for decorations, fete9, and build*' 
ings. He was employed and rewarded by most of the 
princes of Europe. He was bonouredin Portugal with the 
order of Christ. In France he was arphitect and painter to 
the King, and member of the different academies esta- 
blished for the advancement of these arts. He receivecl 
the same titles from the kings of Britain, Spain, Poland, 
and from the duke of Wirtemberg ; but notwithstanding 
these advantages, his want of economy was so great, that 
he left nothing behind hinu He died at Paris in 1766. 
Paris is indebted to him for many of its ornaments. He 
made decorations also for the theatres of London and 
Dresden. The French king^s theatre, called la saUe des 
machines^ was under his management for some time. He 
was permitted to exhibit shows consisting of single decora- 
tions, some of which are said to have been astonishingly 
sublime, as his representations of St. Peter's of Rome ; 
the descent of iBneas into hell ; the enchanted forest ; 
and the triumph of conjugal love ; the travels of Ulysses ; 
Hero and Leander; and the conquest of the Mogul by 
Thamas KouHkan. He built and embellished a theatre at 
Chambon for Mareschal Saxe, and had the management of 
It great number of fetes in Paris, Vienna, London, and 
Lisbon. Frederick prince of Wales, too, engaged him in 
his service : but the death of his royal highness prevented 
%he execution of the designs which had been projected; 
Among his most admired architectural performances, are 
the portal, and many of the interior decorations of the 
church of St. Sulpice, at Paris : the great parish church of 
Coulanges in Burgundy: the great altar of the metropoli- 
tan church of Sens ; and of the Chartreux at Lyons, Ace. 

8ERVETU8 (Michael), a famous Anti-trinitarian, and 
the great martyr of the Socinian sect, was born in 1509, at 
.<yplaneuva in Arragon, or at Tudela in Navarre, in I5l\. 
His father, who was a notary, sent him to the university of 
Toulouse, to study the civil law : and there, or as some 
say, when in Italy, be imbibed his peculiar notions re- 

\ Diet. Hist — Kncycl. BriUn.«--Necrologit des ifommes Ce)sbrei, poor 

S4S S E R V E T U S. 

specting the doctrine of the Trinity. After he had beert 
two or three years at Toalouse he resolved to remove inio 
Germany, and propagate his opinions. He went to Basils 
by way of Lyons and Geneva; and, having had some con- 
ferences at Basil with Oecolampaditrs, set out for Stras*'* 
burg, to converse with Bucer and Capito, two celebrated re- 
formers of that city. At bis departure from Basil be left a 
mannscript, entitled ** De Trinitatis Erroribus/' in the 
bands of a bookseller, who sent it afterwards to Haguenau; 
whither Servetus went, and had it printed in 1531. The 
next year, he printed likewise at Haguenau another book, 
with this title, ^^ Dialogorum de Trinitate libri duo :" ih 
ao advertisement to which h^ retraas what he bad written 
in his former book against the Trinity, not a^ it was false^ 
but because it was written impeVfectly and confusedly. 
He then resolved to return to France, because he w|ts 
poor, and did not un^ers^nd the German language ; as be 
alleged upon his trial to the judges, when they asked bim 
why he left Germany. He went accordingly to Basil, 
thence to Lyons, where he lived two or thr^e years^ and 
afterwards to Paris, where, having studied physic under 
Sylvius', Fernelius, and other professors, he took his degree 
of master of arts, and was admitted doctor of physic in the' 
university. He now settled as a practitioner for two. or 
three years in a town near Lyons, and then a^ Vienne in 
Dauphiny, 1for the space of ten or twelve. la the meau 
time, bis writings against the Trinity had excited the indig- 
nation of the German divines, and spread bis name through- 
out all Europe* In 1533, before he had left Lyons, Me^ 
lancthon wrote a letter to Camerarius, in which he allowed 
that Servetus was evidently an acute and crafty disputant^ 
but confused and indigested in his thoughts, and certainly 
ivanting in point of gravity. While Servetus was at Paris, 
bis books being dispersed in Italy, were very much ap-» 
proved by many who had thoughts of forsaking the churc^ 
of Rome: which, in 1539, excited Melancthon to write a 
letter to the senate of Venice, importing, that ^^ a book of 
Servetus^ who had revived, the error of Paul us Samosatenu%^ 
was handed about in their country, and beseeching them 
to take care, that the impious error of that man may be 
avoided, rejected, and abhorred." Servetus was at Lyou^ 
in U»42, before be settled in Vienne; and corrected th# 
proofs of a Latin Bible that was printing there, to wbith 
he added a preface and some marginal notes^ undei* 

S £ H V E T U S. 349 

^* ■ » • , ... 

tbe name of Villanovanus, from the town where he was 

- During this time, Calvin, who was the head of the chirrch 
at Geneva, kept a constant correspondence with Servetus 
by letters, and as he tells us, endeavoured, for the space of 
sixteen years, to reclaim that physician from his errors?. 
Beza informs us, that Calvin knew. Servf tus at Paris, and 
opposed bis doctrine; and adds, that Servetus, having ^it- 
gaged to dispute with Calvin, durst not appear at the time 
and place appointed. Servetus wrote several letters to 
Calvin at Geneva from Lyons and Dauphin^, and consulte4 
bim about several points : he also sent him a manuscri|)tk 
for his o[)inion, which, with some of bis private lettersj 
Calvin is 'said to have produced against him at his trial. 

- Servetus, however, was inflexible in his opinions, and 
determined to publish a third work in favour of them. This 
canle out in 1553, at Vienne, with this title, " Christianis- 
mi Restitutio,*' &c. without his name, but being discovered 
to be the author, he was imprisoned at Vienne, . and wotifd 
<;ertainly have been burnt alive if he bad not made hiv 
^eape; however, sentence was passed on him, and hii 
effigies was carried to the place of execution, fastened to a 
gibbet, and afterwards buimed, with five bales of his books. 
Sei'vetus in the mean time was retiring to Naples, where he 
hoped to practise physic with the same high reputation as 
be' bad practised at Vienne; yet was so' imprudent as to 
take his way through Geneva, where he was seized and case 
into prison ; and a prosecution was presently cotnmenced 
Against him for heresy and blasphemy. The articles of his 
accusation were numerous, and extracted from his various 
writings; some of them are decidedly on the point of his 
anti-trinitarianism, others are jnore trivial. The magis- 
trates, however, being sensible that the trial of Servetus 
ivai a thing of th^ highest consequence^ did not think fit to 
^ive sentence, without consulting the magistrates of the 
Protestant cantons of Switzerland : to whom, therefore, 
they sent Servetus's book, printed at Vi^nne^ and also the 
writing* of Calvin^ with Servetus's answers ; and at .the 
same tiiue desired to have the opinion of their divines about 
thataifair. They all gave vote against him, as Beza him- 
iielf relates ; 4n consequence of which he was condemned 
and burnt alive, Oct. 27, 1553. His death has been made 
the occasion of numerous attacks on the character and 
mexpory of Calvin, who; however, has a tery able advocate 


%M SfeitVEtl^S. 

in the life of Servetus by Cbaufepie, translated by the Re^« 
James Yair, minister of the Scots church ici Campvere, 
1771, 8vo. Servetus^s death may more properly be refer- 
red to the Spirit of the times, and may justly form a reflec-^ 
lion on the reformers in general, who were adoptirxg the 
intolerant practices of the church which they bad left. 

Servetus was a man of great acuteness and learning. He 
wa3 not only deeply versed in what w6 usually call sacred 
and prophane literature, but also an adept in the arts and 
sciences. He observed upon his trial, that he bad professed 
mathematics at Paris ; although we do not find when, nor 
under what circumstances. He was so admirably skilled id 
his own profession, that he appears to have had some know- 
ledge of the circulation of the blood ; although very short 
of the clear and full discovery made by Harvey. Our iearn-* 
ed Wotton says, ^^ The first that I could ever find, who 
had a distinct idea of this matter, was Michael Servetus, si 
Spanish physician, who was burnt for Arianism at Geneva, 
near 140 years ago. Well had it been for the charch of 
Christ, if he had wholly confined himself to his own pro- 
fession ! His sagacity in this particular, before so much in 
•the dark, gives us gre^t reason to believe, that the world 
might then have just cause to have blessed his memory. In 
m book of bis, entitled < Christianismi Restitutio,' printed 
in 155s, he clearly asserts, that the blood passes through 
the lungs, from the left to the right ventricle of the hear^ 
and liot through the partition which divides the two ventri- 
cles, as was at that time commonly believed. How he in-» 
troduces it, of in which of the six discourses, into which 
Servetus divided his book, it is to be found, I know not« 
having never seen the book myself. Mr. Charles Bernard, 
a very learned and eminent surgeon of London, who did 
me the favour to communicate this passage to me, set down 
at length in the margin, which was transcribed out of Ser- 
vetus, could inform me no farther, only that be had it from 
a learned friend of his, who had himself copied it from 
Servetus." The original editions of Servetus's works are 
very scarce, and they have not been often reprinted, but 
his doctrines may be traced in various Socinian systems.' 

SERVIN (Louis), a. celebrated lawyer in France, who 
flourished at the sixteenth and beginning of the seventjeenth 
centuries, was descended of a good family in the Yendo- 

^ Cbaufepte.r*Mo«h€iiii« 

S E R V I N, 351 

mois. In 1589 he was appointed advocate*genetal to the 
parliament of Paris, and distinguished himself in that sta- 
tion by his zealous support of the liberties of the Gallican 
church, and his opposition to the pretensions of the court 
of Rome. In 1590 he published a work in favour of Henry 
IV. who had succeeded to the crown, entitled ^* VindicisD 
secundum Libertatem Ecclesiae Gallicanse, et Defensio Re- 
gii Status Gallo-Francorum sub Henrico IV. Rege.*' In 
1598, being joined in a commission for the reformation of 
the university of Paris, he delivered ^' a remonstrance" on 
the subject, which was printed. To him also is attributed 
a work in favour of the republic of Venice in the affairs of 
the interdict. In the reign of Lewis XIII. at a bed of jus*- 
tice holden in 1620, he made strong and animate.d remon- 
strances in favour of the right of parliament to register 
royal edicts. On another similar occasion, in 1626, for 
the purpose of compelling the registry of some financial 
edicts, as he was firmly but respectfully making fresh re- 
monstrances to his majesty, he suddenly fell and expired at 
the king's feet' 

SERVIUS (Maurus Honoratus), a celebrated gram* 
mariao and critic of antiquity, flourished in the fifth cen- 
tury. He is known now chiefly by his cominentaries upon 
Virgil, which Barthius and others have supposed to be no- 
thinjg more than a collection of ancient criticisms and re- 
marks upon that poet, made by. Servius. They were first 
.published by Valdarfer in 1471, and reprinted several 
times in that century, afterwards in an edition of Virgil, 
at Paris, by Robert Stephens, 1532, in folio, and by Ful- 
yius Ursinus, in 1569, Svo. A better edition was given by 
Peter Daniel at Paris, in 1600; but the best isthat printed 
with the edition of Virgil, by Masvicius, in 1717, 4to« 
Burman, in his edition of 1746, has so blended these notes 
with those of Heinsius, as to render it difficult to determine 
how he reconciles their opposite authorities. There is also 
extant, and printed in several editions of the ancient gram- 
marians, a piece of Servius upon the feet of verses and the 
quantity of syllables, called ^* Centimetrum.^' This was 
first printed in 1476. Macrobius has spoken highly of 
Servius, and makes him one of the speakers in his '^ Sa- 

' I Moreri.— Dicr. Hi8t. 

' * Fabwic. Bibl. Lat.— Baillet Jufemens.— Saxli Ooomatt. 

$i2 g E t T L £. 


SETTLE (Elkanah), a poetaster, much noticed in p<fe* 
lical history, and of whom, therefore, some account may 
be expected, was the son of Joseph Settle, of Dunstable^ 
in Bedfordshire^ and was bom in 1648. In 1666 be wad 
entered a commoner of Trinity College, Oxfprd, but quit- 
ted the university and came to London probably in the 
following year, when he commiehced author ^nd politician. 
At his outset he joined the whigs, who were then, though 
the minor, yet a powerful party, and employed his talents 
in their support. Afterwards, he went over to the other 
side, and wrote for the tories with as much spirit, and 
doubtless as much principle, as he had employed for the 
whigs. Among other efiiisions, be published a heroic 
poem on the coronation of James II.; and wrote paragraphs 
and essays in the newspapers in support of the administra-^ 
%ion. In this. change of party he bad woefully miscalcu-* 
hited; the revolution took place, -and from that period 
having lost the little credit he had, be lived poor and de« 
spised, subject to all the miseries of the most abject state 
of indigence, and destitute of any advantageous and repu- 
table connection. In 1680 he was so violent a whig, that 
the famous ceremony of pope-burning on the 17th of No- 
vember was entrusted to his management, and he seems 
to have been at that time much in the confidence of those 
who opposed government. After his change he became 
equally violent against those with whom be had before 
associated, and actually entered himself a trooper in king 
James's army at Hounslow Heath. In the latter part of 
his life he was so reduced as to attend a booth in Bartholo- 
mew-fair, the keepers of which gave him a salary for writ- 
ing drolls. He also was obliged to appear in bis old age 
as a performer in these wretched theatrical exhibitions, 
and, in a farce called ** St. George for England,** acted a 
dragon inclosed in a case of greeuv leather of his own in- 
vention. To this circumstance. Dr. Young refers in the 
following lines of his epistle to Mr. Pope : 

" Poor Elkanah, all other changes past. 

For bread in Sroithfield dragons hiss'd at ]a3t. 
Spit streams of fire to make th6 butchers gape. 
And found his manners suited to his shape, &c/* 

In the end, he obtained admission into the Charter-house, 
and died there Feb. 12, 1723-4. The writer of a periodi- 
oal paper, called <'The Briton/' Eeb. 19^ 1724, , speaks 

S t T t L £. 

of bim as th^ii jtttt dead, and adds, << be wtM a thin of tall 
statttri^^ red face, short black hair, lived in the city,^ and 
had a numerous poetical issue, but shared the misfortune 
of several other gentlemen, to survive them alh'* 

Settle had a pension from the city, for an annual pane* 
jgyric to Celebrate the festival of the lord-mayor, itt coHse« 
quence of which he wrote Various poems, called ** Tri« 
umphs for the Inauguration of the Lord-mayor,*' the last 
of which Was 4it 1 708. His dramatic pieces, all now forgot^ 
amount to nineteen. His poems it would be difficult to 
enumerate, and not worth the labour.* 

SE VERINU8 (Marcus Aurelius), a distinguiriied phy« 
sician, was born at Tarsia, in Calabria, in 1 590, and bav-* 
ing, after some intention of studying law^ given the pre* 
ference to medicine, he received the degree of doctor iq, 
the university of Naples, where be taught anatomy and 
surgery with such reputation, as to attract a crowd of stili^ 
dents to the university. As a practitioner, however, biii 
method was harsh, and he carried the tfse of the actual 
cautery to a great extent He died at Naples, July t5^ 
1656, at the age of sevcnty-siic.. He was a man of bold 
' and original mind, but somewhat attached to paradox ; and 
was the author of several publications, a list of which may 
be seen in our authority, and at the time of his death, was 
preparing for publication some papers^ which he meant to 
illustrate by engravings ; they were published together^ 
under the title of '* Antiperipatias, hoc est, adversiis Aris-« 
toteleos de respiratione piscium Diatriba<'' <* Commepta-< 
rius in Theophrastum de piscibus in sicco viventibus.*' 
^ Pboca anatomic^ spectatu^,** 166 r. A sort of extract ot 
abridgment of his writings on surgery was also published 
in 1664, with the title of/'' Synopseos Chirurgicae Libiri vL*' 
and so late as 1724, a new edition in 4to, of ^^ De Abices^ 
auum recondita natura." * 


6EVERUS (PUBUUS Cornelius), was an ancient Latin 
poet of the Augustan age, whose *^ i£tna^^ was published 
with notes and a prose interpretation by Le Clerc, at Am- 
sterdam, 1703, in 12 mo, but some copies have the dat^ 
1715. It is annexed to <* Petri Bembi £tna,'' and is also 
in Maittaire^s ^* Corpus Poet»'^ It had been before inserted 

. I Biog^. Dram.— Malone'f Pryden, yoU 1. 124. 1^1. 174. vol. lU 115, Ko«**> 
Nichols'i Bowyer. » JBIoy» DfCU Hiit. de Medecine. 


?5* S;Ey E'RU.S, 

jtmong the '^Catalecta VirgiliV published by Scaliger^ 
whpse nate9| as well as those of Lindebrqgius and Nicolas 
Heinkius. Le Clerc has mixed vjrith his own. Quintilian 
calls Severus <'a vqrsificator,*' rather than a poet,; yet adds, 
that ** if h^e had finished. the Sicilian war/^ probably, be- 
tween Augustus and Sestu9 Pompeius, *' in the manner 
he had written the first book, he might have claimed a 
much higher rank. But though an immature death pre-* 
vented him from doing this, yet iiis juvenile works shew 
the greatest genius.*' Ovid addresses him, not only as bis 
friend, but as a court favourite and a great poet. * 

SEVIGNE' (Mary DE Rabutin, lady de Chantal and 
Bourbilly, and marchioness de) was the only daughter of 
Celse Benigne de Rabutin, baron d^ Chantal, &c. bead 
of the elder branch of Rabutin, and Mary de Coulanges« 
She was born February 5, 1626, and lost her father the 
year following, who commanded the squadron of gentlemen 
volunteers in the isle of Rh6, when the English made a 
descent there. In August 1644, at the age of eighteen, she 
married Henry, marquisi de Sevigu^, descended of a very 
ancient family of Bretagne. . He was a majpr-general and go-f 
vernor of Fougeres. She had by him a son and a daughter, 
it is. said that ner husband was not so much attached to her 
as she deserved, which, however, did not prevent madam 
de Sevig4i£ from sincerely lamenting his ^eath, which hap-* 
pened i(i 1651, in a duel. 

Her tenderness for her children appearecj, not only by 
the care which she took of their, education, but also by her 
attention in re-establishing the affairs of the house of Se- 
tign6. Charles, marquis of Sevign^, her son, acquired a 
laudable reputation in the world i and Frances Margaret^ 
her daughter, appeared in it with js;reat advantages. The 
fame of her wit, beauty,, and discretion, had already beea 
announced at court, when her mother brought her thither 
for the first time in 1663, and in 1669, this young lady 
was married to Francis Adbemar de Monteil, count de 
Grignan. The mother being now necessarily, separated 
from her daughter, for whom she had an uncommon degree 
of affection, it is to this circumstance we owe the cele-- 
brated *^ Letters^' so often published, and so much admired^ 
particularly in France, as models of epistolary correspond-, 
ence. They turn indeed very much upon trifles^ the in- 

1 Vosiiiu dc P9«t. Ut— Fabric. Bibl. Lat. 

B 15 V ! G N ]^. 


tidenU of the Aajj and the news of the towH; and they 
ure overloaded irith Extravagant compliments^ and expres* 
i^ions of fondness, to her favourite daughter ; but withal^ 
they show such perpetual sprightiiness, they contain such 
easy and varied narration, and so many strokes of the most 
lively and beautiful painting, perfectly free from any affec- 
tation, that they are jiistly entitled to high praise. 
' Madam Sevign6 often visited her daughter, and in her 
last joiirney to Grignan, after having gone through incre* 
dible fatigue during a long illness of this darling child, she 
was herself seized with a fever, of which she died in 1696. 
The best edition of madame de Sevigne's ** Letters," pub- ^ 
lished by the chevalier Perrin, is Paris, 1775, 8 vols. 12mo. 
Thrs contains the ** Select Letters'* of her society, but not 
those from madame de Sevign6 to M. de Pompone, on M. 
Fouquet's disgrace ; nor those that are in the ^^ CoUectiott 
of Bussy Rabutin's Letters," which may be met with sepa- 
rately. A collection of " Ingenious thoughts ; literary, 
historical, and moral anecdotes," which are dispersed 
through these letters, were published, 1756, 12mo, undet 
the title " Sevigniana.'' Her * Letters have long been ' 
known in this country, by a translation published about 

SEWARD (Anna), a poetess and literary lady of consi- 
derable celebrity, was the daughter of the rev. Thomas 
Seward, rector of Eyam in Derbyshire, prebendary of Sa- 
lisbury^ and canon residentiary of Lichfield. In his youth 
he had travelled as tutor with lord Charles Fitzroy, third 
son of the duke of Grafton, a hopeful young nobleman, 
who died upon his travels in 1739. Mr. Seward returned 
to England, and soon after married Miss Elizabeth Hunter, 
daughter of Mr. Huntef, head-master of the school at Lich- 
field, the preceptor of Johnson, and pther eminent lite- 
rary characters. Mr. Seward, upon his marriage, settled 
at his rectory of Eyan^. In 1747, the second year of his 
marriage. Miss. Seward was born. 

Mr. Seward was himself a poet, and a contributor to 
Dodsley's collection ; he was also an admirer of our ancient 
drama, and in 1750 published an edition of Beaumont and 
Fletcher^s plays. Thus accomplished himself, the talents 
of his daughter did not long escape his observation, and 
tinder his instructions she laid the foundation of a taste for 

1 Diet, HHt.-— Bl^ies Lectured. 
A A 2 

S5& S E W A R D. 

poetry. The authors be recomoiended to her were those 
of queen Anne's reign. She was early fainiliarwith Pope^ 
Youngi Prior, and their predecessor Dryden, and in later 
lifei used to make little allowance for poetry of an older 
date^ excepting only that of Shakspeare and Milton. The 
desire of imitating the compositions which gave her plea^ 
sure, very early displayed itself. She attempted metrical 
versions of the Psalms, and even exercised herself in ori- 
ginal composition, before she was ten years old. An ^* Ad* 
dress to the first fine day of a backward spring,'^ wbicb 
has been preserved, intimates considerable command of 
numbers and language, though the ideas cannot be called 

About 1754, Mr. Seward removed with his family to 
Lichfield, which continued ever afterwards to be his daugh- 
ter's residence, although varied, during her father's lift^^ 
by occasional visits to his rectory at f yam. For the first 
ten years 6f Miss Seward's residence here, sh^ was rather 
checked than encouraged in the cultivation of her poetical 
talents. Her mother possessed no taste for her daughter's 
favourite amusements, and even her father withdrew his 
countenance from them, under the apprehension that bis* 
continued encouragement might produce in his daughter 
that dreaded phenomenon, a learned lady. Poetry was 
therefore prohibited, and' Miss Seward resorted to other 
amusements, and to the practice of ornamental needle- 
worjL, ,in which she is said to have excelled. When, how- 
ever^ she arrived at an age to select her own society and 
studies, her love of literature was indulged, and the sphere 
in which she moved was sucfh as to increase her taste for 
its pursuits. Dr. Darwin, the enthusiast Mr. Day, Mr. 
Edgeworth, sir Brooke Boothby, and other names, well 
ko0wn in the literary world, then formed part of the Lich* 
field society. Dr. Johnson was an occasional visitor in their 
circles, but not much of a favourite with Dr. Darwin off 
Miss Seward. He neither agreed with the one, nor flatter- 
ed the other. 

j[n the mean time Miss Seward^s poetical powers appear 
to have lain dormant, or to have been very sparingly exer- 
cised, until her acquaintance with lady Miller, whose fan^ 
^iful and romantic institution at Bath Easton, was alter- 
nately the sjubject of public attention and of some degree 
of ridicule. Miss Seward, however, became a contributor 
to the vas^ and the applause she received encouraged her 

s E Ward. sst 

lo oommit some of her ecsays to ttie press, parfrcularly her 
poems on major Andr£ and captain Cook, which were re«> 
iteived by the public with great favour, and certainly were 
calculated to couvey a very high impression oF the original 
powers of their author, and procured her the admiration and 
correspondence of many of the most distinguished literary 
characters of that time. 

in 1780, Mrs. Seward died, and the care of attending her 
surviving parent devolved entirely upon his daughter. This' 
was soon embittered by a frequent recurrence of paralytic 
and apoplectic aiTections, which broke Mr. Seward's health, 
and gradually impaired the tone of his mind. His frame 
resisted these repeated assaults for ten years, during whicb^ 
Miss Seward had the melancholy satisfaction to see, that 
even when he had lost consciousness of every thing else, 
her father retained a sense of her constant and unremittins: 
attentions. In 1790 this scene closed, by the death of Mr. 
Seward. His daughter remained mistress of an easy and 
independent fortune, and continued to inhabit. the bishop's 
palace at Lichfield, which had been long her father's resi* 
dence,* and was her's until her death. 
- While engaged in attendance upon her father, Miss 
Seward, besides other occasional pieces, published, in 1782, 
ber poetical novel, entitled '^ Louisa,*' which rapidly passed 
through several editions. Other pieces, chiefly on occa- 
sional topics, fell from her pen ; some of which found their 
way to the public, and others have been printed from ma«* 
nuscript, in the late collection of her poems. In 1799 she 
published a collection of original ^* Sonnets." They were 
intended to restore the strict rules of the legitimate sonnet, 
and contain some beautiful examples of that species of 
composition. In 1804 she published a ** Life of Dr. Dar* 
win," which, although a desultory performance, and written 
in that affected style which she had now adopted, and which 
prevails throughout her correspondence, • is valuable as a 
oollecftion of literary anecdote. In this publication she laid 
her claim to the first fifty verses in the " Botanic Garden," 
which she had written • in compliment to Dr. Darwin, but 
which he had inserted in his poem without any acknow- 

After the publication of the " Sonnets," Miss Seward did 
not undertake any large poem, yet she continjjed te pour 
forth her poeitcal effusions upon such occasions as interest- 
,ed her feelings, or excited ber imaginatiou.. These eiforts. 


bowcrer, were unequal ta tho^e o( ber earlier muse. Age 
was now approaching with its usual attendants, declining 
healthy and the loss of friends. Yet her interest in iitera-^ 
ture and poetrj^ continued unabated, and she maintaioeil 
an unrelaxed correspondence! not only with her former 
friends, but with those later candidates for poetical distinc« 
tion, whose exertions she approved of. For a year or twa 
preceding 1807, Miss Seward l^ad been- occasionally en- 
gaged in arranging and preparing for the press the edition 
of her poems published after her death by Mr. Scott, and 
which she would probably have published herself, but her 
constitution, infirm for years^ was now rapidly declining,, 
and after nearly two years of much suffering from bodily 
complaints, she expired, March 25, 18Q9. To .Walter 
Scotty esq. the bequeathed hex literary performances, and 
particularly the works she had sp long intended for the press; 
and her '^ Letters" to Mr, Constable, the eminent book-, 
seller of Edinburgh. In the same, year, 1810, these gen* 
tlemen executed the trust reposed in them ; the latter, by 
an elegant publication of her ^^ Letters," in 6 vols, and the 
former by a publication of her ^^ Poems," and some literary 
correspondence, in 3 vols. Svo, with a biographical pre^ 
face, written with Mr. Scott's usual taste and acumen. The 
^* Poems" will always remain a monument of Miss Seward^s 
talents, and place her in an honourable rank among the 
female candidates for literary honours. Her ^^ Letters," 
however, are, in our opinion, less calculated to leave a. 
favourable impression of her character. They may be. 
justly considered as the annals of vanity and flattery, and 
in point of style es;hibit every defect whiph bad taste could 

SEWARD (William), a biographical writfir, was the 
90n of Mr. Seward, partner in the brewbouse under the 
^rm of Calvert and Seward, and was born in January 1747, 
He first went to a small seminary in the neighbourhood of 
Cripplegate, and afterwards to the Charter-house school, 
where he acquired a competent knowledge of Greek and 
Latin, which he improved at Oxford. Having no inclina-*. 
tion to engage in business, he relinquished bis concern in 
the brewhouse at his father^s death ; and being possessed 
of an easy fortune, did not apply to any profession, but 
devoted bis time to learned leisure, and, among other 

I Life by Walter 3colt, esq. 

SEWARD. 359 

pursuits, amn^ied htm$dlf with collecting the materials for 
what be called '* Drossiana/* in the European Magazine, 
which Jhe began in October 1789, and continued without 
intermission to the end of his life* After he had published 
in this manner for some time, he was advised to make a 
selection, which, in 1794, he began with two volumes, and 
these were followed in the three succeeding years by three, 
more, under the title of *^ Anecdotes of some distm* 
guished Persons, chiefly of the present and twoprecedin*^ 
Centuries;*' a work whjich met with general approba- 
tion, and has been since reprinted. In 1799 he published 
two volumes more on the plan of the former work, which 
he entitled ^* Biographiana.'* These were finished a very 
short time before his death; 

Mr. Seward was in every respect a desirably acquaint^ 
ance ; he had travelled abroad with great improvement^ 
and was known to most of those who had distinguished them-^ 
selves by genius or learning, by natural or acquired .en* 
4iowments, or even by eccentricity of character ; and he 
bad stored his memory with anecdotes which made bis con<* 
versation extremely entertaining. But though be wished 
to observe the manner of eminent or extraordinary men, he 
did not indiscriminately form friendships with them.. He 
knew many, but was intimate with few. He was the friend 
of Dn Johnson, had coQversed with Mr. Howard, and con^^ 
descended to know Tom Paine. Party distinctions ap» 
peared to have but little weight with him. He visited and 
received the visits of many whose opinions Were directly 
opposite to each other, and equally to his own. 

He spent his time like an English gentleman, with bos* 
pitality and without ostentation. In the winter he resided 
in London ; and of late years, in the summer, he varied 
bis place of abode. At one time he resided at Mr. Coxe'a 
bouse, near Salisbury ; at another, near Reading ; and th^ 
summer preceding his death, he made Richmond his resi- 
dence. At all these places, and, indeed, wherever he 
came, he found acquaintances who respected and valued 
bim for his amiable qualities. He bore a tedious illnes^ 
with fortitude and resignation. Without expressing any 
impatience, lie ;riewed the progress of his disorder, which 
be early discovered was a dangerous one ; and continued* 
bis literary pursuits, and received his friends, until a feM^ 
hours of his dissolution^ 'which took pUce the 2^th April 

sea 8 E WELL. 

1799 ; and, a feW days after, bis remains were interred in 
the family vault at Fiochley. ' 

SEWELL (George), an English poet and physician, 
was born at Windsor, where bis father was treasurer and 
chapter-clerk of the college; received his edacation at 
]£ton-school, and Peter-house, Cambridge ;v where having 
taken the degree of B. M. be went to Leyden, to study 
under Boerbaave, and On bis return practised physic in 
the metropolis with reputation. In the latter part of his 
life he retired to Hampstead, where he pursued his pro- 
fession with some degree of success, till three other phy- 
sicians came to settle at^ the same place, when his practiae 
so far declined as to yield him very little advantage. He 
kept no house, but was a boarder. He was much esteemed^ 
and so frequently invited to the tables of gentlemen in the 
lieighbourbood, that he had seldom occasion to dine at 
home. He died Febt 8, 1726;. and was supposed to be 
very indigent at the time of bis death, as be was interred 
on the 12th of the same month in the meanest manner, bis 
coffin being little better than those allotted by the parish 
to the poor who are buried from tbe workhouse ; neither 
did a single friend or relation attend him to tbe grave. No 
meffioriaTwas placed over his remains ; but they lie just 
under a hollow tree which formed a part of a hedge-row 
that was. once the boundary of the church-yard. He was 
greatly esteemed for his i^miable disposition ; and is repre- 
sented by some writers as a Tory in his political principles, 
but of this there is no other proof given than his writing 
some pamphlets against bishop Burnet. It is certain, that 
a true spirit of liberty breathes in many of his works ; and 
bf expresses, on many occasions, a warm attachjuient to 
the Hanover succession. Besides seven controversial 
pamphlets, he wrote, l. '^The Life of John Philips. ^^ 2, 
^* A vindication of the EngKsh Stage, exemplified in the 
Cato of Mr, Addison, 1716/' 3, << Sir Walter Baleigh, a 
tragedy, acted at LincolnVinn-fields, 1719;'' apd part 
of another play, intended to be called ^' Richard the First,'*. 
|be fragments of which were published in 1718, with <<Twa 
moral Essays on the Government of the Thoughts, and on 
Peath,'' and a collection of *^ Several poems published in 
bis life -time/' Dr. Sewell waf an occasional assistant 
to Harrison in the fifth volume of ^^The Tatler; w»s a 

I By t)ie late Its«c K«e4» in Sufopefui Ma|a|a«d| 1199^ 

S £ W E L L. 3€l 

principal writer in the ninth volnme of '^ The Spectator ; 
aqd published a translation of ** Ovid's Metamorphoses, in 
exposition to the edition of Garth and an edition of Sbak* 
apeare's Poems. Jacob and Cibber have enumerated a 
considerable number of his single poems ; and in Mr. Ni* 
cbols's << Collection*' are some valaable ones, unnoticed 
by these writers. ^ 

SEWELL (Wiluam), the historian of the Quakersg^ 
.was the son of Jacob Williamson Sewell, a citizen of Am«^ 
sterdam, and a surgeon, and appears to have been born 
there in 1650. His grandfather, William Seweli, was an 
Englishman, and had resided at Kidderminster; but being 
one of the sect of the Brownists,, left his native country for 
the more free en^oyipent of his principles in Holland^ 
marned a Dutch woman of Utrecht, and settled there. The 
parents of the subject of this article both died when he wa« 
jroung, but had instructed him in the principles of the 
Quakers, to which he steadily adhered during life. His 
ediication in other respects appears to have been the fruit 
of his own application ; and the time| he could spare from 
the business to wliich be was apprenticed (that of a weaver) 
be employed with good success in attaining a knowledge of, 
the Gieek, Latin, English, French, and High Dutch/ 
languages. His natural abilities being good, his applica-' 
tion unwearied, and his habits strictly tetnperate, he soon 
became noticed by some of the most respectable book- 
sellers in Holland ; and the translation of works of credit, 
chiefly from the Latin and English tongues, into Low Dutch, 
seems to have been one of the principal sources from which 
bis moderate income was derived, in addition to the part 
be took, at di&rent times, in several approved periodi- 
cal publications. His modest, unassuming manners gained 
him the esteem of several literary men, whose productions,: 
there is reason to believe, were not unfrequently revised 
and prepared for the press by him. His knowledge of his 
native tongue was profound : his ** Dictionary," *' Gram- 
mar," and other treatises on it, having left very little room 
for succeeding improvement : and he assisted materially in 
the compilation of Halma's French and Dutch Dictionary. 
His ** History of the people called Quakers," written, first* 
iji Low Dutch, and afterwards, by himself, in F#ngiish/ 
(dedicated to George 1.) was a very laborious under* 

t Cibbet*s Livef.— Nichols's *Po«iiw, 

set S E W E L L. 

taking, as he was scrupulously nice in the selection; of bil 
materials, which he bad been during many y^rs engaged 
in collecting. Of the English edition, for it cannot pro-»' 
perly be called a translation, it may be truly said, that as 
the production of a foreigner, who had spent only about 
ten months in England, and that above forty years before^ 
the style is far superior to what could have been reasonably 
expected. One principal object with the author was, a 
desire to correct what he conceived to be gross tnisrepre^ 
sentations in Gerard Croese's ** History of Quakerism.^' 
The exact time of SewelPs death does not appear ; but in 
a note of the editor's to the third edition of his "Dic- 
tionary," in 1726, he is mentioned as being lately de« 
ceased. His " History of the Quakers'* appears to have 
been first published in 1722, folio, and reprinted in 

SEXTIU8 (QuwTus), a Pythagorean philosopher, who 
flourished in the time of Augustus, seemed formed to rise 
in the republic, but he shrunk from civil honours, and de^ 
dined accepting the rank of senator when it was offered 
him by Julius Gaesar, that he might have time to apply to 
philosophy. It appears that he wished to establish a school 
at Rome, and that his tenets, though chiefly drawn from 
the doctrines of Pythagoras, in some particulars resemble^ 
those of the Stoics. He soon found himself involved in 
many difficulties. His laws were remarkably severe, and 
in an early period of his establishment, he found his mind 
so harassed, and the harshness of the doctrines which he 
wished to establish so repulsive to his feelings, that he had 
nearly worked himself up to such an height of desperation 
as to resolve on putting a period to bis existence. Of the 
school of Sextius were Fabianus, Sotion, Fiaviaiins, Cras- 
sitius, and Celsus. Of his works only a few fragments re- 
main ; and whether any of them formed a part of the work 
which Seneca admired so much, cannot now be deter-» 
mined. Some of his maxims are valuable. He recom- 
mended an examination of the actions of the day to bis 
scholars when they retired to. rest ; he taught that the road 
to heaven ('ad astraj was by frugality, temperance, and 
fortitude. He used to recommend holding a looking-glass 
before persons disordered with passion. He enjoined his' 
scholars to abstain from animal food. Brucker seems ta 

1 Gent Mag, vol. LXXXII.—Pirerace to bis History. 

S E X T I. U 8. 363 

4mibty however, whether the ^* Sententfee Sezti Py thago- 
reiy" so often printed by Gaie and others, be the genuine, 
work of this moralist.' 

SEXTUS EMPIRIC US, an ancient' Greek author, and 
most apute defender of the Pyrrhonian or sceptical pbilo^- 
sophy, was a physician,, and seems to have flourished under 
the reign of Commodus, or perhaps a little later. He was, 
against v^hat has usually been imagined, a different person 
from JSextus, a'Stoic philosopher of Cseronea, and nephew 
of Plutarch : but no particular circumstances of his life are 
recorded. Of a great many, that have perished, two 
works of his are still extant : three books of ^' Institutes of 
Pyrrhonism," and ten books against the *^ Mathematici,** 
by whom he means all kinds of dogmatists. His works 
discover great erudition, and an extensive acquaintance 
with the ancient systems of philosophy ; and, on this ac- 
count chiefly, Brucker says, merit an attentive perusal; 
Henry Stephens first made, and then printed in 1592, 8vo, 
a Latin version from the Greek of the former of these 
works ; and a version of the latter, by Hervetus, had been 
printed by Plantin in 1569. , Both these ver^sions were 
printed again with the Greek ; which first appeared at 
Geneva in 1621, folio, but the best edition of Sextus Em- 
piricus is that of John Albert Fabricius, in Greek and 
Latin, Leipsic, 1718, folio,' 

SEYMOUR (Edwari>), duk^ of Somerset, and uncle 
%o Edward VI. was eldest son of sir John Seymour of Wolf* 
ball, in the county of Wilts, knt. by Elizabeth daughter 
of sir Henry Wentwortb, of Nettlested in Sufl'olk. He 
was educated at the university of Oxford^ whence return-* 
ing to his. father at court, when martial achievements were 
encouraged by Henry VIIL he joined the army, and ac* 
companying the duke of Suffolk in his expedition to France 
in 1 533, was knighted by him Nov, 1^ of that year. Upon 
bis sister^s marriage with the king in 1536, he had the title 
of viscount Beauchamp bestowed upon him, in conse- 
quence of his descent from an heir female of that house ; 
and in Oct. 1537 was created earl of Hertford. In 1540 
he was sent to France to dispute the limits of the English 
borders, and on his return was elected knight of the garter. 
Jn 1542 he attended the duke of Norfolk in his expedition 
into Scotland, and the same year was made lord giV^kt 

* Mooth. Rev. vol. IXXVII.— Bruoker.— Senecae Epist. 
? Fabric. Bibl. Qiac*— ^Biucker. — Saxii OaJiuasticon. 


chamberlain of England for life. In 1544, being made 
lieutenant-general of the north, be embarked for Scotland 
with two hundred sail of ships, on account of the Scou 
refusing to marry their young queen to prince Edward ; 
and landing in the Frith, took Leith and Edinburgh, and 
after plundering and burning them, marched by land into 
England. In August of the same year, be went to the 
assistance of the king at the siege of Boulogne, with teve^ 
ral German and Flemish troops ; and after taking it, de* 
feated an army of 14,000 French, who lay encamped near it. 
By the will of Hehry VIII. he was appointed one of the 
sixteen persons, who were to be bis majesty's executors, 
and governors of his son, till be should be eighteen years of 
age. Upon Edward*s accession to the crown, it was pro- 
posed in council, that one of the sixteen should be chosen, to 
whom the ambassadors should address themselves, and who 
should have the chief direction of affairs, though restrained 
from acting without the consent of the major part of the rest 
The lord chancellor Wriotbesly, who thought the prece- 
dence in secular affairs belonging to him by his office, op- 
posed this strongly, and urged, that it was changing the 
king's will, who had made them equal in power and dig-' 
nity ; and if any was raised above the rest in title, it would 
be impossible to keep him within- just bounds, since greater 
titles made way for exorbitant power. But the earl of 
Hertford had so prepared his friends, that he was declared 
governor of the king's person, and protector of the. king- 
dom, with this restriction, that he should not act without 
the advice and consent of the rest. In consequence of this 
measure, two distinct p^riies were formed ; the one headed 
- by the new protector, and the other by the chancellor ; 
the favourers of the reformation declaring for the former, 
and the enemies of it for the latter. On Feb. 10, 1547-8, 
the protector was appointed lord treasurer, and the next 
day created duke of Somerset, and on the 17th of that 
month, bad a grant of the office of earl marshal of England 
for life. On March 12th following, be liad a patent for 
the office of protector and governor of the king and his 
realms. By this patent he had a negative in the council, 
but they had none on him ; and he could either bring his 
own adherents into it, or select a cabinet-council out of it 
at pleasure; while the other executors, having thus de- 
livered up their authority to him, were only prtvy*conn- 
sellors like the rest, without retaining any authority pe- 

S E Y M OUR ses 

eulijELt' 10 tbemselveS) as was particularly provided by 
Henry VIIIth*s will. In August 1548 the protector took 
a commission to be general, and to make war in Scotland, 
and accordingly entered that kingdom, and, on Sept. 10, 
gained a complete victory at Musselburgh, and on the 29th 
^returned to England triumphantly, having, with the loss 
of but sixty men in the whole expedition, 'taken eighty 
pieces of cannon, bridled the two chief rivers of the king- 
dom by garrisons, and gained several strong places. 

It may easily be imagined how much these successes 
raised his reputation in England, especially when it was 
remembered what great services he had done formerly 
against France ; so that the nation in general had vast ex- 
pectations from his government ; biit the breach between 
btm and his brother, the lord hi^h admiral of England, lost 
him the present advantages. The death of the admiral 
also^ in March 1548, drew much censure on the protector; 
tboogfa others were of opinion that it was scarce possible 
fof him to do more for the gaining hisr brother than he had 
done. In September 1549, a strong faction appeared 
againsthim, underthe influence and direction of Wriothesly 
earl of Southampton, who hated him on account of losing 
the. oBEice of lord chancellor, and Dudley earl of Warwick, 
who expected to have the principal administration of affairs 
upon his removal ; and other circumstances <x>neurred to 
raise him enemies. His partiality to the ^commons pro* 
Yoked the gentry ; his consenting to the execution of his 
brother, and his palace in the Strand, erected on the ruin» 
of several churches and other religious buildings, in a time 
both of war and pestilence, disgusted the people. The 
clergy hated him, not only for promoting the changes in 
religion, but likewise for his enjoying so many of the best 
manors.of the bishops ; and his entertaining foreign troops, 
both German and Italian, though done by the consent of 
the council, gave general disgust^ The privy counsellors 
complained of bis being arbitrary in bis proceedings, and 
of many other offences, which exasperated the whole body 
of them against him, except archbishop Cranmer, sir WiU 
Uam Paget, and sir Thomas Smith, secretary of state. 
The first discovery of their designs induced him to remove 
t^e king to Hampton Court, and then to Windsor; but 
finding the party against him too formidable to oppose, he 
submitted to the council, and on the 14th of October was 
committed to the Tower, and in January following was 


fined in the sum of two thousand pounds a year, ^ith the 
loss of all bis offices and goods« However, on the -16th 
of February, 1549*50^ he obtained a full pardon^ and so 
managed his interest with the kingi that be was brought 
both to the court and council in April following : and to 
confirm the reconciliation between him and the earl of 
Warwick,, the duke^s daughter was married, on the 3d of 
June, 1550, to the lord viscount Lisle, the earPsson. But 
this friendship did not continue long ; for in October 1551^ 
the earl, now created duke of Northumberland, caused 
the duke of Somerset to be sent to the Tower, alledging, 
that the latter had formed a design of raising the people i 
And that when himself, and the marquis of Northampton^ 
and th^ earl of Pembroke, had been invifed to dine at the 
]ord Paget's, Somerset determined to have set upon them 
by the way, or to have killed them at dinner ; with othei^ 
particulars of that kind, which were related to the king in 
so aggravated a manner, that he was entirely alienated from 
bis uncle. . On the first of December the duke was brought 
to his trial, and though acquitted of treason, was found 
guilty of felony in intending to imprison the duke of Nor* 
thUmberland. He was beheaded on Tower-hill on the 22d 
of January, 1551-2, and died with great serenity. It was 
generally believed, that the conspiracy, for which he suf- 
fered, was a mere forgery ; and indeed the not bringing 
the witnesses into the court, but only the deposit^ns, and 
the parties themselves sitting as judges, gave great occa- 
sion to condemn the proceedings against him. Besides, his 
four friends, who were executed for the same causey ended 
their lives with the n^ost solemn protestations of their* in- 

He was a person of great virtues; eminent for his piety ; 
courteous, and affable in his greatness ; sincere and candid 
in all his transactions ; a patron of the poor and oppressed j 
but a better general than a counsellor. He had, however, 
a tincture of vanity, and a fondness for his own notions; 
and being a man of no extraordinary parts, was too much 
at the disposal of those who by flattery and submission in- 
sinuated themselves into his esteem and confidence. He 
made likewise too great haste to raise a vast estate to be 
altogether innocent. But to balance these defects, be was 
never charged with personal disorders, nor guilty of false- 
hood, of perverting justice, of cruelty, or oppression. Lolrd 
Orford remarks that his contributing to tbe ruin of the 
Howards hurt bim much in the eyes of the nation : bis 

/ S E Y M O U Tt- , set 

•eterity to bis own brother^ though a vain ^nd worthless 
man, was still less excusable ; but having' fallen by the 
policy. of a man more artful, more ambitious, and much 
less virtuous than himself, be died lamented by the people. 

He appears to have been an author. While l\e was lord 
protector, there went under his name, ^' Epistola exhorta* 
toria- oiissa ad Nobilitatem ac Plebem universumque popu-^ 
lum regni Scotise, Lond." 1548, 4to, which lord Orford 
thinks might possibly be composed by some dependent. 
His other works were penned during his troubles, wh6n he 
does not appear to have had many flatterers. During bis 
first imprisonment be caused to be printed a translation by 
Miles Coverdale, from the German of Wormulus, of a 
treati&e called ^^ A spirituall and most precious pearl, teach* 
ing all men to love and embrace the cross, as a mosMweeb^ 
and necessary thing," &c. Lond. 1550, 16mo. To thi9 
the duke wrote a recommendatory preface. About that 
time he had great respect paid to him by the celebrated 
reformers, Calvin, and Peter Martyr. The former wrote 
to him an epistle of ** godly consolation,*' composed before 
the time and knowledge of his disgrace } but being deli- 
vered to him in the Tower, bis grace translated it from 
French into English, and it was printed in 1550, under the 
title of << An Epistle of Godly Consolacion,'* &c. Peter 
Martyr also wrote an epistle to him in Latin, about the 
same time, which pleased the duke so much, that at hitf 
desire it was translated into English by Thomas Norton, 
and printed in 1550, 8vo. In Strype is a prayer of the 
duke '^ For God's assistance in the high office of protector 
and 'governor, now committed to bim;'* and some of his 
letters are preserved in the library of Jesus college, Cam- 
bridge, and among tlie Harleian MSS. 

Somerset left three daughters, Anne, Margaret, and Jane, 
who were distinguished for their poetical talents. They 
composed a century of Latin disticbs on the death of Mar-^ 
garet de Valois, queen of France, which were translated 
into the French, Greek^ And Italian languages, and printed 
in Paris in 1551. Anne, the eldest of these ladies, married 
first the earl of Warwick, the son of the duke of Northum- 
berland, already mentiooed, and afterwards sir Edward 
Hunton, The other two died single. Jane was maid of 
honour to queen Elizabeth.^ 

* Birch*s Lives.— ColUns's Peerage, by air E. Brydgei.— Park's edition of 
the Royal and Noble Authors. — Strype's Anaals. — Burnet's Hist, of the Refur- 

. I 

368 S H A D W £ L L. 

SHADWELL (Thomas), an Eoglub dramatic poet, wm 
descended of a good family in the county of Stafford, hvt% 
bom at Stanton-hall, in Norfolk) a seat of his father's, about 
. )640. He was educated at Caius college in Cambridge, 
and afterwards placed in the Middle Temple; where 
be studied the law some time, and then went abroad. 
Upon his return from his travels he applied himself to the 
drama, and wrote seventeen plays, with a success which 
introduced him to the notice of several persons of wit and 
rank, by whom he was highly esteemed. At the Revolu* 
tion he was, by his interest with the earl of Dorset, made 
historiographer and poet-laureat ; and when some personii 
urged that there were authors who had better pretensions 
to the laurel, his lordship is said to have replied, ^* that he 
did not pretend to determine how great a poet Shadwell 
might be, but was sure that be was an honest man.** He 
succeeded Dryden as poet«laureat ; for Oryden had so 
warmly espoused the opposite interest, that at the Revolu- 
tion he was dispossessed of his place. This, however, 
Dryden considered as an indignity, and resented it very 
warmly. He had ooce been on friendly terdis with Shad- 
well, but some critical differences appear to have first se- 
parated them, and now Dryden introduced Shadwell in hi» 
Mae-Fleckno, in these lines : 

" Others to somQ faint meaning make pretence^ 
But Shadwell never deviates into sense )** , 

which certainly was unjust, for though as a poet Shadwell 
is not to be mentioned with Dryden, as a writer of comedy 
he had no superior in that ageu His comedies abound in 
priginal characters, strongly marked and well sustained, and 
the manners of the time are more faithfully and minutely 
delineated than in any author we are acquainted with. 
Shadwell is said to have written rapidly, and in the preface 
to bis ^^ Psyche'' he tells us that that tragedy, by no means, 
however, his best performance, was written by him in five 

Lord Rochester had such an opinion of his conversation 
that be said *^ if Shadwell had burnt all he wrote, and 
printed all he spoke, he would have ha4 more wit and hu- 
mour than any other poet" Considering Rochester's cha- 
racter, this, we are afraid, confirms the account of some 
contemporary writers, that Shadwell, in conversation, was 
often grossly indecent and profane. Shadwell waa a great 

StiAllWteLl. S€9 

JftiTOiirita witb Otway, and lived io intimacy with hlnftj 
wiiich mighty perbapsi be the occasion of Dryden^s exf 
pressing so much cpn tempt for Otway^ ,wbigh wa9 sorely 
less excusable than bis hostility towards our author. Shad- 
Well died Dee. 6, 16d2 ; and his death was occasioned, as 
some say, by a too large dose of opium, given him by mis* 
take. A white marble monument with his bust is erected 
in Westminster abbey by his son sir John Shadwell, and 
his funeral sermon was preached by Dr. Nicolas J^rady,^ the 
translator of the Psalms, who tells us that^^ he was a n^an 
of great honesty and integrity, and had a real love of truth 
and sincerity, an inviolable fidelity and strictness to hi^ 
word, an unalterable friendship wheresoever be profetssed 
it, and (however the world may be deceived in him) a 
much deeper sense of religion than many others have, who 
pretend to it more^ openly." 

Besides bis dramatic writings, he was the author of ser 
veral pieces of poetry, but none of any great merit : the 
chief are his congratulatory poem on the prince of Orange's 
coming to England ; another on queen Mary ; a translatiom 
of the tenth satire of Juvenal, &c. The best edition of hi? 
works was printed in 1720, 4 vols. 12pio. 

Our author's son, Dr. John Shadwell, was physician to 
queen Anne; George I. and George II. by the former of 
whom he was knighted. In August 16#9, he attended the 
eari of Manchester, who then went to Paris as ambassador 
extraordinary to Louis XIV. and continued there with that 
nobleiTian till his return to England in Sept. ITOh He 
died Dec. 4, 1747. 

There was a Charles Shadwell, a dramatic writer, who^ 
Jacob tells us, was nephew to the poet-laureat, but Ch^t** 
wood, in his ** British Theatre," says he was his younger 
son. He had served in Portugal, and enjoyed a post ia 
the revenue in Dublin, in which city he died August IS^ 
lt26. He wrote seven dramatic pieces, all which, ex<» 
eepting the *^ Fair Quaker of Deal," and the ^^ Humours 
of the Army,'' made theifi appearance oa the Irish stag^ 
only, and are printed together in one volume, 1720, l2mQ,^ 
SHAKSPEARE (William), the most illustrious nam# 
iti the history of English dramatic poetry, was born at Strat- 

i Biof. Brit.— Biog. Dr«iD.--.Maloae'8 Dry den. v\, I. p. S6, 165-^174, %0$ 
^80^« vol. in. p. 77, 106, U4»-^Cibber'i Lives.^Nichols't Po<mi. 

Vol. XXVII. Bb 


ford-upon-ATOti, in WarwicksHire, on the 23d day of Aprif^ 
1564. Of the rank of his family it is not easy to form an 
opinion; Mr. Rowe says, that by the register and certaia 
publid writings relating to Stratford, it appears that his ao- 
destbrs were *^ of good figure and fashion" in that town, and 
are mentioned as '^ gentlemen,'' an epithet which was cer- 
iainly mofe determinate then than at present, when it has be« 
come an unlimited phrase of courtesy. His father, Joim 
Shakspeare, was a considerable dealer in wool, and bad 
been an officef and bailiiF (probably high-bailiflF or mayor) 
of the body corporate of Stratford. He held also the office 
of justice of the peace, and at one time, it is said, possessed 
lands and tenements to the amount of 500/. the reward of 
his grandfather's faithful and approved services to king 
Hetiry VII. This, however^ has been asserted upon very 
doubtful authority. Mr, Malone thinks ^* it is highly pro- 
bable that he distinguished himself in Bosworth field on the 
aide of king Henry, and that he was rewarded for his mili- 
tary services by the bounty of that parsimonious prince, 
though not with a grant of lands. No such grant appears 
in the chapel of the Rolls, from the beginning to the end 
of Henry's reign."— But whatever may have been his for*- 
iher wealth, it appears to have been greatly reduced in the 
latter part of his life, as we find, from the books of the 
colporatioit^ that in 1579 he was excused the trifling we^k«- 
ly tax of four-pence levied on all the aldermen ; and that 
in 1586 another alderman was appointed in his room, in 
consequence of his declining to attend on the business of 
that office. It is even said by Aubrey, a man sufficiently 
accurate in facts, although credulous in superstitious narra- 
tives and traditions, that he followed for some time the oc- 
cupation of a butcher, which Mr. Malone thinks not in- 
consistent with probability. It must have been, however, 
at this time, no inconsiderable addition to his difficulties 
that he had a family of ten children. His wife was the 
daughter &nd heiress of Robert Arden, of Wellingeote, in 
the county of Warwick, who is styled <' a gentleman of 
worship'." The family of Arden is very ancient, Robert 
Arden of Brct^iich, esq. being in the list of the gentry of 
this county returned by the commissionecs in the twelfth 
year of king Henry VI. A. 0. 1.4}33.. E^J^^ard Arden was 
sheriff of the county in 1568. The woodland part of this 
county was anciently called Ardem^ afterwards softened 'to 
Arden ; and hence the uame. 

S H A K S P £ A R E, 371 

Our illustriaus poet was ihe eldest son, and received his 
^arly education, whether narrow or liberal^ at a free school, 
prpbably that founded at Stratford ; but from this he appears 
to have been soon removed, and placed, according to Mr. 
Malone*s opinion, in the office of some country attornex> 
or the seneschal of some manor court,, where it is highly 
probable he, picked up those technical law phrases that so 
frequently occur in his plays, and could not have been in 
common use unless among professional men. Mr. Capell 
cpnjectures that his early marriage prevented his being sent 
to some university. It appears, however, as Dr. Farmer 
observes, that his early life was incompatible with a course 
of education, and it is certain that ^^ his contemporaries 
friends and JFoes, nay, and. himself likewise, agree in his 
want of what is usually termed literature.^' It is, indeed, 
a strong argument in favour of Sbakspeare's iliiterature^ 
that it was maintained by all his contemporaries, many of 
whom have left upon record every merit they could bescovf 
on hiii(i ; and by his successors, who lived nearest to bis 
time, when ^< his memory was green ;'^ and that it has been 
denied only by Gildon, Sewell, and others down to Upton^ 
who could have no means of ascertaining the truth. 

In his eighteenth year, or perhaps a 4ittle sooner, he 
married Anne Hathaway, who was eight years.older than 
himself, the daughter of one Hathaway, who is said to 
have been a substantial yeoman in the neighbourhood of 
Stratford. Of bis domestic c&conomy, or proressional occu- 
pation at this time, we have no information ; but it would 
appear that both were in a considerable degree neglected 
by his associating with a gang of deer-stealers. Being 
detected with them in robbing the park of sir Thomas Lucy 
of Charlecpte, near Stratford, he was so rigorously prose* 
cuted by that gentleman as to be obliged to leave his family 
and business, and take shelter in London. Sir Thomas, on 
this oci:asion, it said to have been ^exasperated by a ballad 
Shakspeare wrote, prpbably his first essay in poetry, of 
which the following stanza was communicated to Mr. Oldys. 

';A'parliementemember> a josfticeof peace. 
At home a poor seare-cniwe, at I/mdon an asse^ 
If lowsie is Lucy> as some vdke miscalle it^ 
Then Lucnr is lowsie whatever beiall it : 
He taiidcs himself greate. 
Yet an asse in hb state 
We illowe by his ears but with asses to mate. 

^ , B B 2 



' If Lucy is lowsie, as some volke miacalle it. 

Sing lowsie Luqr> whatever befiBiU it." 

These lities, it must be confessed, do no greftt honour td 
our ^oet, and probably were unjust, for although some of 
his admirers have recorded sir Thomas- as a ^' vain^ weak, 
and Tindictive magistrate," he was certainly exerting no 
very violent act of oppression, in protecting his property 
against a man who was degrading the commonest rank of 
life, and had at this time bespoke no indulgence by superior 
talents. The ballad, however, must have made some noise 
at sir Thomas's expence, as the author took care it should 
le affixed to his park-gates, and liberally circulated among 
his neighbours. 

On his arrival in London, which was probably in 158^^ 
when he was twenty -two years old, he is said to have made 
his first acquaintance in the play-house, to which idleness 
or taste may have directed him, and where his necessities, 
if tradition may be credited, obliged him to accept the 
office of call-boy, or prompter's attendant. This is a me- 
nial, whose employment it is to give the performers notice 
to be ready to enter, as often as the business of the play 
requires their appearance on the stage. Pope, however, 
relates a story, communicated to him by Rowe, but which 
Rowe did not think deserving of a place in the life he wrote^ 
that must a little retard the advancement of our poet to the 
office just mentioned. According to this story, Shakspeare's 
first employment was to wait at the door of the play-house, 
and hold the horses of those who had no servants, that they 
might be ready after the performance. But " I cannot," 
says his acute commentator, Mr. Steeven's, '* dismiss this 
anecdote without observing, that it seems to want every 
hiark of probability. Though Shakspeare quitted Stratford 
on account of a juvenile irregularity, we have no reason to 
suppose that he had forfeited the protection of bis father, 
who was engaged in a lucrative business, or the love of his 
wife, who had already brought him two children, and was 
herself the daughter of a substantial yeoman. It is unlike- 
ly, therefore, when he was beyond the reach of bis prose<* 
cutor, that he should conceal bis plan of life, or place of 
residence, from those who, if he found himself distressed, 
could not fail to affi}rd him such supplies as would have set 
him above the necessity of holding horses for subsistence. 
Mr. Malone has remarked in his ^ Attempt to ascertain the 
order in which the plays gf Shakspeare were written,* that 

S H A K S P E A R £. 373 

I ^ • 

})e might have fomid an easy introduction to the stage ; for 
Thomas Green, a celebrated comedian of that period, was 
bis tpwnsman, and perhaps his relation. The genius of our 
author prompted him to write poetry ; his connexion with 
H player might have given his pi[:oductions a dramatic turn ; 
. pr his own sagacity might have taught him that fame was 
not incompatible with profit, and that the. theatre was w 
jivenue to both. That it was once the general custom to 
ride on horse-back to the play, I am likewise yet to leanv 
The most popular of the theatres were on the Bank*side ; 
and we are told by the satirical pamphleteers of that tima» 
that the usual mode of conveyance to these plages of amuse-^ 
inent was by water, but not a single writer so much as hints 
at the custom of riding to them, or at the practice of hav** 
ing horses held during the hours of exhibition. Some air 
iusion to this usage (if it had existed) must, I think, have 
been discovered in the course of our researches after con- 
temporary fashions. Let it be remembered too, that we 
receive this tale on no higher authority than that of Gibber's 
Lives of the Poets, vol. I. p. 130. Sir Wm. Davenant told 
it to Mr. Betterton, who communicated it to Mr, JElowe^ 
who, according to Dr. Johnson, related it to Mr. Pope.'' 
Mr. Malone concurs in opinion that this story stands on a 
very slender foundation, while he differs from Mr* SteeveiUK 
as to the fact of gentlemen going to the theatre on hor^e^ 
back. With respect likewise to Shakspeare's father being 
^' engaged in a lucrative business," we may remark, that 
this could not have been the case at the time our authcn: 
came to London, if the preceding dates be correct. He is 
said to have arrived in London in 1586, the year in which 
his father resigned the office of alderman, unless, indeec^ 
we are permitted to conjecture that his resignation was not 
the consequence of his necessities. 

But in whatever situation he was fir^t employed at the 
theatre, he appears to have soon discovered those talents 
which afterwards made him 

" Th* applause ! delight ! the wonder of our stage !" 

Some distinction he probably first acquired as an actor, 
although Mr. Howe has not been able to discover any 
character in which he appeared to more advantage than 
£bat of the ghost in Hamlet. The instructions given to 
the player in that tragedy, and other passages of his works, 
^faqw an intimate acquaintance with the skill of acting, and 
such as is scarcely surpassed ia our own days. He appeal? 

S74 S H A K S P E A tl t. 


to have studied nature in acting as niuch as iii writing; 
But all this might have been mere theory. Mr. Malone is 
of opinion he was no great actor. The distinction, how- 
ever, which he obtained as an actor, could only be in his 
own plays, in which he would be assisted by the novel ^ 
appearance of author and actor combined. Before hii 
time, it does not appear that any actor of genius could 
appear to advantage in the wretched pieces represented 
on the stage. 

Mr. Rowe regrets that he cannot inform us which was 
the first play he wrote. More skilful research has since 
found that Romeo and Juliet, and Richard II. and III. 
were printed in 1597, when he was thirty -three years old; 
there is also some reason to think that he commenced a 
dramatic writer in 1592, and Mr. Malone even places his 
first play, •* First part of Henry VI.'* in 1589. His plays, 
however, must have been not only popular, but approved 
by persons of the higher order, as we are certain that he 
enjoyed the gracious favour of Queen Elizabeth, who was 
very fond of the stage, and the particular and affectionate 
patronage of the earl of Southampton, to whom he dedi- 
cated his poems of *^ Venus and Adonis," and his '* Rape of 
Lucrece.** On sir William Davenant*s authority, it has 
been* asserted that this nobleman at one time gave him a 
thousand pounds to enable him to complete a purchase*. 
At the conclusion of the advertisement prefixed to Lintot^s 
edition of Shakspeare^s Poems, it is said, '' That most 
learned prince and great patron of learning, king James the 
first, was pleased with his own hand to write an ^amicable 
letter to Mr. Shakspeare: which letter, though now lost, 
remained long in the hands of sir William D*Avenant, as a 
credible person now living can testify.'* Dr, Farmer with 
great probability supposes, that this letter was written by 
king James, in return for the compliment paid to him in 
Macbeth. The relator of the anecdote was Sheffield, 
duke of Buckingham. These brief notices, meagre as 
they are, may show that our author enjoyed high favour in 
bis day. Whatever we may think of king James as a 'Mearned 
prince,** his patronage, as well as that of his predecessor, 
was sufficient to give celebrity to the founder of a new 
stage. It may be added, that Shakspeare*s uncommon 
merit, his candour, and good-nature, are supposed to have 
procured hioi the admiration and acquaintance of every 
person distinguished for such qualities. It ifl| iiot difficuUi 

S H A K S P £ A R £. 3741 

]Ddee(J, to suppose that Shakspeare was a man of bomour^ 
and a social companion, and probably excelled in that 
species of minor wit, not ill adapted to conversation, of 
wbich it could have been wished he had been more sparing 
in his writings. 

How long be acted has not been discovered, but he con*- 
tinued to write till the year 1614. During his dramatic 
career be acquired a property in the theatre *, which he 
must have disposed of when he retired, as no mention of 
it occurs in his will. His connexion with Ben Jouson has 
been variously related. It is said, that when Jonson was 
unknoyvn to the world, he oflFered a play to the theatre, 
which was rejected after a very careless perusal ; but that 
Shakspeare having accidentally cast bis eye on it, conceived 
a favourable opinion of it, and afterwards recommended 
Jonson and his writings to the public. For this candour he 
was repaid by Jonson, when the latter became a poet of 
note, with an erwious disrespect. Jonson acquired reputa* 
tion by the variety of his pieces, and endeavoured to arro- 
gate the suprema(:y in dramatic genius. Like a French 
critic, he insinuated Shakspeare*s incorrectness, his careless 
luaqner of writing, and his want of judgment; and as he 
was a remarkably slow writer himself, he could not endure 
the praise frequently bestowed on Shakspeare, of seldom 
altering or blotting out what he had written. Mr. Malone 
says, that ^^ not long after the year 1600, a coolness arose 
between Shakspeare and him, which, however he may talk 
of his almost idolatrous affection, produced on his part, 
from that time to the death of our author, and for many 
years afterwards, much clumsy sarcasm, and many malevo- 
lent reflections.'* But fronv^^^^^> which are the commonly 
received opinions on this subject, Dr. Farmer is inclined 
to depart, and to think Jonson's hostility to Shakspeare 
absolutely groundless; so uncertain is every circumstance 
we attempt to recpver of our great poet's life t* Jonson 
had only one advantage over Shakspeare, that of superior 
learning, which might in certain situations be of some im- 
portance, but could n^ver promote his rivalship with a man 
who attained the highest excellence without it. Nor will 

* In 1603, Shakspeare and several f But since writing the abOTe» Mr. 

0iheri obtained a license from king O. Gilchrist has piqbiisbed th<3 ▼indi- 

Jamas io exhibit comediei, tragedies, cation of Jonson in a very al^le paooph- 

histories, &c. at ^tb» Globe Theatre, let. See our account of JontODi vol. 

liid eliewbere. XIX. p. 144* 

SfB 6 H A K (S P E A K E. 

Sbakfpaave suffer by ifes beiog known that all the ^dramatio 
poet^^i before he appeared were scholars. Greene, I^dge, 
Peele^ M^lowty Nashe, Lily, and Kyd, bad all, says Mr, 
Malone, a regular uniyersity editcationi and, as scholars ia 
our universities, frequently composed and acted plays oa 
historical subjects *, 

The latter part of Sbakspeare's life was spent in ease, 
xetirement, and the coovecsation of his friends. He 
liad accumulated considerable property, which Gildon (ia 
bis <f Letters and £ssays," 1694,) stated to amount to 
$00L p^ annum, a sum at least equal to 1000/. in our 
0ays; but Mr. Malone doubts whether all bis property 
amounted to much more than 200/. per annum, which yet 
wsm a eonsiderable fortune in those times ; and it is sup^^^ 
posed that he might have derived 200/. per annum from the 
theatre while he continued to act. 

He retired, some years before his death, to a house ia 
Stratford, of which it has been thought iipportaat to give 
the history. It was built by sir Hugh Clopton, a younger 
brother of an ancient family in that neighbourhood. Sir 
Hugh was sheriff of London in the reign of Richard HI. and 
lord mayor in the reign of Henry VIL By hia will ha 
bequeathed to his elder brother's son his manor of Clop* 
too, Sac, and his house, by the name of the GreiU Hotisei itl 
Stratford. A good part of the estate was in possession of 
Edward Clopton, esq , and sir Hugh Clopton, knight, in 
1 733. The principal estate had been spld out of the*Clop-f 
ton family for above a century, at the time when Sbak-r 
^peane became the purchaser, who having repaired and mo<« 
delled it to his own mind, changed the name to New Phce^ 
which the mansion-rhouse afterwards erected, in the room 
of the poet's bouse, retained for many years. The house 
and lands belonging to it continued in the possession of 
Shakspeare's descendants to the time of the Restoration^ 
when they were re-purchased by the Clopton family. Here^ 
in May 1742, when Mr. Garrick, Mr. Macklin, and Mr. 
Delane, visited Stratford, they were hospitably entertained 
under Shakspeare's mulberry^tree, by sir Hugh Clopton, 
He was a barrister at law, was knighted by king George I. 
and died in th^ eightieth yea» .of his age, in December 

* Thii wai the practice in Milton's derg in the church were permitted to 

days.- « Ooe of his objections to aca- act plays, ^c." Johnson's Life of 

demical education, as it was then con- Milton, 
ducted, 19, that mtn desisned for or- 



17St. His executor, about 1752, sold iVaz' Phee to the 
Bev. Mr. Ga9trell, a m^n of large fortuoei who resided in 
it but a few years, in consequence of a disagreement 
with the inhabitants of Stratford. As be resided part of 
the 3^ear at Lichfield, he thought be was assessed too highly 
in the monthly rate towards the maintenance of the poor; 
but, being very properly compelled by the magistrates of 
Stratford to pay the whole of what was levied on him, on 
the principle that his house was occupied by his servants in 
his absence, he peevishly declared, that that house should 
never be assessed again : and soon afterwards pulled it 
down, sold the materials, and left the town. He had some 
time before cut down Shakspeare^s mulberry-tree *, to save 
himself the trouble of showing it to those whose admira- 
tion of our &;reat poet led them to visit the classic ground 
on which it stood. That Shakspeare planted this tree ap- 
pears to be sufficiently authenticated. Where New Place 
stood is now a garden. — Before concluding this history, it 
may be necessary to mention, that the poet's house was 
once honoured by the temporary residence of Henrietta 
Maria, queen to Charles I. Theobald has given an inac- 
curate account of this, as if she had been obliged to take 
refuge in Stratford from the rebels, which was not the case^ 
She marched from Newark, June 16, 1643, and entered 
Stratford triumphantly, about the 22nd of the same month, 
at the head of 3000 foot and 1500 horse, with 150 wag- 
gons, and a train of artillery. Here she was met by prince 
Rupert, accompanied by a large body of troops. She 
rested about three weeks at our poet's house, which w^ 
then possessed by bis grand-daughter Mrs. Nash, and her 

During Shakspeare's abode in this house, his pleasure-*' 
able wit and good-nature, says Mr. Rowe, engaged him the 
acquaintance, and entitled him to the friendship of thc^ 
gentlemen of the neighbourhood. Among these Mr. Rowe 
tells a traditional story of a miser, or usurer, named Combe, 
. who,, in conversation with Shakspeare, said he fancied the 

* ** At the curiosity of this house 
>nd tree brought much fame, and more 
company and profit to the town, a cer- 
tain man, on 8ome disgust, has pulled 
ttie bouse down, bo as not to leave one 
•tone upon an'>ther, and cut down the 
Upe, and piled it as a stack of fire- 
W90d| to the great Te«ati90| lou, and 

disappointment of the iohabitanti; 
however, an honest siWer-smith bougbit 
the whole stack of wood, and makes 
many odd things of this wood for the 
curious." Letter in Annual Register* 
1760. Of Mr. Gastrell and his lady, 
see Boswell's Life of Dr. JobniOi^ vol. 
il. 490. lU, 443. 

«78 « n A K S P E A R E. 

poet intended to write bis epitaph if lie should survive bim^ 
and desired to know what he meant to say. On this Shaks* 
peare gave him the following, probably extempore : 
^' Ten in the hundred lies here ingrav'd^ 

Tis a hundred to ten his soul is not 8av*d. 

If any man ask, who lies in this tombe ? 

' Oh ! ho !' quoth the devil, ' 'tis my John-a-Combe\" 
The sharpness of the satire is said to have stung the man 
$o severely that be never forgave it. These lines, bow-? 
ever, or some which nearly resemble them, appeared in va- 
rious collections both before and after the time thej were 
said to have been composed; and the inquiries of Mr. Stee- 
vens and Mr. Malone satisfactorily prove that the 'whol^ 
itory is a fabrication. Betterton is said to have heard it 
when he visited Warwickshire, on purpose to collect anec* 
dotes of our poet, and probably thought it of too much 
importance to be nicely examined. We know not whether 
it be'worth adding of a story which we have rejected, that 
^ usurer in Shakspeare's time did not meati one who took 
exorbitant, but anj/ interest or usance for money, and that 
ien in the hundred, or ten per cent, was then the ordinary 
* interest of money. It is of more consequence, however, to 
record the opinion of Mr. Malone, that Shakspeare, during 
bis retirement, wrote the play of " Twelfth Night." 

He died on his birth-day, Tuesday April 23, 1616, when 
he had exactly completed his fifty-sepond y^ar*, and was 
buried on the north side of the chancel, in the great church 
at Stratfoird, where a monument is placed in the wall, on 
which he is represented under an arch, in a sitting posture, 
a cushion spread before him, with a pen in his right hand, 
and his left rested on a scroll of paper., The following 
Latin distich is engraved under the cushion : 

*' Judicio Pylium> genio Socratem, arte Maronem^ 
Terra tegitj, pppulus mceret^ Qlympus habet." 

** The first syllable in Socratem," says Mr. Steevens, "is 
berie made short, which cannot be allowed. Perhaps we 
should read Sophoplem. Shakspeare is then appositely 
compared with a xiramatick author among the ancients; 
but still it should, be remembered that the elogium is les- 
sened while the inetre is reformed ; and it is well known 
that some of our early writers of Lsitin poetry were uncom-? 
inonly negligent in their prosody, especially in proper 

' # The only notiec w« have of his ^od adds *' Terie good comptay, and 
person is from Aiihrey, who says, « he of a very ready, and ple^iiuit, BxA 
frai a haodiomt welli-thsped maD." imooth wilt" 

S( H A K S P E A R E. 


tifttnes. The thought of this distich, as Mr. Toilet obseires, 
ffiight have been taken from * The Fa^ry Qtieene* of Spen« 
fer, B. II. c. ix. st 48, and c. x. st. S. 

** To this Latin inscription on Shaktpeare may be added 
the lines which are found underneath it on bis monument : 

' Stay> passenger, why dost thou go so fast ? 
Read, if thou canst^ whom envious death hath plac'd 
Within this monument ; Shakspeare, with whom 
Quick nature dy*d -, whose name doth deck the tomb 
Far more than cost ; since all that he hath writ 
|.ieaves living art but page to serve his wit. 

Obiit Ano. Dni. 1616. 
set. 53, die 23 Apri/ ♦ 
^* It appears from the verses of Leonard Digges, that our 
liutbor^s monument was erected before the year 162S. It 
has been engraved by Vertue, and done in mezzotinto by 

We have no account of the malady which, at no' very ad- 
vanced age, closed the life and labours of this unrivalled 
and incoipparable genius. 

His family consisted of two daughters, and a son named 
Hamnet,whodiedinl596, inthe 12th year of his age. Susan* 
nab, the eldest daughter, and her father's favourite, was mar-> 
Tied to Dr John Hall, a physician, who died Nov. 1635^ 
{iged 60. Mrs. Hall died July 1 1, 1649, aged 66. They left 
only one child, 'Elizabeth, born 1607-8, and married April 
22, 1626, to Thomas Nashe, esq. who died in 1647, and af- 
terwards to sir John Barnard of Abington, in Northampton* 
shire, but died without issue by either husband. Judith, 
Shakspeare's youngest daughter, was married to aMr.Tho* 
mas Quiney, and died Feb. 1661-62, in her 77th year. By 
Mr. Q,uiney she had three sons, Shakspeare, Richard, and 
Thomas, who all died unmarried. Sir Hugh Clopton^ who 
was born two years after the death of lady Barnard, which . 
happened in l6b9-70, related to Mr. Macklin, in 1742, ai| 
old tradition, that she had carried away with her from 
Btratford many of her grandfather's papers. On the death 
of sir John Barnard, Mr. Malone thinks these must have 
fallen into the hands of Mr. Edward Bagley, lady Bariiard*s 

It is uncertain whetbtT this reqnctl 
aod imprecatioR were written by Sbaks. 
peare, or by one of hit friends. They 
tirobably allude to the custom of re^ 
moving skeletons after a, certain time» 
and depositing them in charneUbousesi' 
and' similar execratiQi^^ aw fQimd-ul 
many apcieat L^tin epitaphs. 

* On bis graTf -stone untjerneath, 
mre these' lme«, in an uncouth mixture 
of small and capital letters: 
¥Qood Freod for lesus SAKE for- 
To diao T.EDutr EncloAsed HERe 
Blese be T-E Man J spares T-Es 

4Bd cunt be Ht J movst my Bones.'' 


ezecutdr, and if My descendant of that gentleman be now 
living, in hisciMtody tbey probably remain. To this accooAt 
. of Sbakspeare's family., we have now to add that among 
Oldyt's papersi is another traditional story of bi< having 
l>een the Camber of sir. William Davenant. Oldy^^s relatioa 
is thus given : 

^^ If tradition may be trusted, Sbakspeare often baited at 
the Crown inn or tavern in Oxford, in his journey to and 
from London. The landlady was a woman of great beauty 
and sprightly wit, and her husband, Mr. John Davenant, 
(afterwards mayor of that city) a grave melancholy man ; 
who, as well as his wife, used much to delight in Shaks* 
jpeare's pleasant company. Their son, young Will. Davenant, 
^(afterwards sir William) was tlien a little school-boy in the 
town, of about seven or eight years old, and so fond also of 
Sbakspeare, that whenever he beard of his arrival, he would 
fly from school to see him. One day an old townsman ob- 
serving the boy runuing homeward almost out of breath, 
asked him whither he was posting in that heat and hurry. 
He answered to see his god-father Sbakspeare. ^ There's a 
good boy,' said the other, * but have a care that you don't 
take Gcd*s name in vain/ This story Mr.Pope told me at the 
earl of Oxford's table, upon occasion of some discourse 
which arosie about Sbakspeare's monument then newly 
erected in Westminster abbey." 

This story appears to have originated with Anthony 
Wood, and it has been thought a presumption of its being 
true that, after careful examination, Mr. Thomas Warton 
was inclined to believe it. Mr. Steevens, however, treats it 
with the utmost contempt, but does not perhaps argue with 
bis usual attention to experience when he brings sir Wil- 
liam Davenant's *^ heavy, vulgar, unmeaning face/' as a 
proof that he could not be Sbakspeare's son. 
, In the year 1741, a monument was erected to our poet 
in Westminster Abbey, by the direction of the earl of Bur- 
lington, Dr. Mead, Mr. Pope, and Mr. Martyn. It was the 
work of Scheemaker (who received 30o/., after a 
design of Kent, and was opened in January of that year. 
The performers of each of the London theatres gave a be- 
nefit to defray the e:^pences, and the Dean and Chapter of 
Westminster took nothing for the ground. The money re<r 
eeived by the performers at Drury-Iane theatre amounted 
to above 200/, but the receipts at Covent-^^arden did not 
exceed 100/. 


* From these imperfect notices, which are all we have tieen 
able to collect from the labours of his biographers and 
commentators, our readers will perceive that less is knoiirii 
of Shakspeare than of almost any writer who haa been con*- 
sidered as an object of laudable curiosity. Nothing o^uld 
be more highly gratifying than an account of the early 
studies of this wonderful man, the progress of his pen, his 
moral and social qualities, his friendships, his failings, and 
whatever else constitutes personal history. But on all these 
topics his contemporaries and his immediate successors 
have been equally silent, and if aught can hereafter be dis- 
covered, it must be by exploring sources which have hi>- 
therto escaped the anxious researches of those who bavede^ 
voted their whole lives, and their most vigorous talents, to 
revive his memory and illustrate his writings; In the sketch 
we have given, if the d^tes of his birth and death be ex<- 
cepted, what is there on whidi the reader can depend, or 
for which, if he contend eagerly, he may not be involved in 
controversy, and perplexed with contradictory opinions and 
authorities ? 

It is usually said that the life of an author can be little 
else than a history of his works ; but this opinion is liaUe 
to many exceptions. If an author, indeed, has passed his 
days in retirement, his life can afford little more varie^ 
than that of any other man who has lived iii retirement ; 
but if^ as is generally the case with writers of gre^ cele^ 
brity, he has acquired a pre-eminence over his contempo«> 
raries, if he has excited rival contentions, and defeated the 
attacks of criticism or of malignity, or if he has plunged, 
into the controversies of his age, and performed tlie pavt 
either of a tyrant or a hero in literature, his history may he 
rendered as interesting as that of any other public charac** 
ter. But whatever weight may be allowed to this remark^ 
the decision will not be of much consequence iu the case 
of Shakspeare. Unfortunately , we know as little of the 
progress of bis writings, as of his personal history. The 
industry of his illustrators for the last thirty years has been 
such as probably never was surpassed in the annals of lite* 
rary investiga